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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019489

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rotavirus is routinely diagnosed by the detection of antigens or the viral genome. However, these tests have limitations, in that they do not detect all rotavirus strains. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 27-month-old girl who was hospitalized for 4 days with severe gastroenteritis, including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mild dehydration, and periumbilical pain. Notably, the patient previously received the Rotarix vaccine. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory tests were negative for rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and norovirus as well as common diarrhea-causing bacteria. Human-bovine recombinant rotavirus was detected by MinION sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: To investigate the cause agents from the unexplained severe gastroenteritis infant, the stool sample was prepared by random amplification for Nanopore MinION sequencing. OUTCOMES: Treatment through the administration of ORS solution and galtase powder with probiotics was successful after the diagnosis of unusual rotavirus infection. LESSONS: This case report is the first detection of an unusual human-bovine recombinant rotavirus in an idiopathic gastroenteritis using Nanopore MinION sequencing.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Rotavirus/genética , Dor Abdominal , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867260

RESUMO

The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health has become more evident than ever before. Often delivered through food, dietary products, supplements, and drugs, different legislations for safety and efficacy issues have been prepared. Furthermore, regulatory agencies have addressed various approaches toward these products, whether they authorize claims mentioning a disease's diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. Due to the diversity of bacteria and yeast strains, strict approaches have been designed to assess for side effects and post-market surveillance. One of the most essential delivery systems of probiotics is within food, due to the great beneficial health effects of this system compared to pharmaceutical products and also due to the increasing importance of food and nutrition. Modern lifestyle or various diseases lead to an imbalance of the intestinal flora. Nonetheless, as the amount of probiotic use needs accurate calculations, different factors should also be taken into consideration. One of the novelties of this review is the presentation of the beneficial effects of the administration of probiotics as a potential adjuvant therapy in COVID-19. Thus, this paper provides an integrative overview of different aspects of probiotics, from human health care applications to safety, quality, and control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Doenças Diverticulares/terapia , Disenteria/terapia , Enterocolite Necrosante/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/normas , Controle de Qualidade
3.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(8): e202000804, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of probiotics on spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle isolated from jejunum and ileum of rat model. METHODS: Four rat groups were created (n=8, in each) including control (Group 1), control+probiotic (Group 2), short bowel (Group 3), and short bowel+probiotic (Group 4). Groups 1 and 2 underwent sham operation, Groups 3 and 4 underwent massive bowel resection. Bifidobacterium Lactis was administered in Groups 2 and 4 daily (P.O.) for three weeks. On postoperative week 3, rats were sacrificed, and jejunum and ileum smooth muscle were isolated for organ bath. Muscle contraction changes were analyzed before and after addition of antagonists. RESULTS: Short bowel group exhibited increased amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The addition of probiotics significantly decreased enhanced amplitude and frequency of bowel contraction in short bowel group and returned to control values. L-NNA increased amplitude and frequency of contractions in all groups. While indomethacin and nimesulide increased the amplitude in all groups, the frequency was only increased in jejunum. Hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin did not change the contraction characteristics in all groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that early use of probiotics may significantly regulate bowel motility, and accordingly improve absorption of nutrients in short bowel syndrome.


