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1.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(4): 407-412, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640868

RESUMO

Sleep-related accidents are a frequent cause of death and injury in the world. Poor sleep hygiene is responsible for sleep deprivation, which is clearly associated with an increased risk of accidents. Evidence shows that self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and reporting of inappropriate line-crossings are strong predictors of accident risk. Although the Epworth sleepiness scale is widely used in clinical practice, it is not the best to evaluate driving risks. Simple questions on the occurrence of near misses and sleepiness at the wheel should be asked systematically to address the issue of fitness to drive.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Sonolência , Humanos , Sono , Vigília
2.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2726-2734, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608829

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of complete and partial sleep deprivation on multiple aspects of athletic performance. Ten males completed a cognitive function test, maximal handgrip strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) and a 15 min all out cycling test to assess aerobic performance. These tests were performed following 3 different sleep conditions; normal sleep (CON), a 4 hr sleep opportunity (PART) and complete sleep deprivation (DEP). Data were analysed using a Bayesian multi-level regression model to provide probabilities of impairment (p = %). Aerobic performance, CMJ and handgrip strength were impaired by 11.4% (p = 100%), 10.9% (p = 100%) and 6% (p = 97%) following DEP, while aerobic performance and CMJ were highly likely impaired by 4.1% (p = 90%) and 5.2% (p = 94%) following PART. Cognitive reaction time was not impacted by PART or DEP. In contrast the accuracy of responses was highly likely impaired by 2% (91) following DEP, while there was less certainty of impaired accuracy following PART (-1%, p = 73). Multiple aspects of physical and cognitive performance were impacted by sleep deprivation. The greatest detrimental effects were seen for aerobic performance and CMJ. Partial sleep deprivation equating to 4 hrs of sleep causes subtle, but potentially important negative impairments on athletic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Pliométrico , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2691-2701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526108

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of total sleep deprivation on self-paced endurance performance, and heart rate (HR) indices of athletes' "readiness to perform". Endurance athletes (n = 13) completed a crossover experiment comprising a normal sleep (NS) and sleep deprivation (SD) condition. Each required completion of an endurance time-trial (TT) on consecutive days (D1, D2) separated by normal sleep or total sleep deprivation. Finishing time, perceived exertion (RPE), mood, psychomotor vigilance (PVT), and HR responses were assessed. Time on D2 of SD was 10% slower than D2 of NS (64 ± 7 vs 59 ± 4 min, P < 0.01), and 11% slower than D1 of SD (58 ± 5 min, P < 0.01). Subjective to objective (RPE:mean HR) intensity ratio was higher on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD (P < 0.01). Mood disturbance and PVT mean response time increased on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD. Anaerobic threshold and change in TT time were correlated (R = -0.73, P < 0.01). Sleep helps to optimise endurance performance. Subjective to objective intensity ratios appear sensitive to effects of sleep on athletes' readiness. Research examining more subtle sleep manipulation is required.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
4.
Life Sci ; 235: 116835, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493480

RESUMO

Sleep is crucial to improve athlete performance and their circadian rhythm, but sleep patterns may be disturbed because athletes participate in several competitions. In addition, intensive training programs can cause muscle pain and psychological stress in athletes, resulting in a lack of sleep. Sleep also plays a critical role in the recovery of muscle injury induced by exercise. The current study evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the recovery of muscle injury induced by high-intensity exercise in a mouse model. In this study, 28 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (N = 7): control (Control), exercise (EX), sleep deprivation (SD), and sleep deprivation with exercise (EX+SD). The mice from the EX and EX+SD groups were subjected to high-intensity swimming. The results showed that 72-h sleep deprivation increased food intake and reduced body weight. However, the manipulation of 8-week exercise and/or 72-h sleep deprivation did not have any effect in the elevated plus maze task and tail suspension test. Interestingly, the EX+SD group exhibited improved memory performance in the Morris water maze and impaired motor activity in the open field test. According to the TNF-α level and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatine phosphokinase (CK) activities, only the EX+SD group exhibited muscle impairment. Overall, high-intensity exercise may cause muscle injury, and adequate sleep can recover muscle damage. However, sleep deprivation reduces protein synthesis, which decreases the ability to restore muscle damage and aggravates the harmful effect of high-intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Músculos/lesões , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Resposta de Imobilidade Tônica/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 185: 172759, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415776

