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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(4. Vyp. 2): 6-13, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop of a chronic sleep restriction model in rats by repeated sleep deprivation using an orbital shaker and to determine whether this model leads to disturbances in sleep homeostatic mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (7-8 months old) underwent sleep restriction for five consecutive days: 3 h of sleep deprivation and 1 h of sleep opportunity repeating throughout each day. Polysomnograms were recorded telemetrically throughout the day before sleep restriction (baseline), on the 1st, 3rd, 5th day of sleep restriction and 2 days after the end of sleep restriction (recovery period). RESULTS: During the period of sleep restriction, the total amount of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreased by 61% and 55%, respectively, compared to baseline. On the first day of recovery, amount of SWS increased mainly in the dark (active) phase of the day, while REM sleep increased in both light and dark phases; there was no marked rebound of daily SWS amount, while REM sleep increased by 30% from baseline. On the first day of recovery, an elevation of EEG beta and sigma power in sleep states was observed mainly in the light phase of the day. The loss of deep SWS throughout the sleep restriction period increased from 50% on 1st day to 75% on 5th day. The level of deep SWS remained below the baseline by 15-20% on the two subsequent days of recovery. The findings suggest that homeostatic mechanisms of SWS are persistently impaired after 5-day chronic sleep restriction. Besides, a decline of wakefulness accompanied by an increase of SWS in the active phase of the recovery period indicates a disruption in circadian rhythm. CONCLUSION: The proposed model leads to the disruption of sleep homeostatic mechanisms, which, in turn, impede compensation of SWS loss caused by chronic insufficient sleep.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Sono , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Privação do Sono , Sono REM , Vigília
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2881, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001888

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which sleep benefits learning and memory remain unclear. Sleep may further strengthen the synapses potentiated by learning or promote broad synaptic weakening while protecting the newly potentiated synapses. We tested these ideas by combining a motor task whose consolidation is sleep-dependent, a marker of synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity, and repeated two-photon imaging to track hundreds of spines in vivo with single spine resolution. In mouse motor cortex, sleep leads to an overall net decrease in spine-surface GluA1-containing AMPA receptors, both before and after learning. Molecular changes in single spines during post-learning sleep are correlated with changes in performance after sleep. The spines in which learning leads to the largest increase in GluA1 expression have a relative advantage after post-learning sleep compared to sleep deprivation, because sleep weakens all remaining spines. These results are obtained in adult mice, showing that sleep-dependent synaptic down-selection also benefits the mature brain.


Assuntos
Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/citologia , Córtex Motor/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915744

RESUMO

People practicing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) fasted during the morning hours under a lack of sleep. Such a habit may jeopardize the health benefits related to HIIE and adequate sleep. Fifteen habitually good sleeper males (age 31.1 ± 5.3 SD year) completed on a treadmill two isocaloric (500 kcal) HIIE sessions (3:2 min work:rest) averaged at 70% VO2reserve after 9-9.5 h of reference sleep exercise (RSE) and after 3-3.5 h of acute-partial sleep deprivation exercise (SSE). Diet and sleep patterns were controlled both 1 week prior and 2 days leading up to RSE and SSE. HIIE related performance and substrate utilization data were obtained from the continuous analysis of respiratory gases. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with the baseline maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body fat percentage (BF%) as covariates at p < 0.05. No difference was observed in VO2max, time to complete the HIIE, VE, RER, CHO%, and FAT% utilization during the experimental conditions. Whether attaining an adequate amount of sleep or not, the fasted HIIE performance and metabolism were not affected. We propose to practice the fasted HIIE under adequate sleep to receive the pleiotropic beneficial effects of sleep to the human body.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Privação do Sono
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2289, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879784

RESUMO

Sleep dysregulation is a feature of dementia but it remains unclear whether sleep duration prior to old age is associated with dementia incidence. Using data from 7959 participants of the Whitehall II study, we examined the association between sleep duration and incidence of dementia (521 diagnosed cases) using a 25-year follow-up. Here we report higher dementia risk associated with a sleep duration of six hours or less at age 50 and 60, compared with a normal (7 h) sleep duration, although this was imprecisely estimated for sleep duration at age 70 (hazard ratios (HR) 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.48), 1.37 (1.10-1.72), and 1.24 (0.98-1.57), respectively). Persistent short sleep duration at age 50, 60, and 70 compared to persistent normal sleep duration was also associated with a 30% increased dementia risk independently of sociodemographic, behavioural, cardiometabolic, and mental health factors. These findings suggest that short sleep duration in midlife is associated with an increased risk of late-onset dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2113, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837202

