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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have neglected to report the specific action of different probiotic genera in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of specific probiotic genera, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to identify the best prevention strategy for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials had been searched for randomized control trials reporting the probiotics strategy for premature infants. RESULTS: We identified 34 eligible studies of 9161 participants. The intervention in the observation group was to add probiotics for feeding: Lactobacilli in 6 studies; Bifidobacterium in 8 studies; Bacillus in 1 study; Saccharomyces in 4 studies and probiotic mixture in 15 studies. This NMA showed a significant advantage of probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium to prevent the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A probiotic mixture showed effectiveness in reducing mortality in preterm infants. CONCLUSION: The recent literature has reported a total of 5 probiotic strategies, including Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, and probiotic mixture. Our thorough review and NMA provided a piece of available evidence to choose optimal probiotics prophylactic strategy for premature infants. The results indicated that probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium showed a stronger advantage to use in preterm infants; the other probiotic genera failed to show an obvious effect to reduce the incidence of NEC, sepsis and all-cause death. More trials need to be performed to determine the optimal probiotic treatment strategy to prevent preterm related complications.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 507-534, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590900

RESUMO

Livestock industries strive to improve the health of their animals and, in the future, they are going to be required to do this with a continued reduction in antimicrobial use. Nutraceuticals represent a group of compounds that may help fill that void because they exert some health benefits when supplemented to livestock. This review is focused on the mechanisms of action, specifically related to the immune responses and health of ruminants. The nutraceutical classes discussed include probiotics, prebiotics, phytonutrients (essential oils and spices), and polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
3.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 584-591, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365980

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on inflammation and microbiota of acute colitis in mice. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups randomly. Each group had 10 mice and was given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) drinking water for 5 days other than the blank control group. Except for model control group, other two groups were administrated with probiotics and synbiotics, respectively. Probiotics was composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis, while synbiotics was composed of the aforementioned probiotics, inulin and galactooligosaccharide. Feces of different periods and mucosa samples were collected to analyze the differences of enteric flora by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: (1) Pathological scores in probiotics group and synbiotics group were 5.40±2.79 and 7.25±2.87, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the model control group with scores 27.00±7.94. Model control group, probiotics group and synbiotics group showed lower flora diversity, increased Bacteroides and decreased Faecalibacterium than blank control group. The mucosal microbiota was different from fecal flora in abundance and species for each group, and Mucispirillum was more common in mucosa. Conclusions: Probiotics and synbiotics alleviate the inflammation of acute colitis in mice. Imbalance of beneficial genera to harmful genera is the characteristic of acute colitis. Supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics contributes to regulating the balance of intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/microbiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16957, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD), also called eczema, is one of the most familiar chronic diseases in childhood. A possible pathological mechanism is immune dysfunction resulting in IgE sensitization to allergens. The recent studies demonstrated that the immune system can be affected by probiotics or prebiotics. However, the effectiveness and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on prevention of eczema are still unclear. To investigate this question, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. Four main databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the web of science) will be searched dating until 15 July 2019 for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on prevention of eczema in children with no language restrictions. In addition, a manual search of the references of relevant published studies will also be considered.Studies selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment will be conducted by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome is the incidence of eczema. The second outcome is adverse events. The duration of intervention, the timing of intervention and intervention organism will be taken into consideration. RESULTS: The results will provide useful information about the effect and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on reducing the incidence of eczema in children. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019136528.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16601, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus paracasei and Glycyrrhiza glabra have been reported as having beneficial effects on Helicobacter pylori infection. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of fermented milk containing L paracasei HP7 and G glabra in patients with H pylori infection. METHODS: This multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 hospitals from April to December 2017. Patients with H pylori infection were randomized into either the treatment group (fermented milk with L paracasei HP7 and G glabra) or placebo group (fermented milk only) once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the gastric load of H pylori measured by C-urea breath test (UBT). Secondary endpoints were histologic and clinical improvement. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients were randomly allocated to the treatment (n = 71) or placebo groups (n = 71). Compared to baseline data, the quantitative value of C-UBT at 8 weeks was significantly reduced in the treatment group (from 20.8 ±â€Š13.2% to 16.9 ±â€Š10.8%, P = .035), but not in the placebo group (P = .130). Chronic inflammation improved significantly only in the treatment group (P = .013), whereas the neutrophil activity deteriorated significantly only in the placebo group (P = .003). Moreover, the treatment group had significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms (P = .049) and quality of life (P = .029). No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: The combination of fermented milk containing L paracasei and G glabra reduced H pylori density and improved histologic inflammation. However, their mechanisms of action should be elucidated in further studies.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/fisiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillus paracasei/fisiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Testes Respiratórios , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fermentação , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 112, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yaks living in the high-altitude hypoxic environment of Tibetan plateau (3600 m) have special gut microbes. However, it is still little research on yak probiotics until now. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the growth promoting effect, antioxidant capability, immune effect, and anti-inflammatory ability of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis isolated from Tibetan yaks in mice model. RESULTS: The results showed that the isolated strains supplementation not only improve the growth performance but also increased the length of villus in the small intestine and intestinal digestive enzyme activity. Importantly, we observed that the T-AOC, SOD, and GSH-PX levels were increased and the MDA content was reduced in probiotic-treated mice, which implied that probiotics supplementation can ameliorate the antioxidative activity of mice. The levels of AST and ALT correlated with the hepatic injury were reduced and the levels of AKP, TP, GLB, ALB, Ca, and P were markedly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mice treated with probiotics exhibited higher serum IgG, IgM and IgA, which can reflect the immune status to some extent. At the same time, the major pro-inflammatory factor TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were down-regulated and the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was up-regulated compared with the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis supplementation can increase overall growth performance and ameliorate the blood parameters related to inflammation and immunity of mice.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007417, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150386