RESUMO

Susceptibility to interference can be a result of memory retrieval and reconsolidation. Given the fact that addiction develops through the neural mechanisms of learning and memory, it would not be surprising that a consolidated drug reward memory may also be susceptible to interference following retrieval/reconsolidation. Due to the critical role of sleep in memory consolidation, sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to impair memory. Therefore, the major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) on the retrieval and reconsolidation of methamphetamine (METH) reward memory in male rats. The animals were trained to acquire METH-induced CPP (2 mg/kg, i.p.). METH reward memory was then reactivated/retrieved in the drug-paired chamber during a drug-free (memory reactivation) session. A period of 48-h RSD paradigm using the multiple platform technique resulted in persistent deficits in the retrieval of METH reward memory. Nevertheless, the same protocol of RSD, which was conducted immediately after the memory reactivation, did not affect the reconsolidation of METH reward memory. Additionally, the RSD episode induced a temporary potentiation of METH-induced hyperlocomotion. Our findings would seem to suggest that sleep is involved in the retrieval, but not reconsolidation, of METH reward memory. The results may also demonstrate that RSD mimics the effects of METH on locomotor activity. The results of this study, therefore, support the idea that sleep is involved in the processing of METH reward memory which can be considered for further investigations to manage the relapse associated with drug-related memory.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Recompensa , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Comportamento de Procura de Droga , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Recidiva , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina/farmacologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112183, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445134

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrocotyle umbellata var.bonariensis Lam. (Hb), popularly known in Brazil as acariçoba and outside Brazil Hb by a number of names including marsh-pennywort, and many-flower, has traditionally been used in Ayurvedic medicine in the retardation of aging (Rasayana effect). AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the effect of Hb treatment before and during paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and sleep restriction (SR) on learning, memory, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) brain activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult Swiss nulliparous female mice were randomly distributed among the experimental groups. The treated groups received the aqueous solution of Hb leaves orally at concentrations of 500 and 1.000 mg/kg. PSD and SR were induced by the multiple platform method, in which the animals remained for 3-days in PSD or 15-days in SR for 22 h per day. The collection of the vaginal epithelium occurred daily to determine the estrous cycle. Body mass gain was determined. The animals were submitted to the passive avoidance test and were then euthanized for the collection of brain tissue and the determination of cerebral cholinesterase activity. RESULTS: The aqueous solution of Hb was associated with a significant reduction in cholinesterase activity at both doses in the SR model, and at the dose of 1.000 mg/kg in the PSD model. Regarding the learning and memory test, the PSD group treated with 1.000 mg/kg presented significant improvement, whereas in the SR experiment none of the treated-groups showed any improvement in learning and memory. In the analysis of SR/PSD interference and/or Hb treatment on the estrous cycle, it was possible to observe that the treatment acted as a protector in the SR group, maintaining a normal cycle. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses showed that Hb was safe to use during periods of SR or PSD, acting as an adaptogen for these situations, in addition to being able to reduce cholinesterase activity, which suggests its neuroprotective action. In relation to the estrous cycle, Hb can act as a protector in SR situations.


Assuntos
Araliaceae , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461917

RESUMO

Short sleep duration increases preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods. It is unclear if insufficient sleep-induced changes in food preference are mediated by changes in taste perception and if these changes are related to sweetener type (sucrose or sucralose) or sweet liking phenotype. The primary objective of this study was to determine if sleep curtailment results in changes in sweet taste perception after sleep curtailment. Forty participants used a single-channel electroencephalograph to record both a habitual and curtailed night (33% reduction) of sleep at home. The following morning, multiple dimensions of sweet taste perception were measured, including preferred sweetener concentrations, patterns of sweet liking, and intensity perception over a range of concentrations. After curtailment, a significant increase in preferred concentration for both sucrose and sucralose (p < 0.001 for both) was observed. The slope of sucrose sweet liking increased after curtailment (p = 0.001). The slope of sucralose liking also increased, but this was not significant (p = 0.129). Intensity perception of the sweeteners was not altered by curtailment. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify participants by sweet liking phenotype. Phenotypes were found to predict preferred sweetener concentration. These findings illustrate a possible need to control for sleep in food sensory studies and suggest a potential mechanism by which insufficient sleep can lead to excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Distribuição Aleatória , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 69: 120-123, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation (SD) is considered an important activation test to facilitate the visualization of electroencephalogram (EEG) epileptic abnormalities, in order to perform a correct diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the local functional activity in healthy controls (HC) subjects and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy-hippocampal sclerosis patients, after a SD, by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and EEG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 22 healthy controls and 34 patients with a diagnosis of left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy-hippocampal sclerosis. Each participant underwent two examinations separately: an fMRI study using 3 T MRI to detect spontaneous activity during the RS-fMRI and an EEG. RESULTS: The SD-EEG results showed the presence of epileptiform discharges predominantly in left fronto-centro-temporal areas. fMRI findings if compared to HC showed an increase of functional activity in some areas. DISCUSSION: We showed that SD-EEG study confirmed a high specificity to assess a specific diagnosis. Therefore, the decrease of activity observed in DMN could be explain by a different amount of sleep/awake time during fMRI recording in the two groups or the interictal activity during fMRI acquisition. Our study highlighted alterated functional activity in SD cortical areas of epileptic patients if compared to HC.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0212823, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461439

