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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1643-1659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210558

RESUMO

Purpose: Aseptic loosening is a major complication after total joint replacement. Reactive oxygen species generated by local tissue cells and liberated from implant surfaces have been suggested to cause implant failures. Surface modification of titanium (Ti)-based implants with proanthocyanidins (PAC) is a promising approach for the development of anti-oxidant defense mechanism to supplement the mechanical functions of Ti implants. In this study, a controlled PAC release system was fabricated on the surface of Ti substrates using the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. Materials and Methods: Polyethyleneimine (PEI) base layer was fabricated to enable layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of hyaluronic acid/chitosan (HA/CS) multi-layers without or with the PAC. Surface topography and wettability of the fabricated HA/CS-PAC substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and contact angle measurement. PAC release profiles were investigated using drug release assays. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells were used to assess the osteo-inductive effects of HA/CS-PAC substrates under conditions H2O2-induced oxidative stress in vitro. A rat model of femoral intramedullary implantation evaluated the osseo-integration and osteo-inductive potential of the HA/CS-PAC coated Ti implants in vivo. Results: SEM, AFM, FTIR and contact angle measurements verified the successful fabrication of Ti surfaces with multi-layered HA/CS-PAC coating. Drug release assays revealed controlled and sustained release of PAC over 14 days. In vitro, cell-based assays showed high tolerability and enhanced the osteogenic potential of MC3T3-E1 cells on HA/CS-PAC substrates when under conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress. In vivo evaluation of femoral bone 14 days after femoral intramedullary implantation confirmed the enhanced osteo-inductive potential of the HA/CS-PAC coated Ti implants. Conclusion: Multi-layering of HA/CS-PAC coating onto Ti-based surfaces by the LBL deposition significantly enhances implant osseo-integration and promotes osteogenesis under conditions of oxidative stress. This study provides new insights for future applications in the field of joint arthroplasty.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Próteses e Implantes , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoimina/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Molhabilidade , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(2): 140-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009081

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that the c-Met inhibitory effect of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE) is derived from ingredients besides ephedrine alkaloids. Moreover, analgesic and anti-influenza activities of EHE and ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) have been reported recently. In this study, we examined the fractions containing c-Met kinase inhibitory activity from EHE and the fractions with analgesic and anti-influenza activities from EFE, and elucidated the structural characteristics of the active fractions. Significant c-Met kinase activity was observed in 30, 40, and 50% methanol (MeOH) eluate fractions obtained from water extract of EHE using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. Similarly, 20 and 40% MeOH, and MeOH eluate fractions obtained from water extract of EFE were found to display analgesic and anti-influenza activities. Reversed phase-HPLC analysis of the active fractions commonly showed broad peaks characteristic of high-molecular mass condensed tannin. The active fractions were analyzed using 13C-NMR and decomposition reactions; the deduced structures of active components were high-molecular mass condensed tannins, which were mainly procyanidin B-type and partly procyanidin A-type, including pyrogallol- and catechol-type flavan 3-ols as extension and terminal units. HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses estimated that the ratio of pyrogallol- and catechol-type was approximately 9 : 2, and the weight-average molecular weight based on the polystyrene standard was >45000. Furthermore, GPC-based analysis was proposed as the quality evaluation method for high-molecular mass condensed tannin in EHE and EFE.


Assuntos
Ephedra/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cães , Efedrina/química , Efedrina/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957433

RESUMO

Dimer procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4ß-8)-epicatechin] (PB2) has attracted a lot of interest in nutrition and medicine because of its significant health-promoting abilities. However, the function of PB2 on different types of skeletal myofiber is still unclear. Here, we have found that PB2 significantly increased protein expression of the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and decreased fast MyHC protein in C2C12 myotubes, accompanied by upregulation of mRNA expression of MyHC I, MyHC IIa, and Tnni1 and downregulation of MyHC IIx and MyHC IIb. We have also found that PB2 enhanced the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase and reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity. PB2 promoted phosphorylation of AMPK and significantly increased mRNA expression of AMPKα1. The upstream factors of AMPK, such as phospho-LKB1, NRF1, and CaMKKß, and the downstream factors of AMPK, including Sirt1 and PGC-1α, were also increased by PB2. Specific suppression of AMPK signaling by AMPKα1 siRNA or by AMPK inhibitor compound C significantly attenuated the PB2-induced upregulation of phospho-AMPK, PGC-1α, and slow MyHC and downregulation of fast MyHC. Our findings suggested that PB2 promotes skeletal slow-twitch myofiber gene expression through the AMPK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(3): 165-172, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782190