RESUMO

Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are being increasingly employed, but current killed formulations generally require multiple doses and lack efficacy in young children. We recently developed a new live-attenuated OCV candidate (HaitiV) derived from a Vibrio cholerae strain isolated during the 2010 Haiti cholera epidemic. HaitiV exhibited an unexpected probiotic-like activity in infant rabbits, preventing intestinal colonization and disease by wild-type V. cholerae before the onset of adaptive immunity. However, it remained unknown whether HaitiV would behave similarly to other OCVs to stimulate adaptive immunity against V. cholerae. Here, we orally immunized adult germ-free female mice to test HaitiV's immunogenicity. HaitiV safely and stably colonized vaccinated mice and induced known adaptive immune correlates of cholera protection within 14 days of administration. Pups born to immunized mice were protected against lethal challenges of both homologous and heterologous V. cholerae strains. Cross-fostering experiments revealed that protection was not dependent on vaccine colonization in or transmission to the pups. These findings demonstrate the protective immunogenicity of HaitiV and support its development as a new tool for limiting cholera.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cólera/imunologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vibrio cholerae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio cholerae/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Cólera/microbiologia , Vacinas contra Cólera/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Coelhos , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6718-6725, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155246

RESUMO

This study aimed to screen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for their anti-inflammatory activity by using RAW264.7 cells and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In all, 192 LAB strains were isolated from healthy human feces, of which 8 strains showed excellent nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. Peptidoglycan extracts of these 8 LAB strains were subjected to NO assay, Western blot, and ELISA. Among the 8 tested strains, extracts of 4 strains significantly inhibited the production of NO, related enzyme activities such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and key cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The 4 strains belonged to Lactobacillus (CAU1054, CAU1055, CAU1064, and CAU1301). Oral administration of the 4 strains inhibited DSS-induced body weight loss, colon shortening, and colon damage in ICR mice. The colon tissue of the mice treated with Lactobacillus plantarum strain CAU1055 had significantly reduced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6. We found that strain CAU1055 could be used as a candidate probiotic strain for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Further studies are warranted to confirm the mechanisms of interaction between peptidoglycan of L. plantarum strain CAU1055 and upstream cellular signaling mediators.