Assuntos
Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Síndrome do Intestino Curto , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno , Músculo Liso , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ratos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21617, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotic therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea. METHODS: The following electronic bibliographic databases will be searched to identify relevant studies from December 2019 to December 2020: MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wan-fang data, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, and other databases. The search results will not be restricted by language, all included articles were randomized controlled trial. Two independent researchers will conduct article retrieval, de-duplication, filtering, quality assessment, and data analysis through the Review Manager (V.5.3). Meta-analysis, subgroup analysis and/or descriptive analysis were performed on the included data. RESULTS: High-quality synthesis and/or descriptive analysis of current evidence will be provided from outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study will provide the evidence of whether probiotics is an effective and safe intervention for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020192657.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22192, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of infantile enteritis. In common enterocolitis, probiotic organisms, including Lactobacilli, are effective in treating diarrhea. A new species, Lactobacillus plantarum (LRCC5310), which was shown to inhibit the adherence and proliferation of rotavirus in the small intestine through animal experiments, was investigated for the efficacy and safety of patients with rotaviral enteritis. METHODS: LRCC5310 (Group I) and control (Group II) groups consisting of children who were hospitalized for rotaviral enteritis were compared, and the medical records of patients (Group III) who were hospitalized for rotaviral enteritis during the same study period were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical symptoms were compared and stool samples were collected to compare changes in virus multiplication between Groups I and II. RESULTS: Groups I, II, and III comprised 15, 8, and 27 children, respectively. There were no differences in clinical information among the groups at admission. In Group I, a statistically significant improvement was noted in the number of patients with diarrhea, number of defecation events on Day 3, and total diarrhea period as opposed to Group II (P = .033, P = .003, and P = .012, respectively). The improvement of Vesikari score in Group I was greater than that in the other groups (P = .076, P = .061, and P = .036, respectively). Among rotavirus genotypes, 9 (22.5%) strains and 8 (20.0%) strains belonged to the G9P8 and G1P8 genotypes, respectively. The virus reduction effect, as confirmed via stool specimens, was also greater in Group I. No significant side effects were noted in infants. CONCLUSION: LRCC5310 improved clinical symptoms, including diarrhea and Vesikari score, and inhibited viral proliferation in rotaviral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Enterite/terapia , Lactobacillus plantarum , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
6.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 574-579, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of Lactobacillus paragasseri Y20 on rats with high cholesterol diet and its effect on the gut microbiota of rats, and to explore the potential mechanism of Lactobacillus paragasseri regulating hypercholesterolemia in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated with normal diet, high cholesterol diet+PBS, and high cholesterol diet+Lactobacillus paragasseri Y20, respectively. After five consecutive weeks of treatment, serum lipids were measured by ELISA. Rat feces were collected and DNA was extracted for 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis. Rat livers were collected and analyzed for non-targeted metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Compared with the high-cholesterol model group, Lactobacillus paragasseri Y20 treatment could reduce the serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein concentrations and increase the high-density lipoprotein concentration in rats. High-cholesterol diet decreased the intestinal flora diversity and richness of rats, while Y20 intervention can effectively restore the change of intestinal flora of high-cholesterol rats. High cholesterol dietsmainly caused the changes in the relative abundance in phylum of Firmicutes, Deferribacteres, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria, increasing Akkermansia, Clostridium_III, and Clostridium_XIVbgenera, and decreasing the intestinimonasgenus. However, Y20 intervention restored the diversity of gut microbiota and alteration in relative abundance of these bacteria caused by high-cholesterol diet. Y20 could effectively decrease the higher relative abundance of Akkermansiahigh-cholesterol diet. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus paragasseri Y20 can alleviate hypercholesterolemia in rats, regulate the gut microbiotadiversity and composition and affect liver metabolism in hypercholesterol rats.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipercolesterolemia , Probióticos , Animais , Colesterol , Lactobacillus , Fígado , Ratos
8.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877228

RESUMO

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
9.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(4): 595-600, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895142