RESUMO

Condensed tannins (CTs), which extracted from yew leaves, tilia flower and black locust leaves, were examined for their antimicrobial in vitro activity against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Past research demonstrated that CTs which contain procyanidins and prodelphinidins that could inhibit the growth of a wide range of bacteria. However, there is no information on how these affect pathogenic bacteria from chickens such as APEC. The high concentration of extracts, 10, 5, 2·5 mg ml-1 , affected the growth curves of APEC, which gave different inhibition values for the three CT extracts. Furthermore, these CTs had significant effects (P ≤ 0·05) on APEC biofilm and motility depending on each CT concentration and composition. However, at low concentration (0·6 mg ml-1 ), the tilia flowers, a high molar percentage of procyanidins, enhanced bacterial cell attachment and improved the swimming motility of APEC. In contrast, yew, an equal molar percentage of procyanidins/prodelphinidins, and black locust, a high molar percentage of prodelphinidins, interrupted and blocked swarming and swimming motility. The data suggested that the antimicrobial activity of the CT extracts was elicited by a positive relationship between anti-biofilm formation and anti-motility capacities. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study showed that condensed tannins (CTs), which were a group of secondary metabolites of many plants and rich in prodelphinidins (PD), had greater antibacterial activity against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) than CTs that were rich in procyanidins (PC). The mode of action of the CTs was to inhibit the swimming and swarming motility of APEC, and its ability to form biofilms. The significance of this finding is that the use of PD-rich CTs to control APEC should not encourage the development of antibiotic resistance by APEC because a different mechanism is used. If confirmed in vivo, this could provide the poultry industry with a valuable and novel means of controlling the antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência
5.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 57: 126407, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive exposure to iron can cause kidney damage, and chelating drugs such as deferoxamine and deferiprone have limited usefulness in treating iron poisoning. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPAs) against iron overload induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The roles of GSPAs in chelating iron, antioxidant activity, renal function, pathological section, and apoptosis-related gene expression were assessed. METHODS: Newly weaned male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 21 days (weight, 65 ±â€¯5 g) were randomly divided into four groups containing 10 rats each: normal control (negative) group, iron overload (positive) group, GSPAs group, and GSPAs + iron overload (test) group. Iron dextran injections (2.5 mg⋅ kg-1) and GSPAs (25 mg⋅ kg-1) were intraperitoneally and intragastrically administered to rats daily for 7 weeks, respectively. Measurements included red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), renal iron content, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), creatinine (CR) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, pathological changes, and apoptotic Fas, Bax expressions in the kidney tissue. Differences among the dietary groups were determined using one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc Tukey's test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: RBC count, Hb level, renal iron content, MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas, Bax expressions significantly increased in the positive group than in the negative group; contrarily, TIBC, GSH-Px activity, and T-AOC significantly decreased in the positive group than in the negative group (P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, SOD activity was slightly reduced in the positive group than in the negative group. Inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue proliferation were observed in the kidney tissue of the rats in the positive group; in contrast, the rats exhibited better recovery when GSPAs were used instead of iron alone. Compared with the positive group, RBC counts, Hb levels, renal iron contents, the MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas, Bax expressions significantly decreased, whereas the TIBC, the GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as T-AOC significantly increased in the test group rats (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the RBC counts, Hb levels, TIBC, renal iron contents, the SOD activity and MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas expression between the GSPAs and negative groups. The GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly increased whereas Bax expression was significantly decreased in the GSPAs group rats than in the negative group rats (P < 0.05). The rats in the GSPAs, test, and negative groups displayed glomeruli and tubules with a clear structure; further, the epithelial cells in the renal tubules were neatly arranged. CONCLUSIONS: GSPAs have protective effects on nephrotoxicity in rats with iron overload. Thus, further investigation of GSPAs as a new and natural phytochemo-preventive agent against iron overload is warranted.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/complicações , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110056, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753372