RESUMO

The accumulation of adenosine is strongly correlated with the need for sleep and the detection of sleep pressure is antagonised by caffeine. Caffeine also affects the circadian timing system directly and independently of sleep physiology, but how caffeine mediates these effects upon the circadian clock is unclear. Here we identify an adenosine-based regulatory mechanism that allows sleep and circadian processes to interact for the optimisation of sleep/wake timing in mice. Adenosine encodes sleep history and this signal modulates circadian entrainment by light. Pharmacological and genetic approaches demonstrate that adenosine acts upon the circadian clockwork via adenosine A1/A2A receptor signalling through the activation of the Ca2+ -ERK-AP-1 and CREB/CRTC1-CRE pathways to regulate the clock genes Per1 and Per2. We show that these signalling pathways converge upon and inhibit the same pathways activated by light. Thus, circadian entrainment by light is systematically modulated on a daily basis by sleep history. These findings contribute to our understanding of how adenosine integrates signalling from both light and sleep to regulate circadian timing in mice.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/etiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/patologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Receptor A1 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação do Sono/complicações , Triazóis/administração & dosagem
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816615

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this article was to examine the association of sleep duration and physical activity and their interactions on mental health disorders in American children aged 6-17 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from the combined 2017-2018 National Survey of Children's health. Ultimately, a total of 36370 children aged 6-17 years were selected as the samples. Weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Insufficient sleep duration was associated with an increased risk for current anxiety, depression, and behavior/conduct problems (odds ratio = 1.449, 1.991, 1.375; 95% confidence interval: 1.313-1.702, 1.648-2.406, 1.162-1.627). Insufficient physical activity was associated with an increased risk for current anxiety (odds ratio = 1.448; 95% confidence interval: 1.230-1.706) and depression (odds ratio = 1.743; 95% confidence interval: 1.304-2.329). In addition, additive interactions between sleep duration and physical activity were observed on current anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Insufficient sleep duration and insufficient physical activity in children were associated with mental health disorders. There is a synergistic interaction effect between insufficient sleep duration and insufficient physical activity on current anxiety and current depression.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Privação do Sono , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8529, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879822

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the levels of health-related behaviours (physical activity, screen exposure and sleep status) among Chinese students from primary, secondary and high schools during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as their changes compared with their status before the pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey of 10,933 students was conducted among 10 schools in Guangzhou, China, between 8th and 15th March, 2020. After getting the informed consent from student's caregivers, an online questionnaire was designed and used to obtain time spending on health-related behaviours during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as the changes compared with 3 months before the pandemic, which was completed by students themselves or their caregivers. Students were stratified by regions (urban, suburban, exurban), gender (boys and girls), and grades (lower grades of primary school, higher grades of primary schools, secondary schools and high schools). Data were expressed as number and percentages and Chi-square test was used to analyse difference between groups. Overall, the response rate of questionnaire was 95.3% (10,416/10,933). The median age of included students was 13.0 (10.0, 16.0) years and 50.1% (n = 5,219) were boys. 41.4%, 53.6% and 53.7% of total students reported less than 15 min per day in light, moderate and vigorous activities and 58.7% (n = 6,113) reported decreased participation in physical activity compared with the time before pandemic. Over 5 h of screen time spending on online study was reported by 44.6% (n = 4,649) of respondents, particular among high school students (81.0%). 76.9% of students reported increased screen time compared with the time before pandemic. Inadequate sleep was identified among 38.5% of students and the proportion was highest in high school students (56.9%). Our study indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the school closure exerted tremendous negative effects on school-aged children's health habits, including less physical activity, longer screen exposure and irregular sleeping pattern.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809121

RESUMO

Although sleep debt and social jetlag (SJL) influence daytime dysfunctions, the effects of both sleep debt and SJL on them have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to examine the mutual relationship between sleep debt and SJL on daytime sleepiness, mood, and work performance. This study was a cross-sectional study on sleep health conducted on the Japanese general population. A total of 4505 general workers (30% female, aged 43.57 ± 11.63 years) were selected and analyzed. Sleep debt was defined by sleep debt index (SDI), which is the discrepancy between desired and real sleep duration. SJL and SDI scores exhibited a positive but weak coefficient (r = 0.19). In a 4 (SJL) × 3 (SDI) two-way ANOVA, the interaction effects were notable for sleepiness and depression scores, while the group effects were notable for the work performance score. For sleepiness and depression scores, SDI >2 h was not significantly different from SJL. In addition, the impact of SDI was higher than that of SJL on sleepiness (ß = 0.17), depression (ß = 0.16), and work performance (ß = -0.10). The impact of sleep debt was more pronounced than SJL on daytime dysfunctions, although both sleep debt and SJL have negative impacts on them.