Assuntos
Colite/prevenção & controle , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/terapia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(9): 1020-1027, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187207

RESUMO

Emerging evidence exists that an altered gut microbiota is a key factor in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. Consequently, microbiota-targeted interventions, including administration of probiotics, have increasingly been evaluated. Mechanisms on how probiotics contribute to homeostasis or reverse (effects of) dysbiosis remain yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we assessed the effects of daily Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) ingestion in healthy children aged from 12-18 years on gut microbiota compositional diversity and stability. Results were compared to healthy children without LcS exposure. For a period of 6 weeks, fecal samples were collected weekly by both groups. In total, 18 children were included (6 probiotics; 12 non-probiotics). At 1-week intervals, no differences in diversity and stability were observed in children exposed to LcS versus controls. LcS ingestion by healthy children does not result in a more diverse and stable gut microbiota composition. Large double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials in children should be performed to gain more insight on potential beneficial health consequences.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus casei/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 637-646.e4, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Enteropathy and small-intestinal ulcers are common adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Safe, cytoprotective strategies are needed to reduce this risk. Specific bifidobacteria might have cytoprotective activities, but little is known about these effects in humans. We used serial video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to assess the efficacy of a specific Bifidobacterium strain in healthy volunteers exposed to ASA. METHODS: We performed a single-site, double-blind, parallel-group, proof-of-concept analysis of 75 heathy volunteers given ASA (300 mg) daily for 6 weeks, from July 31 through October 24, 2017. The participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given oral capsules of Bifidobacterium breve (Bif195) (≥5 × 1010 colony-forming units) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Small-intestinal damage was analyzed by serial VCE at 6 visits. The area under the curve (AUC) for intestinal damage (Lewis score) and the AUC value for ulcers were the primary and first-ranked secondary end points of the trial, respectively. RESULTS: Efficacy data were obtained from 35 participants given Bif195 and 31 given placebo. The AUC for Lewis score was significantly lower in the Bif195 group (3040 ± 1340 arbitrary units) than the placebo group (4351 ± 3195) (P = .0376). The AUC for ulcer number was significantly lower in the Bif195 group (50.4 ± 53.1 arbitrary units) than in the placebo group (75.2 ± 85.3 arbitrary units) (P = .0258). Twelve adverse events were reported from the Bif195 group and 20 from the placebo group. None of the events was determined to be related to Bif195 intake. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized, double-blind trial of healthy volunteers, we found oral Bif195 to safely reduce the risk of small-intestinal enteropathy caused by ASA. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT03228589.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Bifidobacterium breve/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Úlcera/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Irlanda , Masculino , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Úlcera/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera/microbiologia , Úlcera/patologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 863-876, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091863

RESUMO

Farm animals such as piglets are often affected by environmental stress, which can disturb the gut ecosystem. Antibiotics were commonly used to prevent diarrhea in weaned piglets, but this was banned by the European Union due to the development of antibiotic resistance. However, the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics may reduce the risk posed by pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on the mechanical barrier and immune function of early-weaned piglets infected using Escherichia coli K88 based on histomorphology and immunology. Fourteen-day-old weaned piglets were divided into a control group and experimental groups that were fed L. casei Zhang and infected with E. coli K88 with or without prefeeding and/or postfeeding of L. casei Zhang. The L. casei Zhang dose used was 107 CFU/g diet. Jejunum segments were obtained before histological, immunohistochemical, and western blot analyses were performed. In addition, the relative mRNA expression of toll receptors and cytokines was measured. Piglets fed L. casei Zhang showed significantly increased jejunum villus height, villus height-crypt depth ratio, muscle thickness, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. The use of L. casei Zhang effectively reduced intestinal inflammation after infection. We found that L. casei Zhang feeding prevented the jejunum damage induced by E. coli K88, suggesting that it may be a potential alternative to antibiotics for preventing diarrhea in early-weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus casei/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Jejuno/patologia , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Desmame , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 456-465, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075403