RESUMO

The objective was to determine the effects of sleep or lying deprivation on the behavior of dairy cows. Data were collected from 8 multi- and 4 primiparous cows (DIM = 199 ± 44 (mean ± SD); days pregnant = 77 ± 30). Using a crossover design, each cow experienced: 1) sleep deprivation implemented by noise or physical contact when their posture suggested sleep, and 2) lying deprivation imposed by a grid placed on the pen floor. One day before treatment (baseline), and treatment day (treatment) were followed by a 12-d washout period (with the first 7 d used to evaluate recovery). Study days were organized from 2100 to 2059. During habituation (d -3 and -2 before treatment), baseline (d -1), and trt (d 0), housing was individual boxstalls (mattress with no bedding). After treatment, cows returned to sand-bedded freestalls for a 7-d recovery period (d 1 to 7) where data on lying behaviors were collected. Following the recovery period, an additional 5-d period was provided to allow the cows a 12-d period between exposures to treatments. Daily lying time, number lying bouts, bout duration, and number of steps were recorded by dataloggers attached to the hind leg of cows throughout the study period. Data were analyzed using a mixed model including fixed effects of treatment (sleep deprivation vs. sleep and lying deprivation), day, and their interaction with significant main effects separated using a PDIFF statement (P ≤ 0.05). Interactions between treatment and day were detected for daily lying time and the number of bouts. Lying time was lower for both treatments during the treatment period compared to baseline. Lying time increased during the recovery period for both lying and sleep deprived cows. However, it took 4 d for the lying deprived cows to fully recover their lying time after treatment, whereas it took the sleep deprived cows 2 d for their lying time to return to baseline levels. Results suggest that both sleep and lying deprivation can have impact cow behavior. Management factors that limit freestall access likely reduce lying time and sleep, causing negative welfare implications for dairy cows.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Postura , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Animais , Bovinos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Privação do Sono/metabolismo
10.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(8): 535-543, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288293

RESUMO

For elite athletes who exercise at a high level, sleep is critical to overall health. Many studies have documented the effects of sleep deprivation in the general population, but few studies exist regarding specific effects in the athlete. This review summarizes the effects of sleep deprivation and sleep extension on athletic performance, including reaction time, accuracy, strength and endurance, and cognitive function. There are clear negative effects of sleep deprivation on performance, including reaction time, accuracy, vigor, submaximal strength, and endurance. Cognitive functions such as judgment and decision-making also suffer. Sleep extension can positively affect reaction times, mood, sprint times, tennis serve accuracy, swim turns, kick stroke efficiency, and increased free throw and 3-point accuracy. Banking sleep (sleep extension prior to night of intentional sleep deprivation before sporting event) is a new concept that may also improve performance. For sports medicine providers, the negative effects of sleep deprivation cannot be overstated to athletes. To battle sleep deprivation, athletes may seek supplements with potentially serious side effects; improving sleep quality however is simple and effective, benefiting not only athlete health but also athletic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/prevenção & controle , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Cognição , Humanos , Síndrome do Jet Lag/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Jet Lag/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Jet Lag/psicologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia
11.
Nature ; 571(7764): 198-204, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292557