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a component of grape seed extract (GSE), have recently being used for the treatment of wounds. However, poor absorption, poor stability and rapid elimination from the systemic circulation limit its acceptance. In addressing these problems, we herein report the development of PCs based nanoformulations (PCs/SOLU) for the first time based on 1% GSE and assessed its wound healing potential in-vivo on the wistar rats. GSE and PCs/SOLU nanodispersions 1% were prepared by incorporating them into the ointment base via uniform mixing to form ointment which could be easily applied topically to wounds. The antibacterial activity of PCs/SOLU against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria strains proved that the cell membranes became more permeable with disrupted cell structure. While carrageenan and histamine induced rat paw edema analyses show there was no inflammatory signs in animals treated with 1 wt% of PCs/SOLU nanodispersion. Excision wound measuring about 3 cm in depth was created on the wistar rats. The ointment was applied topically on the wounded site and the wound contraction was measured daily. Grape seed extract (GSE) ointment, ointment base and povidone­iodine (Povi-Iod) ointment of about 1% was used as the control, positive and negative standards. PCs/SOLU nanodispersion heals the wound by mobilising the fibroblasts in the wound site and inhibits the inflammatory response through decreased expression of monocyte. The macroscopical, immunological and histopathological assessments revealed that PCs/SOLU nanodispersion ointment usage improves the cell adhesion and proliferation.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Pomadas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pomadas/química , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polivinil/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/patologia
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112253, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562952

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal properties of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are well known since ancient times. Ethnobotanical grape preparations, like the Ayurvedic Darakchasava are used as cardiotonic and for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Dried grape products are also applied in Iranian traditional medicine for memory problems, which are linked to the pathology of brain microvessels, a special part of the cardiovascular system. The anti-inflammatory and protective effects of these traditional preparations on the cardiovascular system are related to their bioactive phenolic compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by brain capillaries, is not only involved in inflammatory and other diseases of the central nervous system, but also in many systemic diseases with an inflammatory component. Dietary obesity is a systemic chronic inflammatory condition in which the peripheral and central vascular system is affected. Among the cerebrovascular changes in obesity defective leptin transport across the BBB related to central leptin resistance is observed. Our aim was to study the protective effects of grape phenolic compounds epicatechin (EC), gallic acid (GA) and resveratrol (RSV) and grape-seed proanthocyanidin-rich extract (GSPE) on a cytokine-induced vascular endothelial inflammation model. Using a culture model of the BBB we investigated cytokine-induced endothelial damage and changes in the expression of leptin receptors and leptin transfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the BBB model, primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells, glial cells and pericytes were used in co-culture. Cells were treated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 ß (IL-1ß) (10 ng/ml each) to induce damage. Cell toxicity was evaluated by the measurement of impedance. The expression of leptin receptors was assessed by RT-qPCR and western blot. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were detected by fluorescent probes. RESULTS: GSPE (10 µg/ml), EC (10 µM), GA (1 µM) or RSV (10 µM) did not change the viability of brain endothelial cells. The gene expression of the short leptin receptor isoform, Ob-Ra, was up-regulated by GSPE, EC and RSV, while the mRNA levels of Lrp2 and clusterin, clu/ApoJ were not affected. The tested compounds did not change the expression of the long leptin receptor isoform, Ob-Rb. RSV protected against the cytokine-induced increase in albumin permeability of the BBB model. GSPE and EC exerted an antioxidant effect and GSPE increased NO both alone and in the presence of cytokines. The cytokine-induced nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-κB was blocked by GSPE, GA and RSV. Cytokines increased the mRNA expression of Lrp2 which was inhibited by EC. RSV increased Ob-Ra and Clu in the presence of cytokines. Cytokines elevated leptin transfer across the BBB model, which was not modified by GSPE or RSV. CONCLUSION: Our results obtained on cell culture models confirm that natural grape compounds protect vascular endothelial cells against inflammatory damage in accordance with the ethnopharmacological use of grape preparations in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, grape compounds and GSPE, by exerting a beneficial effect on the BBB, may also be considered in the treatment of obesity after validation in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Astrócitos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Etnofarmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Leptina/imunologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 316: 108926, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874164