Assuntos
Privação do Sono , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Sonolência , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Anesth Analg ; 132(5): 1338-1343, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857976

RESUMO

The negative impacts of sleep deprivation and fatigue have long been recognized. Numerous studies have documented the ill effects of impaired alertness associated with the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle; these include an increased incidence of human error-related accidents, increased morbidity and mortality, and an overall decrement in social, financial, and human productivity. While there are multiple studies on the impact of sleep deprivation and fatigue in resident physicians, far fewer have examined the effects on attending physicians, and only a handful addresses the accumulated effects of chronic sleep disturbances on acute sleep loss during a night call-shift. Moreover, the rapid and unprecedented spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly increased the level of anxiety and stress on the physical, psychological, and the economic well-being of the entire world, with heightened effect on frontline clinicians. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the emotional and physical toll of the pandemic in clinicians, and its impact on sleep health, general well-being, and performance.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Competência Clínica/normas , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , /terapia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Humanos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sleepiness caused by sleep deprivation may increase the risk of injuries and damages during physical activity. Individual data so far indicate a generally better static postural stability of women regardless of sleeping conditions. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on postural stability according to gender after 24 h of sleep deprivation. METHODS: Participants included 83 students (36 men and 47 women). Postural stability was measured with eyes open and closed eyes before and after sleep deprivation. Data from posturographic platform were used to assess postural stability objectively. RESULTS: The type of test determined the size of observed changes in postural stability. The data suggest that women are better able to cope with the effects of sleep deprivation than men. CONCLUSION: Postural control system is very important in sport and in physically active people. The results show that men are more sensitive to sleep deprivation than women because they had higher COP (center of pressure) values in tests. Less postural stability of the body due to sleep deprivation indicates a higher risk of injury during physical activity.


Assuntos
Postura , Privação do Sono , Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Vigília
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777884

RESUMO

The present study investigates the factors of "Weekday sleep debt (WSD)" by comparing activity data collected from persons with and without WSD. Since it has been reported that the amount of sleep debt as well the difference between the social clock and the biological clock is associated with WSD, specifying the factors of WSD other than chronotype may contribute to sleep debt prevention. We recruited 324 healthy male employees working at the same company and collected their 1-week wrist actigraphy data and answers to questionnaires. Because 106 participants were excluded due to measurement failure of the actigraphy data, the remaining 218 participants were included in the analysis. All participants were classified into WSD or non-WSD groups, in which persons had WDS if the difference between their weekend sleep duration and the mean weekday sleep duration was more than 120 min. We evaluated multiple measurements derived from the collected actigraphy data and trained a classifier that predicts the presence of WSD using these measurements. A support vector machine (SVM) was adopted as the classifier. In addition, to evaluate the contribution of each indicator to WSD, permutation feature importance was calculated based on the trained classifier. Our analysis results showed significant importance of the following three out of the tested 32 factors: (1) WSD was significantly related to persons with evening tendency. (2) Daily activity rhythms and sleep were less stable in the WSD group than in the non-WSD group. (3) A specific day of the week had the highest importance in our data, suggesting that work habit contributes to WSD. These findings indicate some WSD factors: evening chronotype, instability of the daily activity rhythm, and differences in work habits on the specific day of the week. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the rhythms of diurnal activities as well as sleep conditions to identify the WSD factors. In particular, the diurnal activity rhythm influences WSD. It is suggested that proper management of activity rhythm may contribute to the prevention of sleep debt.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Privação do Sono , Ritmo Circadiano , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Sono
13.
Life Sci ; 273: 119303, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667518

RESUMO

AIM: The current study aims to investigate the impact of paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation and/or epileptic seizures on rat's cortical brain tissues. MAIN METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups; control, epileptic, REM sleep deprived and epileptic subjected to REM sleep deprivation. Electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were recorded and quantitatively analyzed for each group. Concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters; proinflammatory cytokines; and oxidative stress parameters; and acetylcholinesterase activity were determined in the cortex of the animals in different groups. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed significant variations in the spectral distribution of ECoG waves in the epilepsy model, 24- and 48-hours of REM sleep deprivation and their combined effects indicating a state of cortical hyperexcitability. Significant increases in NO and taurine and significant decrement in glutamine, GABA and glycine were determined. In REM sleep deprived rats significant elevation in glutamate, aspartate, glycine and taurine and a significant lowering in GABA were obtained. This was accompanied by significant reduction in AchE and IL-ß. In the cortical tissue of epileptic rats deprived from REM sleep significant increases in lipid peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and aspartate and a significant reduction in AchE were observed. SIGNIFICANCE: The present data indicate that REM sleep deprivation induces an increase in lipid peroxidation and storming in proinflammatory cytokines in the cortex of rat model of epilepsy during SRS. These changes are associated with a decreased seizure threshold as inferred from the increase in alpha and Beta waves and a decrease in Delta waves of ECoG.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Neurotransmissores/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Convulsões/complicações , Privação do Sono/complicações , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrofisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4764-4774, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663819