RESUMO

This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of dietary mixed probiotics on growth, non-specific immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota of juvenile pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Juvenile shrimp (initial body weight 1.21 ±â€¯0.01 g) were fed diets containing graded probiotics (F1: 0 mg/kg probiotics; F2: 1000 mg/kg probiotics; F3: 2000 mg/kg probiotics; F4: 4000 mg/kg compound probiotics; F5: 6000 mg/kg probiotics; F6: 8000 mg/kg probiotics) for 8 weeks. The result of this trial showed that the growth performance (SGR, WG, FBW) of shrimp fed diets containing probiotics (F2∼F6) were significantly higher than that of shrimp fed diet without supplemental probiotics (F1) (P < 0.05), and the highest values of the growth performance (SGR, WG, FBW) and lowest FCR were found in shrimp fed the diet containing 2000 mg/kg probiotics. Total antioxidant capacity of shrimp fed diet F2 and F3 were significantly higher than that of shrimp fed the basal diets (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase in F4 treatment was significantly higher than that of basal treatment (P < 0.05). Catalase of shrimp in all probiotics supplemented (F2∼F6) treatments were significantly higher than that of the control one (F1) (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde in F5 groups was significantly lower than that of F1 groups (P < 0.05). Alkline phosphatase and acid phosphatase in F3 treatments were significantly higher than those of the basal one (P < 0.05). Lysozyme of shrimp fed F2∼F6 were significantly higher than that of shrimp fed F1 diet (P < 0.05). The lipase and amylase activities in 2000 mg/kg probiotics groups showed the highest activities and were significantly higher than that of control one (P < 0.05). Intestinal villi height in F3∼F6 treatments were significantly higher than that of control one (P < 0.05). Alpha diversity indices including observed species, chao1, ACE and shannon indices showed that F2 and F3 groups had higher microbial diversity in their intestines, both richness and evenness. PCA plot showed that there was a clear shift of F2 and F3 groups from the control groups in microbial community structure. The dominant phyla in pacific white shrimp are proteobacteria, bacteroidetes and actinobacteria, the dominant genus were algoriphagus and vibrio. As the probiotics increased, the gemmatimonadetes, acidobacteria, deltaproteobacteria and xanthomonadales firstly increased and then decreased, with the highest content in F2 group, which was no significant difference to F3 group (P > 0.05) while significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the supplement of mixed species probiotics can promote growth performance, enhance the non-specific immunity, influence the microbiota of the pacific white shrimps and the recommended optimum dosage in diet of Litopenaeus vannamei was 2000 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Penaeidae/anatomia & histologia , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5646-5653, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the effects of isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) and Bacillus spp. in perinatal diets on lactational performance, blood metabolites, and milk composition of sows. Multiparous gestating sows (N = 130) with similar body conditions were fed diets without containing IMO (control, CON group), IMO (IMO group), IMO and Bacillus subtilis (IMO + S group), IMO and Bacillus licheniformis (IMO + L group), and IMO and both B. subtilis and B. licheniformis (IMO + S + L group). RESULTS: The average daily feed intake of lactating sows in the IMO + S group (P < 0.05) and the average litter gain and total milk yield in the IMO + S + L group (P < 0.01) were significantly higher than those of the sows in the other treatment groups. In addition, the serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in all treatment groups were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the highest proportion of fat in colostrum (0.05 < P < 0.1) and lowest proportion of lactose in milk were observed in the IMO + L group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of growth hormone and immunoglobulins A and G in milk were higher in sows supplemented with IMO, IMO + S, IMO + L, or IMO + S + L (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: IMO and Bacillus spp. supplementation during the perinatal period improved the sows' lactational performance by affecting their metabolism and milk quality. Sows in the IMO + S and IMO + S + L treatment groups exhibited the best performance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bacillus/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Colostro/química , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Feminino , Leite/metabolismo , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Suínos/sangue
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(7): 896-903, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115599

RESUMO

The health-promoting effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus are based on its adherence and colonization ability. However, little is known about its adhesion and colonization rates. Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mouse intestinal mucosa a mutant of the red fluorescence protein (RFP) DSred2 was used to tag L. rhamnosus to observe the adhesion and distribution of L. rhamnosus in mouse intestinal mucosa. A mutant of the red fluorescence protein (RFP) Dsred2 was used to tag L. rhamnosus to allow us to observe and distinguish it in the mouse intestine. Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice were fed once (at day 0) with an oral administration of the labeled L. rhamnosus, and the number of labeled bacteria was detected in different regions of the intestinal tract at 3 h and at day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 15 after administration. The labeling process changed the morphology of L. rhamnosus, as it appeared after observation under the microscope, but did not change its basic probiotic properties in vitro. In vivo, labeled L. rhamnosus reached the colonization peak at the fourth day after gavage. From the distribution point of view, the number of colonization strains increased from the proximal to the distal small intestine (duodenum < jejunum < ileum) and the number of strains in the colon was less than the distal small intestine (ileum). The labeling protocol actually allowed the detection of the distribution and adhesion of this bacterium to the intestine, thus demonstrating that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic are satisfied. This study provides a scientific basis in the use of probiotics such as L. rhamnosus in functional foods.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Probióticos , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/metabolismo
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 202-208, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085328