RESUMO

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to exhibit a variety of protective effects, such as antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and other pharmacological effects. As a member of the complement system, complement component 3 (C3) deposition in the glomerulus is recognized as an important causative mediator of various kidney diseases. In this study, we aimed to identify the effect of GSPE on C3 in the chronic kidney fibrosis and evaluate the possible mechanism. We observed that administration of GSPE relieves inflammation and chronic renal fibrosis in mouse models of UUO. GSPE inhibited C3 secreted by macrophages to relieve renal interstitial inflammation. In vitro, we found that C3 stimulated HMGB1 translocation form nucleus to cytoplasm and promote the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TGF-ß1 in primary renal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC), which could be inhibited by GSPE. Meanwhile, GSPE could also decreased HMGB1-induced EMT of PTEC through suppresses the HMGB1/TLR4/p65/TGF-ß1 pathway. In addition, the myofibroblast activation was inhibited by GSPE via TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathways in normal rat kidney fibroblast (NRK-49F) cells. Overall, these observations provide that GSPE alleviates renal fibrosis by inhibiting the C3/HMGB1/TGF-ß1 pathway and could thus lead to find the potential therapy for the suppression of renal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1076512, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827667

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a causal factor and key promoter of all kinds of reproductive disorders related to granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis that acts by dysregulating the expression of related genes. Various studies have suggested that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) may protect GCs from oxidative injury, though the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, whether the beneficial effects of GSPB2 are associated with microRNAs, which have been suggested to play a critical role in GC apoptosis by regulating the expression of protein-coding genes, was investigated in this study. The results showed that GSPB2 treatment protected GCs from a H2O2-induced apoptosis, as detected by an MTT assay and TUNEL staining, and increased let-7a expression in GCs. Furthermore, let-7a overexpression markedly increased cell viability and inhibited H2O2-induced GC apoptosis. Furthermore, the overexpression of let-7a reduced the upregulation of Fas expression in H2O2-treated GCs at the mRNA and protein levels. Dual-luciferase reporter assay results indicated that let-7a directly targets the Fas 3'-UTR. Furthermore, the overexpression of let-7a enhanced the protective effects of GSPB2 against GC apoptosis induced by H2O2. These results indicate that GSPB2 inhibits H2O2-induced apoptosis of GCs, possibly through the upregulation of let-7a.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Bases , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ovário/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Suínos , Vitis/metabolismo , Receptor fas/química , Receptor fas/genética , Receptor fas/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817948

RESUMO

Yeast are able to modulate many sensory parameters of wines during red must fermentation. The effect on color and on the formation of derived pigments during fermentation has been studied thoroughly since the 90s. Yeast can increase grape anthocyanin's color by acidification by hyperchromic effect (increase of flavylium molecules). Recent studies with non-Saccharomyces species, as Lachancea thermotolerans, described the intense effect of some strains on anthocyanin's color, and subsequent, stability, by strongly reducing wine's pH during fermentation. Moreover, selected yeast strains of Saccharomyces have been shown to release metabolites such as pyruvic acid or acetaldehyde that promote the formation of vitisin A and B pyranoanthocyanins during must fermentation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, because of its specific metabolism, can produce higher concentrations of pyruvate, which enhances the formation of vitisin A-type derivatives. The hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase activity that some Saccharomyces strains express during fermentation also promotes the formation of vinylphenolic derivatives. Some non-Saccharomyces species, such as S. pombe or P. guilliermondii can also improve the production of these derivatives compared to selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lastly, some yeasts are also able to modulate the formations of polymeric pigments between grape anthocyanins and flavonoids, such as catechins and procyanidins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/química , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomycetales/efeitos dos fármacos , Vinho/análise
11.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(8): 817-823, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679288

RESUMO

This study, the first to assess the total phenolic, flavonoid, tannins, and proanthocyanidin content of the Tunisian lichen Diploschistes ocellatus, determined the antioxidant capacity in scavenging 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), as well as the ferric-reducing and iron-chelating powers. The phenolic compound content of D. ocellatus was shown to be related to antioxidant activity. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts were obtained with acetone (286.3 µg GAE/g DW and 3.24 µg CE/g DW, respectively), while the highest tannin and proanthocyanidin contents were obtained with methanol (5.5 µg TAE/g DW and 35.12 µg CE/g DW, respectively). The highest DPPH' scavenging capacity and iron-chelating power of extracts were obtained with methanol (concentration providing 50% inhibition [IC50] = 0.029 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.425 mg/mL, respectively), while acetone extracts showed a higher reducing power (IC50 = 0.118 mg/mL).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Quelantes/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Líquens/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo , Quelantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fenóis/análise , Picratos , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Taninos/análise , Taninos/farmacologia
12.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 77(4): 367-377, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659617

