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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272367, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917296

RESUMO

This article discusses and compares statistical designs of basket trial, from both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives. Baskets trials are used in oncology to study interventions that are developed to target a specific feature (often genetic alteration or immune phenotype) that is observed across multiple tissue types and/or tumor histologies. Patient heterogeneity has become pivotal to the development of non-cytotoxic treatment strategies. Treatment targets are often rare and exist among several histologies, making prospective clinical inquiry challenging for individual tumor types. More generally, basket trials are a type of master protocol often used for label expansion. Master protocol is used to refer to designs that accommodates multiple targets, multiple treatments, or both within one overarching protocol. For the purpose of making sequential decisions about treatment futility, Simon's two-stage design is often embedded within master protocols. In basket trials, this frequentist design is often applied to independent evaluations of tumor histologies and/or indications. In the tumor agnostic setting, rarer indications may fail to reach the sample size needed for even the first evaluation for futility. With recent innovations in Bayesian methods, it is possible to evaluate for futility with smaller sample sizes, even for rarer indications. Novel Bayesian methodology for a sequential basket trial design based on predictive probability is introduced. The Bayesian predictive probability designs allow interim analyses with any desired frequency, including continual assessments after each patient observed. The sequential design is compared with and without Bayesian methods for sharing information among a collection of discrete, and potentially non-exchangeable tumor types. Bayesian designs are compared with Simon's two-stage minimax design.


Assuntos
Futilidade Médica , Neoplasias , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e059964, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure sex differences in lifespan based on the probability of males to outlive females. DESIGN: International comparison of national and regional sex-specific life tables from the Human Mortality Database and the World Population Prospects. SETTING: 199 populations spanning all continents, between 1751 and 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: We used the outsurvival statistic ( φ ) to measure inequality in lifespan between sexes, which is interpreted here as the probability of males to outlive females. RESULTS: In random pairs of one male and one female at age 0, the probability of the male outliving the female varies between 25% and 50% for life tables in almost all years since 1751 and across almost all populations. We show that φ is negatively correlated with sex differences in life expectancy and positively correlated with the level of lifespan variation. The important reduction of lifespan inequality observed in recent years has made it less likely for a male to outlive a female. CONCLUSIONS: Although male life expectancy is generally lower than female life expectancy, and male death rates are usually higher at all ages, males have a substantial chance of outliving females. These findings challenge the general impression that 'men do not live as long as women' and reveal a more nuanced inequality in lifespans between females and males.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade , Probabilidade
3.
Sci Justice ; 62(4): 461-470, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931452

RESUMO

In a mass disaster situation, identification of the deceased utilising comparison of dental features is frequently heavily relied upon to facilitate rapid and accurate outcomes. The method consists of the comparison of clinical and radiographic records depicting oral structures and dentition to allow an opinion to be produced on a presumed identity. Current forensic odontology identification opinions are expressed as categories of levels of identification. Categories such as "Identified", "Probable", "Possible" and "Exclude" are used in various forensic odontology identification scales. The boundaries between the levels of the scales are not fixed; hence, category selection is highly subjective. It is uncertain how extrinsic factors such as exposure to contextual task-irrelevant information or operator experience influence category selection. In this study, forensic odontologist and dentist participants read task-irrelevant context case information containing either strong or weak identification or non-identification suggestions before evaluating and comparing pairs of true matching and non-matching dental radiographs. They were then asked to form an opinion regarding identification using one of four categories from the INTERPOL scale. Context information was found to influence categorical decisions. The magnitude and direction of influence depended on the type of participant, the true match status of the radiographs, and the strength and direction of bias of the context. The results of this study demonstrate the contextual effect and fluidity of the boundaries between the categories on the identification scale and highlight the need for stringent protocols to be developed regarding the use of these categorical scales to enable decision making to be more objective.