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of individual and combination of dietary pre- and probiotics (ß-glucan, 3 mg/g; mannan oligosaccharide (MOS), 4 mg/g; and Lactobacillus plantarum; 108 CFU/mg diet) on growth performance, blood immune parameters, expression of immune related genes, and intestinal microbial of Caspian trout (Salmo trutta caspius). On the basis of feeding with immunostimulant diets, the fish were assigned into eight groups denoted as: control (basal diet), bß (basal diet + ß-glucan), bM (basal diet + MOS), bLp (basal diet + L. plantarum), bßLp (basal diet + ß-glucan + L. plantarum), bMLp (basal diet + MOS + L. plantarum), bMß (basal diet + MOS + ß-glucan), and bMßLp (basal diet + MOS + ß-glucan + L. plantarum). All of the immunostimulant diets, in general, reduced feed intake (FI) and food conversion ratio (FCR) and increased WG, PER, and final weight. Condition factor (CF) demonstrated the lowest level in the experimental group received bMßLp. Total lipid increased in the fish received the additives, especially bM and bMß. Ash content demonstrated significant increase in the fish fed on bß and bMßLp, whereas moisture content was reduced in the group fed with L. plantarum-supplemented diet. All immunostimulant diets enhanced the activity and levels of lysozyme, Immunoglobulin M (IgM), and serum alternative complement activity (ACH50); the highest value for these indices was observed in the groups fed with bMß, bMßLp, and bßLp. bMß-treated fish group displayed the highest cortisol and glucose levels. bM diet induced the highest mRNA transcription of TNF-α1 in head kidney, whereas bLp, bMß, and bMßLp showed no effect. IL1ß exhibited the greatest up-regulation, about 8.75 fold change, in response to the diet supplemented only with ß-glucan. bßLp and bß significantly enhanced the relative IL-8 mRNA expression in the head kidney (about 2.75 and 1.9 folds, respectively), yet in response to bMßLp treatment it showed a decrease of about 5.7 times lower than the control group. In addition, intestinal population of L. plantarum showed the highest loads in the groups fed on the diets which were treated with the probiotic. Taken together, combinational use of these immunostimulants enhanced humoral innate immune system, whereas their individual and combinational application could increase and decrease the transcription of inflammation-related genes, respectively.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Mananas/metabolismo , Truta/genética , Truta/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos/microbiologia , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/química , Probióticos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Truta/microbiologia , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 315-324, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129185

RESUMO

An 8-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary ß-glucan supplement (0, 0.01%, 0.02%, or 0.04%) on growth and health of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity of 3 practical salinity unit (psu). The L. vannamei fed 0.02% and 0.04% ß-glucan gained more weight and showed higher activities of protease, amylase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the intestine than in the control (0% ß-glucan). The L. vannamei fed 0.04% ß-glucan had a higher condition factor than those fed the control diet. Amylase activity in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei fed 0.02% ß-glucan was higher than those fed the control diet. Dietary ß-glucan supplement increased the mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor, myostatin, immune deficiency or heat shock protein 70, but decreased the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α and C-type lectin 3 in both hepatopancreas and intestine. The response of intestine microbiota in L. vannamei fed 0.04% ß-glucan was further compared to the control. The 0.04% ß-glucan supplement reduced richness and diversity of the intestinal microbial community as indicated by the low values of Chao1 estimator, ACE estimator, Simpson index and Shannon diversity index. Abundances of Bacillus, Chitinibacter, Geobacillus and Vibrio in the intestine increased, while Flavobacterium, Microbacterium and Mycobacterium decreased significantly in L. vannamei fed 0.04% ß-glucan compared to the control. This study indicates that dietary ß-glucan supplement at 0.02%-0.04% can significantly improve digestibility, antioxidant capacity and immunity in L. vannamei, and thus improve growth performance and survival at low salinity. These beneficial effects of ß-glucan probably are related to the dominance of probiotics over potential pathogens in the intestine.