RESUMO

Gut microbiota constitute a complicated but manifold ecosystem, in which specific symbiotic relationships are formed among various bacteria. To maintain a steady state, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver form a close anatomical and functional two-way, interconnected network through the portal circulation. "Gut-liver axis" plays a key role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota can influence the liver pathophysiology directly or indirectly via a variety of signal pathways. In a pathological state where an ecological imbalance occurs at the compositional and functional levels, gut microbes would interact with the host immune system and other type of cells to cause liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, which in turn give rise to the development of such liver diseases as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and acute liver failure, to name a few. Studies have shown that microorganisms, such as prebiotics and probiotics, can improve the prognosis of certain diseases, which open a new era of treating liver diseases with bacteria. There are many unknowns and hidden values in the gut microbiome. To explore the pathophysiological mechanism of various complex diseases and develop scientific and effective clinical treatment strategies, efforts should be made to obtain insights into how certain intestinal microbiota participates in the occurrence and progression of liver diseases. As the connection between gut microbiota and liver diseases at both the acute and chronic phases was not elaborated in previously published review articles, herein we discuss the association between gut microbiota and both acute and chronic liver injury. The anatomical structure of the liver enables it to form a close network with the gut microbiota, which is an important mediator in the regulation of the hepatic physiological and pathological functions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias , Ecossistema , Humanos , Intestinos , Fígado , Probióticos
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007239, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation and duration rates continue to fall short of international guidelines. Many factors influence a woman's decision to wean; the main reason cited for weaning is associated with lactation complications, such as mastitis. Mastitis is an inflammation of the breast, with or without infection. It can be viewed as a continuum of disease, from non-infective inflammation of the breast to infection that may lead to abscess formation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of preventive strategies (for example, breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies) on the occurrence or recurrence of non-infective or infective mastitis in breastfeeding women post-childbirth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (3 October 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing mastitis in postpartum breastfeeding women. Quasi-randomised controlled trials and trials reported only in abstract form were eligible. We attempted to contact the authors to obtain any unpublished results, wherever possible.  Interventions for preventing mastitis may include: probiotics, specialist breastfeeding advice and holistic approaches.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 trials (3034 women). Nine trials (2395 women) contributed data. Generally, the trials were at low risk of bias in most domains but some were high risk for blinding, attrition bias, and selective reporting. Selection bias (allocation concealment) was generally unclear. The certainty of evidence was downgraded due to risk of bias and to imprecision (low numbers of women participating in the trials). Conflicts of interest on the part of trial authors, and the involvement of industry funders may also have had an impact on the certainty of the evidence. Most trials reported our primary outcome of incidence of mastitis but there were almost no data relating to adverse effects, breast pain, duration of breastfeeding, nipple damage, breast abscess or recurrence of mastitis. Probiotics versus placebo Probiotics may reduce the risk of mastitis more than placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 0.75; 2 trials; 399 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if probiotics reduce the risk of breast pain or nipple damage because the certainty of evidence is very low. Results for the biggest of these trials (639 women) are currently unavailable due to a contractual agreement between the probiotics supplier and the trialists. Adverse effects were reported in one trial, where no woman in either group experienced any adverse effects. Antibiotics versus placebo or usual care The risk of mastitis may be similar between antibiotics and usual care or placebo (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.34; 3 trials; 429 women; low-certainty evidence). The risk of mastitis may be similar between antibiotics and fusidic acid ointment (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.81; 1 trial; 36 women; low-certainty evidence) or mupirocin ointment (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.89; 1 trial; 44 women; low-certainty evidence) but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. None of the trials reported adverse effects. Topical treatments versus breastfeeding advice The risk of mastitis may be similar between fusidic acid ointment and breastfeeding advice (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.22; 1 trial; 40 women; low-certainty evidence) and mupirocin ointment and breastfeeding advice (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.35; 1 trial; 48 women; low-certainty evidence) but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. One trial (42 women) compared topical treatments to each other. The risk of mastitis may be similar between fusidic acid and mupirocin (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.13 to 2.00; low-certainty evidence) but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. Adverse events were not reported. Specialist breastfeeding education versus usual care The risk of mastitis (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.17 to 4.95; 1 trial; 203 women; low-certainty evidence) and breast pain (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.37; 1 trial; 203 women; low-certainty evidence) may be similar but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. Adverse events were not reported. Anti-secretory factor-inducing cereal versus standard cereal The risk of mastitis (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.72; 1 trial; 29 women; low-certainty evidence) and recurrence of mastitis (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.03 to 4.57; 1 trial; 7 women; low-certainty evidence) may be similar but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. Adverse events were not reported. Acupoint massage versus routine care Acupoint massage probably reduces the risk of mastitis compared to routine care (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.78;1 trial; 400 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and breast pain (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.23; 1 trial; 400 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events were not reported. Breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment versus routine care Breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment may reduce risk of mastitis (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.21; 1 trial; 300 women; low-certainty evidence). Adverse events were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that acupoint massage is probably better than routine care, probiotics may be better than placebo, and breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment may be better than routine care for preventing mastitis. However, it is important to note that we are aware of at least one large trial investigating probiotics whose results have not been made public, therefore, the evidence presented here is incomplete. The available evidence regarding other interventions, including breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies, suggests these may be little better than routine care for preventing mastitis but our conclusions are uncertain due to the low certainty of the evidence. Future trials should recruit sufficiently large numbers of women in order to detect clinically important differences between interventions and results of future trials should be made publicly available.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Mastite/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Viés , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Ácido Fusídico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Massagem/métodos , Mupirocina/administração & dosagem , Neuropeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago. 2020. 33-45 p. tab.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista de Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 3).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120106