Assuntos
Desastres , Odontologia Legal , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Probabilidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13172, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915146

RESUMO

When we see a stimulus, e.g. a star-shaped object, our intuition is that we should perceive a single, coherent percept (even if it is inaccurate). But the neural processes that support perception are complex and probabilistic. Simple lines cause orientation-selective neurons across a population to fire in a probabilistic-like manner. Does probabilistic neural firing lead to non-probabilistic perception, or are the representations behind perception richer and more complex than intuition would suggest? To test this, we briefly presented a complex shape and had participants report the correct shape from a set of options. Rather than reporting a single value, we used a paradigm designed to encourage to directly report a representation over shape space-participants placed a series of Gaussian bets. We found that participants could report more than point-estimates of shape. The spread of responses was correlated with accuracy, suggesting that participants can convey a notion of relative imprecision. Critically, as participants placed more bets, the mean of responses show increased precision. The later bets were systematically biased towards the target rather than haphazardly placed around bet 1. These findings strongly indicate that participants were aware of more than just a point-estimate; Perceptual representations are rich and likely probabilistic.


Assuntos
Intuição , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Probabilidade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7588303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785077

RESUMO

Developing reliable equity market models allows investors to make more informed decisions. A trading model can reduce the risks associated with investment and allow traders to choose the best-paying stocks. However, stock market analysis is complicated with batch processing techniques since stock prices are highly correlated. In recent years, advances in machine learning have given us a lot of chances to use forecasting theory and risk optimization together. The study postulates a unique two-stage framework. First, the mean-variance approach is utilized to select probable stocks (portfolio construction), thereby minimizing investment risk. Second, we present an online machine learning technique, a combination of "perceptron" and "passive-aggressive algorithm," to predict future stock price movements for the upcoming period. We have calculated the classification reports, AUC score, accuracy, and Hamming loss for the proposed framework in the real-world datasets of 20 health sector indices for four different geographical reasons for the performance evaluation. Lastly, we conduct a numerical comparison of our method's outcomes to those generated via conventional solutions by previous studies. Our aftermath reveals that learning-based ensemble strategies with portfolio selection are effective in comparison.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Probabilidade
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11381, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790772

RESUMO

Empirical evidence has shown that visually enhancing the saliency of reward probabilities can ease the cognitive demands of value comparisons and improve value-based decisions in old age. In the present study, we used a time-varying drift diffusion model that includes starting time parameters to better understand (1) how increasing the saliency of reward probabilities may affect the dynamics of value-based decision-making and (2) how these effects may interact with age. We examined choices made by younger and older adults in a mixed lottery choice task. On a subset of trials, we used a color-coding scheme to highlight the saliency of reward probabilities, which served as a decision-aid. The results showed that, in control trials, older adults started to consider probability relative to magnitude information sooner than younger adults, but that their evidence accumulation processes were less sensitive to reward probabilities than that of younger adults. This may indicate a noisier and more stochastic information accumulation process during value-based decisions in old age. The decision-aid increased the influence of probability information on evidence accumulation rates in both age groups, but did not alter the relative timing of accumulation for probability versus magnitude in either group.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Recompensa , Cognição , Probabilidade
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11320, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790795

RESUMO

Reliable road detection is an essential task in autonomous driving systems. Two categories of sensors are commonly used, cameras and light detection and ranging (LiDAR), each of which can provide corresponding supplements. Nevertheless, existing sensor fusion methods do not fully utilize multimodal data. Most of them are dominated by images and take point clouds as a supplement rather than making the best of them, and the correlation between modalities is ignored. This paper proposes a recurrent conditional random field (R-CRF) model to fuse images and point clouds for road detection. The R-CRF model integrates results (information) from modalities in a probabilistic way. Each modality is independently processed with its semantic segmentation network. The probability scores obtained are considered a unary term for individual pixel nodes in a random field, while RGB images and the densified LiDAR images are used as pairwise terms. The energy function is then iteratively optimized by mean-field variational inference, and the labelling results are refined by exploiting fully connected graphs of the RGB image and LiDAR images. Extensive experiments are conducted on the public KITTI-Road dataset, and the proposed method achieves competitive performance.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fusão Gênica , Probabilidade , Rotulagem de Produtos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11766, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817792

RESUMO

Past research has shown that anger is associated with support for confrontational and punitive responses during crises, and notably with the endorsement of authoritarian ideologies. One important question is whether it is anger generated specifically in a political context that explains the association between anger and specific political preferences or whether any feeling of anger would be associated with changes in political attitudes. Here, we tested the effect of non-politically motivated incidental anger on the preference for strong leaders. In line with past research, we predicted that anger would increase preferences for strong leaders. Across two experiments, we exposed participants to an anger induction task. Before and after this experimental manipulation, we measured participants' political leader preferences by asking them to choose between the faces of two leaders they would vote for in a hypothetical election. The level of self-reported anger predicted the probability of choosing more dominant-looking and less trustworthy-looking leaders after the induction, suggesting that even non-political incidental anger increases preferences for strong leaders.