RESUMO

Dairy cows that are restricted from lying down have a reduced ability to sleep. In other species, sleep loss is a key risk factor for disease, mediated by changes in metabolic and inflammatory responses. The cumulative effect of lying and sleep deprivation on cow health is unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of lying and sleep deprivation on metabolic and inflammatory responses of dairy cows. Data were collected from 8 multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating cows (199 ± 44 d in milk, 77 ± 30 d pregnant; mean ± standard deviation) enrolled in a study using a crossover design. Each cow was exposed to 2 treatments meant to induce sleep loss: (1) human disturbance (imposed by researchers making noise or physical contact when the cow's posture suggested sleep) and (2) lying deprivation (imposed by a wooden grid placed on the pen floor). Cows experienced a 24-h baseline period (d -1) followed by a 24-h treatment period (d 0), with a 12-d washout period between treatments. Baseline and treatment periods were imposed from 2100 to 2059 h. Cows were housed in individual pens during the acclimation period (d -3 and -2), d -1, and d 0. Nonesterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations were measured at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2059 h on d -1 and 0. Proinflammatory cytokine mRNA [tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1B (IL1B), and interleukin-6 (IL6)] abundance in whole-blood leukocytes, both nonstimulated and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, were assessed at 2059 h on d -1 (end of baseline) and d 0 (end of treatment). Nonesterified fatty acids and glucose varied by time of day but were not affected by treatment or day. The abundances of TNF and IL1B from both stimulated and nonstimulated cells were higher following 24 h of lying deprivation (d 0) compared with baseline (d -1). Abundance of IL6 was increased in nonstimulated cells after lying deprivation compared with baseline. In contrast, human disturbance for 24 h did not alter TNF, IL1B, or IL6 abundance relative to baseline levels. These results suggest that a short period of lying deprivation generally increases inflammatory responses but not metabolic responses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Lactação , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Feminino , Leite , Privação do Sono/veterinária
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(6): 1437-1447, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635384

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The medical uses of cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of the Cannabis sativa, have accelerated the legal and social acceptance for CBD-based medications but has also given the momentum for questioning whether the long-term use of CBD during the early years of life may induce adverse neurobiological effects in adulthood, including sleep disturbances. Given the critical window for neuroplasticity and neuro-functional changes that occur during stages of adolescence, we hypothesized that CBD might influence the sleep-wake cycle in adult rats after their exposure to CBD during the adolescence. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigated the effects upon behavior and neural activity in adulthood after long-term administrations of CBD in juvenile rats. METHODS: We pre-treated juvenile rats with CBD (5 or 30 mg/Kg, daily) from post-natal day (PND) 30 and during 2 weeks. Following the treatments, the sleep-wake cycle and NeuN expression was analyzed at PND 80. RESULTS: We found that systemic injections of CBD (5 or 30 mg/Kg, i.p.) given to adolescent rats (post-natal day 30) for 14 days increased in adulthood the wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep during the lights-on period whereas across the lights-off period, wakefulness was diminished and slow wave sleep was enhanced. In addition, we found that adult animals that received CBD during the adolescence displayed disruptions in sleep rebound period after total sleep deprivation. Finally, we determined how the chronic administrations of CBD during the adolescence affected in the adulthood the NeuN expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a sleep-related brain region. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are relevant for interpreting results of adult rats that were chronically exposed to CBD during the adolescence and provide new insights into how CBD may impact the sleep-wake cycle and neuronal activity during developmental stages.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cannabis/química , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Privação do Sono , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Geroscience ; 43(1): 137-158, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558966