RESUMO

Slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement (or paradoxical) sleep have been found in mammals, birds and lizards, but it is unclear whether these neuronal signatures are found in non-amniotic vertebrates. Here we develop non-invasive fluorescence-based polysomnography for zebrafish, and show-using unbiased, brain-wide activity recording coupled with assessment of eye movement, muscle dynamics and heart rate-that there are at least two major sleep signatures in zebrafish. These signatures, which we term slow bursting sleep and propagating wave sleep, share commonalities with those of slow-wave sleep and paradoxical or rapid eye movement sleep, respectively. Further, we find that melanin-concentrating hormone signalling (which is involved in mammalian sleep) also regulates propagating wave sleep signatures and the overall amount of sleep in zebrafish, probably via activation of ependymal cells. These observations suggest that common neural signatures of sleep may have emerged in the vertebrate brain over 450 million years ago.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epêndima/citologia , Movimentos Oculares , Fluorescência , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/metabolismo , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono REM/fisiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277281

RESUMO

Aging and chronic sleep deprivation (SD) are well-recognized risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) and downstream nitric oxide (NO) signalling implicated in the process. Herein, we investigate the impact of the age- and acute or chronic SD-dependent changes on the expression of NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and on the activities of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms in the cortex of Wistar rats, with reference to cerebral lateralization. In young adult controls, somewhat lateralized seasonal variations in neuronal and endothelial NOS have been observed. In aged rats, overall decreases in NR1, NR2A, and NR2B expression and reduction in neuronal and endothelial NOS activities were found. The age-dependent changes in NR1 and NR2B significantly correlated with neuronal NOS in both hemispheres. Changes evoked by chronic SD (dysfunction of endothelial NOS and the increasing role of NR2A) differed from those evoked by acute SD (increase in inducible NOS in the right side). Collectively, these results demonstrate age-dependent regulation of the level of NMDA receptor subunits and downstream NOS isoforms throughout the rat brain, which could be partly mimicked by SD. As described herein, age and SD alterations in the prevalence of NMDA receptors and NOS could contribute towards cognitive decline in the elderly, as well as in the pathobiology of AD and the neurodegenerative process.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218920, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The neuroendocrine background of acute sleep fragmentation in obstructive sleep apnea and sleep fragmentation involvement in psychiatric comorbidities, common in these patients, are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term experimental sleep fragmentation on anxiety -like behavior and hormonal status in rats. METHODS: Male rats were adapted to treadmill (ON and OFF mode with belt speed set on 0.02m/s and 0.00m/s) and randomized to: 1) treadmill control (TC, only OFF mode); 2) motion, activity control (AC, 10min ON and 30min OFF mode) and 3) sleep fragmentation (SF, 30s ON and 90s OFF mode) group. Six hours later, the animals were tested in the open field, elevated plus maze and light/dark test (n = 8/group). Testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and corticosterone were determined in separate animal cohort immediately upon sleep fragmentation (n = 6/group). RESULTS: SF rats showed decreased rearings number, decreased time spent in the central area and increased thigmotaxic index compared to TC and AC rats in the open field test. Similarly, increased anxiety upon sleep fragmentation was observed in the elevated plus maze and the light/dark test. Significantly lower testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were determined in SF in comparison to AC and TC groups, while there was no significant difference in the levels of corticosterone. CONCLUSION: Short term sleep fragmentation enhances anxiety-related behavior in rats, which could be partly mediated by the observed hormonal changes presented in the current study in form of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone depletion.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Corticosterona/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estradiol/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Progesterona/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ratos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Privação do Sono/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Privação do Sono/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Testosterona/líquido cefalorraquidiano
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(15): 1788-1795, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are one of the earliest non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Sleep disorders could, therefore, have value for recognition and diagnosis in PD. However, no unified classification and diagnostic criteria exist to evaluate sleep disorders by polysomnography (PSG). Utilizing PSG to monitor sleep processes of patients with PD and analyze sleep disorder characteristics and their relationship with demographic parameters could aid in bridging this gap. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristic of sleep disorders in PD using PSG. METHODS: PSG was used to evaluate sleep disorders in 27 patients with PD and 20 healthy volunteers between August 2015 and July 2018 in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. Total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), total wake time, and other parameters were compared between the two groups. Finally, the correlation between sleep disorders and age, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III scores, Hoehn-Yahr stage, and levodopa dose were analyzed. The main statistical methods included Chi-square test, two independent samples t test, Fisher exact test, and Pearson correlation. RESULTS: Sleep fragmentation in the PD group was significantly increased (74.1%) while difficulty falling asleep and early awakening were not, as compared to healthy controls. No significant differences were found in time in bed, sleep latency (SL), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1), N1%, N2, N2%, N3%, and NREM% between PD and control groups; but TST (327.96 ±â€Š105.26 min vs. 414.67 ±â€Š78.31 min, P = 0.003), SE (63.26% ±â€Š14.83% vs. 76.8% ±â€Š11.57%, P = 0.001), R N3 (20.00 [39.00] min vs. 61.50 [48.87] min, P = 0.001), NREM (262.59 ±â€Š91.20 min vs. 337.17 ±â€Š63.47 min, P = 0.003), rapid-eye-movement (REM) (32.50 [33.00] min vs. 85.25 [32.12] min, P < 0.001), REM% (9.56 ±â€Š6.01 vs. 15.50 ±â€Š4.81, P = 0.001), REM sleep latency (157.89 ±â€Š99.04 min vs. 103.47 ±â€Š71.70 min, P = 0.034) were significantly reduced in PD group. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study supported that sleep fragmentation was an important clinical characteristic of sleep disorders in PD. Whether sleep fragmentation is a potential quantifiable marker in PD needs to be further investigated in the future study.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Privação do Sono/patologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/fisiologia
15.
Life Sci ; 232: 116594, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233761