RESUMO

Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. However, cisplatin is limited in clinical treatment because of its severe nephrotoxicity. This study reported whether O-GSP can antagonize the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells through inducing HO-1 protein expression. We previously demonstrated O-GSP can increase the survival rate of HEK293 and have protective effect on HEK293 cells. Herein, We found that O-GSP can antagonize cisplatin nephrotoxicity through regulating the expression of HO-1. O-GSP promotes the translocation of Nrf2 in the nucleus, and activates the ERKN JNK pathway and p38 MAPK pathway. Interestingly, p38 MAPK plays a major role in HO-1 expression induced by O-GSP. And O-GSP can modulate the decrease of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression induced by cisplatin, and improve the cisplatin-induced activity and apoptosis rate of cells by stimulating the expression of HO-1. However, the protective effects of O-GSP are inhibited by ZnPP IX. Collectively, the results indicated that O-GSP induced the expression of HO-1 through p38MAPK and Nrf2 pathway in HEK293 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614852

RESUMO

Over the last decade, proanthocyanidins (PACs) are attracting attention not only from the food industry but also from public health organizations due to their health benefits. It is well-known that grapes are a good source of PACs and for that reason, the industry is also focused on grape by-products identification and bioactivity evaluation. Grape seeds extract (GSPE) is a rich source of PACs, mainly composed of monomeric catechin and epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Thus, this review encompasses the state-of-art structure and the most recent evidence about the impact of GSPE on chronic diseases, with a focus on oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MeS)-related disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk disease in vivo to offer new perspectives in the field that allow further research. Despite the controversial results, is undeniable that PACs from grape seeds are highly antioxidants, thus, the capacity of GSPE to improve oxidative stress might mediate the inflammation process and the progress of MeS-related pathologies. However, further well-design animal studies with standardized dosages and GSPE composition are necessary to shed light into the cause-effect relationship in a more accurate way to later allow a deeper study of the effect of GSPE in humans.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Proantocianidinas/química
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(12): 5016-5026, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630198

RESUMO

Reliable assessments of indigestible dietary components are required when using internal markers to estimate diet digestibility and determine the potentially digestible portion of the fiber. The lack of a standardized methodology and understanding of how antinutritional factors influence indigestible residues can result in erroneous estimates with inconsistent variation across trials and among studies. Previous studies have detailed suitable bag porosity and sample size (SS) with incubation length (IL) varying from 96 to 504 h, with many assuming that 288-h IL yields truly indigestible components. Recent studies have primarily investigated the variation that exists among feedstuffs, but most have failed to account for possible effects of secondary compounds. Using 2 similar concentrate diets, one of which contained supplemental condensed tannins (CT), we investigated the effect of bag type (BT; 10 and 25 µm), SS (20 and 40 mg/cm2), and IL (288 and 576 h) on in situ indigestible DM (iDM) and neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) residues of feed and feces, and resultant DM and NDF digestibilities. There were no 3-way interactions (P > 0.05), but 2-way interactions were present for iDM and iNDF residues with BT × SS influencing the control (no CT) ration (P < 0.01), SS × IL impacting feed containing CT (P < 0.01), and BT × IL affecting both feedstuffs (P ≤ 0.01). For the control diet, only BT × SS affected DM and NDF digestibilities. Whereas the CT diet did not demonstrate any significant interactions for digestibilities. Values of iDM were largely influenced by contamination that varied greatly based on intrinsic factors associated with the bag and incubation duration. The presence of CT influenced iDM and iNDF to varying degrees due to possible trapping of CT-substrate complexes. For the control diet, the use of 25-µm bags resulted in lower fecal recoveries relative to the 10 µm (P < 0.01). However, there appears to be a dynamic relationship among BT, SS, and IL within respective diets and sample types that can affect indigestible components and resultant digestibility estimates. Based on simulations from these data, the sample size required to attain 90% power when utilizing 2 incubation animals exceeds the triplicate and quadruplicate replications commonly utilized. Further emphasizing the necessity for a more complete understanding of incubation dynamics to design biologically and statistically valid investigations.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Rúmen
15.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546671