RESUMO

La pandemia COVID-19 iniciada en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, China, ha captado la atención de la comunidad científica internacional debido a su alta propagación en el mundo, causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 que se transmite por vías respiratorias y gastrointestinal, y ante la situación de no tenerse identificada una terapia farmacológica efectiva de carácter preventivo o curativo.En vista de ello, cada país se ha visto en la necesidad de implementar terapias alternativas que muestren algún grado de efectividad contra la enfermedad COVID-19. Entre las alternativas que se han reportado, múltiples estudios demuestran el potencial de los probióticos para prevenir la infección con este virus y combatir la enfermedad, al reflejar que existen relaciones entre los microbiomas de las vías respiratorias y gastrointestinales, y con el consumo de probióticos se modula el sistema inmunológico al reestablecer el balance gastrointestinal, lo cual implica la respuesta del sistema inmune para combatir la enfermedad y próximas pandemias, ya que el tracto digestivo es un punto focal de las defensas del cuerpo,y por ende, en la prevención de la infección viral. Ante estos potenciales, más gobiernos deberían financiar los ensayos con probióticos como parte de la estrategia general para aplanar la curva de propagación de la pandemia de la COVID-19(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus , Terapias Complementares , Infecções por Coronavirus , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico , Pandemias , Sistema Imunitário
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): 278-285, agosto 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118510

RESUMO

En los últimos años, las evidencias han demostrado la importancia de la microbiota intestinal en la salud del individuo. La dinámica de la colonización temprana y el establecimiento de una comunidad abundante y diversa de microorganismos saludables, a partir de un parto vaginal y lactancia materna, resultan fundamentales en la conformación de una matriz inmunológica saludable. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir las evidencias disponibles sobre el desarrollo de la microbiota en el primer año de vida y el actual potencial que ofrece el uso de prebióticos, probióticos, simbióticos y posbióticos durante esta etapa esencial de la vida


In recent years, the evidence has demonstrated the relevance of the gut microbiota in an individual's health. The dynamics of an early colonization and the establishment of a community of plenty, diverse, and healthy microorganisms from a vaginal delivery and breastfeeding are critical for the development of a healthy immune matrix. The objective of this review is to describe the available evidence on microbiota development in the first year of life and the current possibilities offered by prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, and postbiotics during such critical stage of life.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aleitamento Materno , Probióticos , Prebióticos , Simbióticos , Microbiota
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21464, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769877

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of probiotics on liver function, glucose and lipids metabolism, and hepatic fatty deposition in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Totally 140 NAFLD cases diagnosed in our hospital from March 2017 to March 2019 were randomly divided into the observation group and control group, 70 cases in each. The control group received the diet and exercise therapy, while the observation group received oral probiotics based on the control group, and the intervention in 2 groups lasted for 3 months. The indexes of liver function, glucose and lipids metabolism, NAFLD activity score (NAS), and conditions of fecal flora in 2 groups were compared before and after the treatment.Before the treatment, there were no significant differences on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamine transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), NAFLD activity score (NAS), and conditions of fecal flora in 2 groups (P > .05). After the treatment, ALT, AST, GGT, TC, TG, HOMA-IR, NAS, and conditions of fecal flora in the observation group were better than those in the control group, and the observation group was better after treatment than before. All these above differences were statistically significant (P < .05).Probiotics can improve some liver functions, glucose and lipids metabolism, hepatic fatty deposition in patients with NAFLD, which will enhance the therapeutic effects of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Orv Hetil ; 161(35): 1466-1474, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822325