RESUMO

AIMS: Sleep deficiency has been reported to be associated with some oral health problems. Oral ulcers are very common lesions of the oral mucosa, which severely impact patients' quality of life. However, the association between sleep deficiency and the oral ulcer remains unknown. The present study aims to explore the effects of sleep deficiency on oral ulcers. MAIN METHODS: Rats were divided into normal control group (n = 30) and oral ulcer group (OU group, n = 50). Model rats with phenol-induced oral ulcers were deprived of sleep for 72 h by using the modified multiple platform technique. KEY FINDINGS: Sleep deprivation worsened oral ulcers and delayed healing process in rats. In addition, sleep deprivation increased the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, P < 0.01) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, P < 0.05) levels in serum and brain, the corticotrophin (ACTH, P < 0.05), corticosterone (CORT, P < 0.01), immunoglobulin (Ig)M (P < 0.01), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1ß (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (P < 0.01), and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, P < 0.01) levels in serum. Sleep deprivation also up-regulated malonaldehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), TNF-α (P < 0.05), and IL-1ß (P < 0.01) levels in oral mucosa tissue and delayed superoxide dismutase (SOD, P < 0.05) activity recovery. SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that sleep deprivation impaired the oral ulcer healing in rat oral mucosa, and the mechanisms of this effect are probably related to neuro-immuno-endocrine system and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Úlceras Orais/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Úlceras Orais/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Neuron ; 103(4): 686-701.e8, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248729

RESUMO

The role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep is controversial: early studies suggested a sleep-promoting role, but eventually the paradigm shifted toward a wake-promoting function for the serotonergic raphe. Here, we provide evidence from zebrafish and mice that the raphe are critical for the initiation and maintenance of sleep. In zebrafish, genetic ablation of 5-HT production by the raphe reduces sleep, sleep depth, and the homeostatic response to sleep deprivation. Pharmacological inhibition or ablation of the raphe reduces sleep, while optogenetic stimulation increases sleep. Similarly, in mice, ablation of the raphe increases wakefulness and impairs the homeostatic response to sleep deprivation, whereas tonic optogenetic stimulation at a rate similar to baseline activity induces sleep. Interestingly, burst optogenetic stimulation induces wakefulness in accordance with previously described burst activity of the raphe during arousing stimuli. These results indicate that the serotonergic system promotes sleep in both diurnal zebrafish and nocturnal rodents. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Camundongos/fisiologia , Núcleos da Rafe/fisiologia , Serotonina/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/genética , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Buspirona/farmacologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Fenclonina/farmacologia , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Optogenética , Quipazina/farmacologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Serotonina/biossíntese , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Triptofano Hidroxilase/deficiência , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Vigília/genética , Vigília/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Neuron ; 103(2): 323-334.e7, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178114