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation is highly prevalent and is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Age-related alterations in sleep and chronobiology may exaggerate CVD susceptibility in older individuals. The mechanisms responsible for the association between sleep deprivation and CVD are not fully understood, but endothelial dysfunction may play a central role. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence on the effects of sleep deprivation on endothelial function (EF). This review adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and was pre-registered with PROSPERO (#CRD42020192485, 07/24/2020). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library for articles published through May 1, 2020. Eligibility criteria included publication in English and use of well-established EF methodologies in adult humans. Two investigators independently performed the literature search, study selection, data extraction, risk-of-bias assessment, and qualitative data synthesis. Out of 3571 articles identified, 24 articles were included in the systematic review. Main findings include the following: (1) shorter sleep duration is associated with lower macrovascular EF; (2) not sleeping 7-9 h/night is linked with impaired microvascular EF; (3) sleep restriction impairs micro- and macrovascular EF; (4) acute total sleep deprivation impairs micro- and macrovascular EF but data on macrovascular EF are less consistent; and (5) shift work impairs macrovascular EF. In conclusion, sleep deprivation impairs EF, which may explain the link between insufficient sleep and CVD. Future investigations should fully elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop strategies to combat the adverse endothelial effects of sleep deprivation across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Privação do Sono , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Sono
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 116: 107791, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578223

RESUMO

Climate change is with us. As professionals who place value on evidence-based practice, climate change is something we cannot ignore. The current pandemic of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has demonstrated how global crises can arise suddenly and have a significant impact on public health. Global warming, a chronic process punctuated by acute episodes of extreme weather events, is an insidious global health crisis needing at least as much attention. Many neurological diseases are complex chronic conditions influenced at many levels by changes in the environment. This review aimed to collate and evaluate reports from clinical and basic science about the relationship between climate change and epilepsy. The keywords climate change, seasonal variation, temperature, humidity, thermoregulation, biorhythm, gene, circadian rhythm, heat, and weather were used to search the published evidence. A number of climatic variables are associated with increased seizure frequency in people with epilepsy. Climate change-induced increase in seizure precipitants such as fevers, stress, and sleep deprivation (e.g. as a result of more frequent extreme weather events) or vector-borne infections may trigger or exacerbate seizures, lead to deterioration of seizure control, and affect neurological, cerebrovascular, or cardiovascular comorbidities and risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Risks are likely to be modified by many factors, ranging from individual genetic variation and temperature-dependent channel function, to housing quality and global supply chains. According to the results of the limited number of experimental studies with animal models of seizures or epilepsy, different seizure types appear to have distinct susceptibility to seasonal influences. Increased body temperature, whether in the context of fever or not, has a critical role in seizure threshold and seizure-related brain damage. Links between climate change and epilepsy are likely to be multifactorial, complex, and often indirect, which makes predictions difficult. We need more data on possible climate-driven altered risks for seizures, epilepsy, and epileptogenesis, to identify underlying mechanisms at systems, cellular, and molecular levels for better understanding of the impact of climate change on epilepsy. Further focussed data would help us to develop evidence for mitigation methods to do more to protect people with epilepsy from the effects of climate change.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/tendências , Saúde Pública/tendências , Animais , Morte Súbita , Epilepsia/terapia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Privação do Sono/terapia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(3): 128-134, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to explore nurses' fatigue levels and sleep measures during two 12-hour consecutive day shifts and examine the relationships between nurses' fatigue levels within shifts and their previous-night sleep characteristics. BACKGROUND: Monitoring changes in fatigue and sleep is important to enable effective fatigue management. METHODS: This was a descriptive, repeated-measures study. Data were collected using surveys and actigraphy 4 times during each consecutive shift (7:00 am-7:30 pm). RESULTS: General fatigue levels started trending up 4 hours after the start of work; highest levels were reported at 7:30 pm. Fatigue levels accumulated across consecutive shifts. Subjective sleep quality was higher the night before the 2nd shift than the night before the 1st shift. Nurses' poor sleep the night before a shift was related to increased fatigue levels during the next shift. CONCLUSION: It is important to consider when fatigue management interventions will be most effective and to consider previous-night's sleep when monitoring fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Saudi Med J ; 42(3): 306-314, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of burnout among health care workers (HCWs) who are working in Saudi Arabia during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and explore individual and work-related factors associated with burnout in this population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted between June to August of 2020, we invited HCWs through social channels to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired about demographics, factors related to burnout, and used the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory scale to indicate burnout. A total of 646 HCWs participated. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of participants was 34.1 (9.5) years. Sixty-one percent were female. The prevalence of burnout among HCWs was 75%. Significant factors associated with burnout were age, job title, years of experience, increased working hours during the pandemic, average hours of sleep per day, exposure to patients with COVID-19, number of times tested for COVID-19, and perception of being pushed to deal with COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Health care workers as frontline workers, face great challenges during this pandemic, because of the nature of their work. Efforts should be made to promote psychological resilience for HCWs during pandemics. This study points out the factors that should be invested in and the factors that may not be influential.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , /psicologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Prevalência , Resiliência Psicológica , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Privação do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
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