RESUMO

The possibility of counteracting inflammation-related barrier defects with dietary compounds such as (poly)phenols has raised much interest, but information is still scarce. We have investigated here if (+)-catechin (CAT) and procyanidin B2 (PB2), two main dietary polyphenols, protect the barrier function of intestinal cells undergoing inflammatory stress. The cell model adopted consisted of co-cultured Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells, while inflammatory conditions were mimicked through the incubation of epithelial cells with the conditioned medium of activated macrophages (MCM). The epithelial barrier function was monitored through trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and ROS production was assessed with dichlorofluorescein, while the expression of tight-junctional proteins and signal transduction pathways were evaluated with Western blot. The results indicated that MCM produced significant oxidative stress, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways, a decrease in occludin and ZO-1 expression, and an increase in claudin-7 (CL-7) expression, while TEER was markedly lowered. Neither CAT nor PB2 prevented oxidative stress, transduction pathways activation, ZO-1 suppression, or TEER decrease. However, PB2 prevented the decrease in occludin expression and both polyphenols produced a huge increase in CL-7 abundance. It is concluded that, under the conditions adopted, CAT and PB2 do not prevent inflammation-dependent impairment of the epithelial barrier function of intestinal cell monolayers. However, the two compounds modify the expression of tight-junctional proteins and, in particular, markedly increase the expression of CL-7. These insights add to a better understanding of the potential biological activity of these major dietary flavan-3-ols at intestinal level.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Epiteliais , Células HT29 , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11508-11517, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538478

RESUMO

Tiopronin, as a novel thiol-containing nucleophile, was introduced for depolymerizing polymeric proanthocyanidins from grape seed into catechins and three new proanthocyanidin-tiopronin degradation products: (+)-catechin-4ß-S-tiopronin methyl ester (CT), (-)-epicatechin-4ß-S-tiopronin methyl ester (ECT), and (-)-epicatechin gallate-4ß-S-tiopronin methyl ester (ECGT). A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize degradation conditions based on single-factor experiments to obtain target products. Each of the new degradation compounds was isolated by the high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography in large amounts, and then, their structures were identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D-NMR, as well as mass spectrometry analysis. The absolute configurations were further confirmed by comparison between the calculated electronic circular dichroism and experimental spectra. Further evaluation of antibacterial activities of these compounds showed that CT and ECT possessed more inhibiting capacity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli than parent compound catechin and epicatechin. However, ECGT has no bacteriostatic capacity against these two bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/isolamento & purificação , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Tiopronina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11616-11626, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542929

RESUMO

Avocado peel, a byproduct from the avocado pulp industry, is a promising source of polyphenolic compounds. We evaluated the effect of a proanthocyanidin-rich avocado peel polyphenol extract (AvPPE) on the composition and metabolic activity of human fecal microbiota cultured for 24 h in a bioreactor in the presence of high protein (HP) amounts and the effect of the resulting culture supernatants (CSs) on HT-29Glc-/+ and Caco-2 cells. AvPPE decreased the HP-induced production of ammonia, H2S, propionate, and isovalerate and increased that of indole and butyrate. Microbiota composition was marginally affected by HP, whileAvPPE increased the microorganisms/abundance of phylum Actinobacteria, families Coriobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae, and genus Faecalibacterium. AvPPE failed to prevent the HP-induced decrease of HT-29Glc-/+ cell viability and energy efficiency but prevented the HP-induced alterations of barrier function in Caco-2 cells. Additionally, the genotoxic effect of the CSs upon HT-29Glc-/+ was attenuated by AvPPE. Therefore, AvPPE may be considered as a promising product for improving colonic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proantocianidinas/análise
18.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540489