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. Organic food contains fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products. Recent studies suggest that the gut-liver axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, so probiotics could be a therapeutic tool. Comparing the health effects of yoghurt from organic origin with so-called conventional yoghurt is difficult, because there is no biomarker that would signal the difference with good specificity and sensitivity. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate numerous biomarkers to evaluate the difference between yoghurt from conventional and organic origin and their health effects in NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a prospective, cohort study consisting of 37 (age = 51.73 ± 11.82, male = 21, female = 16) patients with NAFLD at the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine of the Semmelweis University, Budapest. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography and the exclusion of other etiololgy. The patients were examined also with shear wave elastography to evaluate the hepatic fibrosis stage. We divided the patients randomly into two groups. The patients consumed individually daily 300 grams of yoghurt from organic (n = 21) or conventional (n = 16) origin for 8 weeks. We collected 37 routine laboratory data, measured 4 cytokines, 3 markers of the redox-homeostasis and 14 body composition values before, after, and 12 weeks after the yoghurt consumption. RESULTS: We found a mild elevation of vitamin D and a minimal reduction of LDL after the yoghurt consumption, but in the other 35 routine laboratory data there was no statistical difference. Adiponectin and leptin levels were elevated after the yoghurt consumption in the "conventional group". In contrast, we found significant decrease of adiponectin levels in the "organic group" after the treatment. Only the adiponectin tendency was different in the two groups. The induced free radical content was also statistically lower after the yoghurt consumption. In the body composition measurements, there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that adiponectin could be a possible biomarker to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic treatment in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our work can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between organic yoghurt consumption and health outcomes. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1466-1474.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Iogurte/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Alimentos Orgânicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1484-1488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: of the work was to study the antiviral activity of the metabolites of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG or ATCC 53103) regarding clinical strains of enteroviruses (Coxsackie B-5, ECNO21) isolated from the feces of intestinal infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The object of the study was substrate-dependent cell cultures of HeLa, Vero, Hep-2 lines. The titer of the virus was determined by the presence of a clear cytopathic action (CPA) in the monolayer infected cells of the virus. RESULTS: Results: Determination of the enteric virus infections activity in the culture fluid showed that in samples with the LGG metabolites, the infections activity of the clinical strains of enteroviruses decreased after 24 hours, at 1.5-1.7 (p <0.05) times, and after 96 hours in 3, 6 - 5,7 times (p <0,01). the processing of cell cultures by metabolites in the amount of 0.3 mg / ml contributed to a decrease in the titer of viruses by 2.77 ± 0.11 lg TCDD50 / cm3, 2.83 ± 0.11 lg TCD50 / cm3 and 2.94 ± 0.13 lg TCD50 / cm3 for Vero, HeLa and Hep-2 line cells in 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: It has been experimentally determined that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of L. rhamnosus GG metabolites was 0.3 µg / ml for all cultures of cell lines. Determination of the antiviral activity of L. rhamnosus GG metabolites in clinical viruses of enteroviruses (Coxsackie B-5 and ECNO-21) showed a decrease in infection activity in 1.5-1.7 times, (p <0.05) of clinical trials in clinical trials enteroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Antivirais , Fezes , Humanos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21612, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates the role of gut microbiota in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target of cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of gut microbiome-targeted therapies on cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents remain unclear. METHODS: We plan to perform a systematic search from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Two authors will independently select the relevant studies and extract data according to a previously defined data extraction sheet. We will use the Stata 14.0 statistical software and RevMan V.5.3 software to conduct data analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and provide more evidence for the application of gut microbiome-targeted therapies in children and adolescents for the intervention of cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202060050.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lactente , Insulina/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21502, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease, with a high global incidence, which seriously influences the quality of life and work efficiency of patients. Extensive research showed that IBS is related to changes in the intestinal microenvironment. The novel treatment strategy targeting the gut microbiota is being actively implemented. Probiotics, antibiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and Chinese Herbal Medicine have been proven to be effective in the treatment of IBS, and all have an impact on the intestinal flora of patients. However, these 5 treatments have their own pros and cons and have not been systematically evaluated and compared. Therefore, this study will indirectly compare the safety and effectiveness of these 5 methods in the treatment of IBS through network meta-analysis. METHODS: The following databases including Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov will be retrieved from inception to June 2020 without language restrictions. Literature selection, data extraction, and bias analysis will be done by 2 researchers. The primary outcome is global symptoms improvement. The secondary outcomes will include individual IBS symptom scores, emotional response, and adverse events. The conventional pair-wise meta-analysis will be performed using Stata V.14.0 and be pooled using a random-effects model. We will use WinBUGS V.1.4.3 (Cambridge, United Kingdom) with a Bayesian hierarchical random-effects model to conduct the network meta-analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide systematic reviews and indirect network comparison results about treatments of IBS. CONCLUSIONS: This study will systematically evaluate and compare 5 intestinal flora-related therapies for IBS and to provide an evidence-based medical decision-making basis for clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202050047.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232806, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785265