Assuntos
Ira , Política , Atitude , Humanos , Probabilidade , Autorrelato
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11726, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821035

RESUMO

Through long-term training, music experts acquire complex and specialized sensorimotor skills, which are paralleled by continuous neuro-anatomical and -functional adaptations. The underlying neuroplasticity mechanisms have been extensively explored in decades of research in music, cognitive, and translational neuroscience. However, the absence of a comprehensive review and quantitative meta-analysis prevents the plethora of variegated findings to ultimately converge into a unified picture of the neuroanatomy of musical expertise. Here, we performed a comprehensive neuroimaging meta-analysis of publications investigating neuro-anatomical and -functional differences between musicians (M) and non-musicians (NM). Eighty-four studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. From these, 58 publications were included in coordinate-based meta-analyses using the anatomic/activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method. This comprehensive approach delivers a coherent cortico-subcortical network encompassing sensorimotor and limbic regions bilaterally. Particularly, M exhibited higher volume/activity in auditory, sensorimotor, interoceptive, and limbic brain areas and lower volume/activity in parietal areas as opposed to NM. Notably, we reveal topographical (dis-)similarities between the identified functional and anatomical networks and characterize their link to various cognitive functions by means of meta-analytic connectivity modelling. Overall, we effectively synthesized decades of research in the field and provide a consistent and controversies-free picture of the neuroanatomy of musical expertise.


Assuntos
Música , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Neuroimagem , Probabilidade
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11476, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798814

RESUMO

Crash severity models play a crucial role in evaluating the influencing factors in the severity of traffic crashes. In this study, Extremely Randomised Tree (ERT) is used as a machine learning technique to analyse the severity of crashes. The crash data in the province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran, for a period of 5 years from 2013 to 2017, is used for crash severity model development. The dataset includes traffic-related variables, vehicle specifications, vehicle movement, land use characteristics, temporal characteristics, and environmental variables. In this paper, Feature Importance Analysis (FIA), Partial Dependence Plots (PDP), and Individual Conditional Expectation (ICE) plots are utilised to analyse and interpret the results. According to the results, the involvement of vulnerable road users such as motorcyclists and pedestrians alongside traffic-related variables are among the most significant variables in crash severity. Results show that the presence of motorcycles can increase the probability of injury crashes by around 30% and almost double the probability of fatal crashes. Analysing the interaction of PDPs shows that driving speeds above 60 km/h in residential areas raises the probability of injury crashes by about 10%. In addition, at speeds higher than 70 km/h, the presence of pedestrians approximately increases the probability of fatal crashes by 6%.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Motocicletas , Probabilidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 598, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children in the ICU, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) have also been linked to mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs. Although CRBSI poses many potential risks, including the need to avoid femoral access, there is debate regarding whether jugular access is preferable to femoral access in adults. Study reports support both perspectives. There is no consensus in meta-analyses. Children have yet to be examined in depth. Based on compliance with the central line bundle check lists, we aim to determine CRBSI risk in pediatric intensive care units for patients with non-tunneled femoral and internal jugular venous access. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with central venous catheters in the pediatric ICU of King Abdulaziz University Hospital between January 1st, 2017 and January 30th, 2018. For the post-match balance, we use a standardized mean difference of less than 0.1 after inverse probability treatment weighting for all baseline covariates, and then we draw causal conclusions. As a final step, the Rosenbaum sensitivity test was applied to see if any bias influenced the results. RESULTS: We recorded 145 central lines and 1463 central line days with 49 femoral accesses (33.79%) and 96 internal jugular accesses (66.21%). CRBSI per 1000 central line days are 4.10, along with standardized infections of 3.16. CRBSI risk differed between non-tunneled femoral vein access and internal jugular vein access by 0.074 (- 0.021, 0.167), P-value 0.06, and relative risk was 4.67 (0.87-25.05). Using our model, the actual probability was 4.14% (0.01-0.074) and the counterfactual probability was 2.79% (- 0.006, 0.062). An unobserved confounding factor was not identified in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: So long as the central line bundle is maintained, a femoral line does not increase the risk of CRBSI. Causation can be determined through propensity score weighting, as this is a trustworthy method of estimating causality. There is no better way to gain further insight in this regard than through the use of randomized, double-blinded, multicenter studies.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Probabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11663, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803977