RESUMO

A crucial step in understanding the sleep-control mechanism is to identify sleep neurons. Through systematic anatomical screening followed by functional testing, we identified two sleep-promoting neuronal populations along a thalamo-amygdala pathway, both expressing neurotensin (NTS). Rabies-mediated monosynaptic retrograde tracing identified the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) as a major source of GABAergic inputs to multiple wake-promoting populations; gene profiling revealed NTS as a prominent marker for these CeA neurons. Optogenetic activation and inactivation of NTS-expressing CeA neurons promoted and suppressed non-REM (NREM) sleep, respectively, and optrode recording showed they are sleep active. Further tracing showed that CeA GABAergic NTS neurons are innervated by glutamatergic NTS neurons in a posterior thalamic region, which also promote NREM sleep. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated NTS knockdown in either the thalamic or CeA neurons greatly reduced their sleep-promoting effect. These results reveal a novel thalamo-amygdala circuit for sleep generation in which NTS signaling is essential for both the upstream glutamatergic and downstream GABAergic neurons.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurotensina/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Tálamo/citologia , Potenciais de Ação/genética , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Neurotensina/genética , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Transfecção , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
19.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(6): 195-198, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden and impact of sleep deprivation in cardiology has received limited study. METHODS: A multidisciplinary, online survey on sleep health patterns and sleep deprivation involving 44 closed-ended questions was distributed via email list to cardiovascular workers. RESULTS: The survey was circulated among 6683 individuals, of whom 481 (7.2%) completed the survey; 80% of the respondents were men and 70% were interventional cardiologists. Nearly all (91%) had call responsibilities, with 43% doing ≥7 call-nights per month. Sleep disorders were reported in 25%, with 25% using sleep-inducing medications (8.4% at least once per week). The main factors diminishing the quality and/or quantity of sleep were related to work (66%), family and/or personal activities (56%), and staying up late at night writing or studying (48%). Sleep deprivation was associated with difficulty concentrating (58%), lack of motivation (56%), and irritability (68%). Work performance was felt to be hindered by 46% of participants and 8.6% reported an adverse event such as a complication and/ or negative patient outcome likely related to sleep deprivation. Many (56.5%) felt burnout and 85% opined that policies should exist allowing sleep-deprived individuals to go home early post call. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey provides insights into sleep health patterns among cardiovascular workers and potential factors contributing to sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may impact performance, with 8.6% of respondents describing sleep-deprivation related adverse events. Further study is required to both identify measures to attenuate the burden and better understand the impact of sleep deprivation on both health-care personnel and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cardiologia , Competência Clínica , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , Esgotamento Profissional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Privação do Sono/etiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Neuroimage ; 197: 255-263, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028920

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation decreases an individual's cognitive function. When cognitive impairment reaches a certain level, human errors occur and may even result in accidents. Previous research has shown that sensory gating is a basic mechanism in cognitive function, but only limited studies have so far reported how it is affected by sleep deprivation. This study aimed to analyze the effects of sleep deprivation on sensory gating and its cognitive and neural mechanisms. Thirty-six healthy subjects participated in our study. The resting-state, auditory P50-task electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) were performed at resting wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Changes in P50 suppression before and after sleep deprivation were recorded, and the isolated effective coherence (iCoh) was employed for analyzing effective connectivity based on EEG data during the resting-state and P50 tasks. Subjects demonstrated reduced P50 suppression and prolonged PVT reaction time after TSD compared with RW. Effective connectivity analysis of resting-state EEG data showed that sleep deprivation decreased the connectivity from the right middle occipital gyrus (RMOG)/Rcuneus to left inferior/middle temporal gyrus (LITG/LMTG) and left parahippocampal/fusiform gyrus (LPH/LFG). EEG data analysis during the P50 task showed that, in addition to the aforementioned connectivity changes, the directed high-frequency effective connectivity from the left precuneus to the left superior/middle frontal gyrus (LSFG/LMFG), LITG/LMTG, LPH/LFG, and left middle occipital gyrus (LMOG)/Lcuneus increased. P50 suppression in Cz positively correlated with PVT reaction time. This study reveals that the precuneus is a key brain region in neural network correlates of sensory gating, and that changes in its effective connectivity with other regions (including LSFG/LMFG, LPH/LFG, LMOG/LCuneus, and LITG/LMTG) are important for decreasing sensory gating after TSD.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
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