RESUMO

There is an increasing consumer demand for minimally processed, preservative free and microbiologically safe food. These factors, combined with risks of antibiotic resistance, have led to interest in bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as natural food preservatives and as potential protein therapeutics. We previously reported the discovery of plantacyclin B21AG, a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum B21. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression of the bacteriocin gene cluster in the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Genome sequencing demonstrated that the bacteriocin is encoded on a 20 kb native plasmid, designated as pB21AG01. Seven open reading frames (ORFs) putatively involved in bacteriocin production, secretion and immunity were cloned into an E. coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vector, pTRKH2. The resulting plasmid, pCycB21, was transformed into L. plantarum WCFS1. The cell free supernatants (CFS) of both B21 and WCFS1 (pCycB21) showed an antimicrobial activity of 800 AU/mL when tested against WCFS1 (pTRKH2) as the indicator strain, showing that functional expression of plantacyclin B21AG had been achieved. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative copy number of pB21AG01 was 7.60 ± 0.79 in L. plantarum B21 whilst pCycB21 and pTRKH2 was 0.51 ± 0.05 and 25.19 ± 2.68 copies respectively in WCFS1. This indicates that the bacteriocin gene cluster is located on a highly stable low copy number plasmid pB21AG01 in L. plantarum B21. Inclusion of the native promoter for the bacteriocin operon from pB21AG01 results in similar killing activity being observed in both the wild type and recombinant hosts despite the lower copy number of pCycB21.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Probióticos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , Conservantes de Alimentos , Dosagem de Genes , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Plasmídeos/genética
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(19): 8089-8104, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813065

RESUMO

Interspecies transmissions of viruses between animals and humans may result in unpredictable pathogenic potential and new transmissible diseases. This mechanism has recently been exemplified by the discovery of new pathogenic viruses, such as the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, Middle-East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus epidemic in Saudi Arabia, and the deadly outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. The. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is having a massive global impact in terms of economic disruption, and, above all, human health. The disease is characterized by dry cough, fever, fatigue, myalgia, and dyspnea. Other symptoms include headache, sore throat, rhinorrhea, and gastrointestinal disorders. Pneumonia appears to be the most common and severe manifestation of the infection. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific drug for COVID-19. Further, the development of new antiviral requires a considerable length of time and effort for drug design and validation. Therefore, repurposing the use of natural compounds can provide alternatives and can support therapy against COVID-19. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the prophylactic and supportive therapeutic role of probiotics for the management of COVID-19. In addition, the unique role of probiotics to modulate the gut microbe and assert gut homeostasis and production of interferon as an antiviral mechanism is described. Further, the regulatory role of probiotics on gut-lung axis and mucosal immune system for the potential antiviral mechanisms is reviewed and discussed.Key points• Gut microbiota role in antiviral diseases• Factors influencing the antiviral mechanism• Probiotics and Covid-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Probióticos/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/transmissão , Vitamina D/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Periodontol 2000 ; 84(1): 161-175, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844414

RESUMO

Probiotics have been considered as an adjunct to prevent and treat a variety of diseases. The ease of administration of probiotics and the fact that no adverse outcomes have been reported in the literature has promoted increasing interest from the research community for this preventive approach in a number of diseases, including periodontal diseases. Several preliminary human clinical trials have been conducted and have yielded promising results. Vaccination is another biological strategy considered for use in the prevention of periodontal diseases. To date, no vaccine trials have been conducted in humans to determine if this strategy would prevent alveolar bone loss or bacterial colonization by target pathogens. Although the available research appears promising, the current body of evidence is incomplete for both strategies. This review attempts to summarize the present status of these 2 biological strategies for the prevention of periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas , Humanos
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