RESUMO

We investigate the predictability and persistence of individual and team performance (hot-hand effect) by analyzing the complete recorded history of international cricket. We introduce an original temporal representation of performance streaks, which is suitable to be modelled as a self-exciting point process. We confirm the presence of predictability and hot-hands across the individual performance and the absence of the same in team performance and game outcome. Thus, Cricket is a game of skill for individuals and a game of chance for the teams. Our study contributes to recent historiographical debates concerning the presence of persistence in individual and collective productivity and success. The introduction of several metrics and methods can be useful to test and exploit clustering of performance in the study of human behavior and design of algorithms for predicting success.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Humanos , Probabilidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805614

RESUMO

(1) Background: Performance indicators in tennis such as service effectiveness, rally length or final shots are key factors in determining the winner of the match, although there is little research in the female category. The purpose of this research is to understand the game model in female tennis based on the type of surface. (2) Methods: A total of 2759 points were analyzed from three Grand Slam tournaments from 2019 on three different surfaces. We used observational methodology. (3) Results: The effectiveness of the first service was 62.4% on clay, 64.2% on grass and 67.5% on hard court. With the second service, effectiveness reduced in 5.5%, 11.2% and 14.5% from the first service, respectively. The service direction determines the efficiency and duration of the rally. The highest efficiency occurs with first serves to the T zone or wide zone (regardless of the service side) in short rallies (from 64.9% on clay to 86.3% on hard court). Serving to the centre reduces the chances of success (between 53.1% and 69.9%) and increases the rally length. Between 64.8% (clay) and 75.9% (hard court) of points played on first serve ended in a short rally, while on second serve it was 56.2% (clay) to 61.7% (grass). (4) Conclusions: The data of the effectiveness of the sequences of specific plays can help in the trainings of professional female tennis players.


Assuntos
Tênis , Argila , Feminino , Humanos , Poaceae , Probabilidade
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808256

RESUMO

This research work extends the fixed interval smoothing based on the joint integrated track splitting (FIsJITS) filter in the multi-maneuvering-targets (MMT) tracking environment. We contribute to tackling unknown dynamics of the multi-maneuvering-targets (MMT) using the standard kinematic model. This work is referred to as smoothing MMT using the JITS (MMT-sJITS). The existing FIsJITS algorithm is computationally more complex to solve for the MMT situation because it enumerates a substantial number of measurement-to-track assignments and calculates their posteriori probabilities globally. The MMT-sJITS updates a current target track by assuming the joint (common) measurements detected by neighbor tracks are modified clutters (or pretended spurious measurements). Thus, target measurement concealed by a joint measurement is optimally estimated based on measurement density of the modified clutter. This reduces computational complexity and provides improved tracking performance. The MMT-sJITS generates forward tracks and backward tracks using the measurements collected by a sensor such as a radar. The forward and backward multi-tracks state predictions are fused to obtain priori smoothing multi-track state prediction, as well as their component existence probabilities. This calculates the smoothing estimate required to compute the forward JITS state estimate, which reinforces the MMT tracking efficiently. Monte Carlo simulation is used to verify best false-track discrimination (FTD) analysis in comparison with existing multi-targets tracking algorithms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Radar , Método de Monte Carlo , Probabilidade
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808287