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays a key role in promoting tumor progression, such as stimulation of cell proliferation and metastasis via activation of NF-κB and AP-1. The proanthocyanidin-rich fraction obtained from red rice (PRFR) has been reported for its anti-tumor effects in cancer cells. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with PRFR on cell survival and metastasis of TNF-α-induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma. Notably, PRFR enhanced TNF-α-induced A549 cell death when compared with PRFP alone and caused a G0-G1 cell cycle arrest. Although, PRFR alone enhanced cell apoptosis, the combination treatment induced the cells that had been enhanced with PRFR and TNF-α to apoptosis that was less than PRFR alone and displayed a partial effect on caspase-8 activation and PARP cleavage. By using the autophagy inhibitor; 3-MA attenuated the effect of how PRFR enhanced TNF-α-induced cell death. This indicates that PRFR not only enhanced TNF-α-induced A549 cell death by apoptotic pathway, but also by induction autophagy. Moreover, PRFR also inhibited TNF-α-induced A549 cell invasion. This effect was associated with PRFR suppressed the TNF-α-induced level of expression for survival, proliferation, and invasive proteins. This was due to reduce of MAPKs, Akt, NF-κB, and AP-1 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that TNF-α-induced A549 cell survival and invasion are attenuated by PRFR through the suppression of the MAPKs, Akt, AP-1, and NF-κB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais , Proantocianidinas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495108

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) in paraquat-exposed mice. Methods: An acute lung injury model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of paraquat (PQ) in BALB/c mice. The mice were randomized into control group, paraquat-exposed group (PQ group) , oligomeric proanthocyanidins group (OPCs group) , and paraquat and oligomeric proanthocyanidins-exposed group (PQ+OPCs group) , with 10 mice in each group. Only normal saline was intraperitoneally injected into the mice in the control group. The mice in the PQ group were divided into 8 subgroups according to the dose of poison administered, i.e., 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 300 mg/kg; the mice in each subgroup were given a single intraperitoneal injection of PQ and were observed and recorded for death at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 84, and 96 hours after PQ injection. Origin 8.0 was used to calculate the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the mice at 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours after PQ injection, and the PQ dose (100 mg/kg, ip) was chosen based on the accumulated mortality rate. An OPCs-treated experimental model was established by an intraperitoneal injection of OPCs followed by a single PQ injection (100 mg/kg, ip) 1 hour later to observe the effects of OPCs on the apparent poisoning effect and fatality rate in PQ-induced mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the effect of OPCs on PQ-induced lung tissue lesions. The peripheral blood samples of the mice were collected to determine the effects of OPCs on PQ-induced inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) , interleukine-1ß (IL-1ß) , and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mortality rate was significantly correlated with the dose and exposure time in PQ-exposed mice; the mortality rate gradually increased with increasing dose and exposure time of the poison (P<0.05) . The LD(50) values for the mice were 216.67, 124.11, and 71.24 mg/kg at 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure, respectively. PQ could induce animal death at 12 hours after injection, and the mortality rate of the animals was 40% (4/10) at 48 hours after PQ exposure. The PQ-induced mortality rate of the mice in the PQ+OPCs group was reduced, and the mortality rate of the animals was 10% (1/10) at 48 hours after PQ exposure. Compared with treatment in the control group, OPCs exposure alone had no significant effect on the expression of TNF-α and TGF-ß1 in the peripheral blood (P>0.05) , but it significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1ß (P<0.05) . After 48 hours, the expression of TNF-α, TGF-ß1, and IL-1ß in peripheral blood significantly increased by 39%, 45%, and 38%, respectively, in the PQ group (P<0.05) , but they significantly decreased by 31%, 13%, and 22%, respectively, in the OPCs+PQ group as compared with the PQ group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: OPCs pretreatment can significantly alleviate PQ-induced poisoning effect.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Paraquat/toxicidade , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Distribuição Aleatória , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109560, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421536

RESUMO

In the present study, to investigate the prevention mechanism of proanthocyanidins from lotus seedpod (LSPCs) on methyl mercuric chloride (MMC) induced neurotoxicity, neuron/astrocyte cells were co-cultured to simulate the microenvironment in vivo to the greatest extent. The results showed that, compared with MMC group, pretreatment with LSPCs not only improved cell survival rate, decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and prevented the increase of intracellular [Ca2+]i, but also significantly increased the total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) (p<0.05), the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (p<0.05), glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (p<0.01). Besides, LSPCs up-regulated the expression of transcriptional factor Nrf2/HO-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LSPCs reduced the expression of Bax protein, significantly increased the expression of Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, ß-Ⅲ-Tubulin, SYN, and Arc proteins. The expression of these proteins is mainly regulated by genes and reflects the changes of genes functions. Taken together, these results suggested that LSPCs could enhance cellular antioxidant defense capacity through regulating the activation of Nrf2/HO-1, and involving the inhibition of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lotus/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/prevenção & controle , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/química
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