RESUMO

Image registration based on feature is a commonly used approach due to its robustness in complex geometric deformation and larger gray difference. However, in practical application, due to the effect of various noises, occlusions, shadows, gray differences, and even changes of image contents, the corresponding feature point set may be contaminated, which may degrade the accuracy of the transformation model estimate based on Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC). In this work, we proposed a semi-automated method to create the image registration training data, which greatly reduced the workload of labeling and made it possible to train a deep neural network. In addition, for the model estimation based on RANSAC, we determined the process according to a probabilistic perspective and presented a formulation of RANSAC with the learned guidance of hypothesis sampling. At the same time, a deep convolutional neural network of ProbNet was built to generate a sampling probability of corresponding feature points, which were then used to guide the sampling of a minimum set of RANSAC to acquire a more accurate estimation model. To illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method, qualitative and quantitative experiments are conducted. In the qualitative experiment, the effectiveness of the proposed method was illustrated by a checkerboard visualization of image pairs before and after being registered by the proposed method. In the quantitative experiment, other three representative and popular methods of vanilla RANSAC, LMeds-RANSAC, and ProSAC-RANSAC were compared, and seven different measures were introduced to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The quantitative experimental result showed that the proposed method had better performance than the other methods. Furthermore, with the integration of the model estimation of the image registration into the deep-learning framework, it was possible to jointly optimize all the processes of image registration via end-to-end learning to further improve the accuracy of image registration.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Consenso , Redes Neurais de Computação , Probabilidade
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8503511, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795312

RESUMO

Lymphoma is a serious malignant tumor that contains more than 70 different types and seriously endangers the body's lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the regulatory center of the immune system and is important in the immune response to foreign antigens and tumors. Studies showed that multiple genetic variants are associated with lymphoma but determining the pathogenic mechanisms remains a challenge. In the present study, we first applied the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of lymphoma-associated and lymphoma-nonassociated genes. Next, the Boruta and max-relevance and min-redundancy feature selection methods were performed to filter and rank features. Then, features preselected and ranked using the incremental feature selection method were applied for the decision tree model to identify the best GO terms and KEGG pathways and extract classification rules. Results indicate that our predicted features, such as B-cell activation, negative regulation of protein processing, negative regulation of mast cell cytokine production, and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, are associated with the biological process of lymphoma, consistent with those of recent publications. This study provides a new perspective for future research on the molecular mechanisms of lymphoma.


Assuntos
Linfoma , Apoptose , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Linfoma/genética , Probabilidade
19.
J Chem Phys ; 156(24): 244103, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778075

RESUMO

Antibodies are important biomolecules that are often designed to recognize target antigens. However, they are expensive to produce and their relatively large size prevents their transport across lipid membranes. An alternative to antibodies is aptamers, short (∼15-60 bp) oligonucleotides (and amino acid sequences) with specific secondary and tertiary structures that govern their affinity to specific target molecules. Aptamers are typically generated via solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis before selection and amplification through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX), a process based on competitive binding that enriches the population of certain strands while removing unwanted sequences, yielding aptamers with high specificity and affinity to a target molecule. Mathematical analyses of SELEX have been formulated in the mass action limit, which assumes large system sizes and/or high aptamer and target molecule concentrations. In this paper, we develop a fully discrete stochastic model of SELEX. While converging to a mass-action model in the large system-size limit, our stochastic model allows us to study statistical quantities when the system size is small, such as the probability of losing the best-binding aptamer during each round of selection. Specifically, we find that optimal SELEX protocols in the stochastic model differ from those predicted by a deterministic model.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Oligonucleotídeos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ligantes , Probabilidade
20.
Chaos ; 32(6): 063121, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778115

RESUMO

We investigate how the interplay of the topology of the network of load transmitting connections and the amount of disorder of the strength of the connected elements determines the temporal evolution of failure cascades driven by the redistribution of load following local failure events. We use the fiber bundle model of materials' breakdown assigning fibers to the sites of a square lattice, which is then randomly rewired using the Watts-Strogatz technique. Gradually increasing the rewiring probability, we demonstrate that the bundle undergoes a transition from the localized to the mean field universality class of breakdown phenomena. Computer simulations revealed that both the size and the duration of failure cascades are power law distributed on all network topologies with a crossover between two regimes of different exponents. The temporal evolution of cascades is described by a parabolic profile with a right handed asymmetry, which implies that cascades start slowly, then accelerate, and eventually stop suddenly. The degree of asymmetry proved to be characteristic of the network topology gradually decreasing with increasing rewiring probability. Reducing the variance of fibers' strength, the exponents of the size and the duration distribution of cascades increase in the localized regime of the failure process, while the localized to mean field transition becomes more abrupt. The consistency of the results is supported by a scaling analysis relating the characteristic exponents of the statistics and dynamics of cascades.


Assuntos
Avalanche , Simulação por Computador , Probabilidade
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