Assuntos
Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Salinidade , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
17.
Benef Microbes ; 10(5): 511-520, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090457

RESUMO

In our previous study, we reported the therapeutic potential of Bifidobacterium breve A1 in preventing cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and participants with mild cognitive impairment; we suggested that probiotic supplementation is an effective therapeutic strategy for managing cognitive function. Accordingly, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether 12-week B. breve A1 supplementation could affect the cognitive function of elderly subjects with memory complaints. We assessed cognitive function using the Japanese version of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and after 12 weeks of probiotic supplementation. A total of 121 participants were randomised and received B. breve A1 capsules or placebo daily for 12 weeks; of these, 117 participants completed the study. At 12 weeks, neuropsychological test scores significantly increased in both groups; no significant intergroup difference was observed in terms of changes in scores from the baseline scores. However, a stratified analysis revealed a significant difference between B. breve A1 and placebo groups in terms of the subscale 'immediate memory' of RBANS and MMSE total score in the subjects with low RBANS total score at baseline. No significant differences in terms of blood parameters between the groups or adverse effects caused by B. breve A1 intervention were observed. The results of the present study suggest the safety of B. breve A1 supplementation and its potential in maintaining cognitive function in elderly subjects with memory complaints. However, future large-scale studies on individuals with impaired cognitive function are required to validate the present findings.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Benef Microbes ; 10(5): 497-509, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090458

RESUMO

Microbial metabolism in the gut may alter human bile acid metabolism in a way that beneficially affects lipid homeostasis and therefore cardiovascular disease risk. Deconjugation of bile acids by microbes is thought to be key to this mechanism but has yet to be characterised in blood and stool while observing lipid markers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different probiotic strains on plasma and stool bile acids in the context of lipid and glucose metabolism. In this 18-week, randomised, double-blind crossover study, healthy adults (53±8 years) with a high waist circumference underwent a 1-week pre-baseline period and were then randomised to receive 1 capsule/day of Bacillus subtilis R0179 (2.5×109 cfu/capsule; n=39), Lactobacillus plantarum HA-119 (5×109 cfu/capsule; n=38), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B94 (5×109 cfu/capsule; n=37) or placebo for 6 weeks. Following a 3-week washout and second pre-baseline week, participants were crossed to the other intervention for 6 weeks followed by a 1-week post-intervention period. Blood and stool samples were collected at the beginning and end of each intervention to measure bile acids, serum lipid profiles, and glucose and insulin levels. Data from the placebo intervention were combined for all participants for analyses. In obese participants, the difference (final-baseline) in the sum of deconjugated plasma bile acids was greater with consumption of B. subtilis (691±378 nmol/l, P=0.01) and B. lactis (380±165 nmol/l, P=0.04) than with placebo (98±176 nmol/l, n=57). No significant differences were observed for any probiotics for stool bile acids, serum lipids, blood glucose or insulin. These data suggest that B. subtilis and B. lactis had no effect on glucose metabolism or serum cholesterol but increased deconjugated plasma bile acids in obese individuals. Additional studies should be conducted to confirm these findings and explore potential mechanisms. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01879098.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/terapia , Plasma/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium animalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Benef Microbes ; 10(5): 555-567, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090460

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is a main risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Probiotics are a safe approach to reduce elevated cholesterol without any deleterious effect to human health. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic properties are well documented in a context of intestinal dysbiosis. Recent in vitro and preclinical studies have suggested its potential effects on dyslipidemia. This is the first controlled study investigating the effects of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 on lipidemic profile and gut microbiota in a hamster hypercholesterolemic model. Daily administration (3 g/kg) of S. boulardii for 21 or 39 days in hamsters fed a 0.3% cholesterol-diet significantly reduced total plasma cholesterol (P<0.001) and increased faecal total cholesterol (P<0.05) compared to vehicle-treated animals. S. boulardii significantly modified the gut microbiota composition of the hamster fed a 0.3% cholesterol-diet. These microbial abundancy modifications of the microbiota were correlated to variations of lipidemic values or liver genes expressions. In particularly we found that abundance of g_Allobaculum, the most modified taxon after S. boulardii treatment (+236%; P<0.05), was correlated to variations in plasmatic lipoproteins level and ABCG5 hepatic gene expression. We also observed a not previously described correlation between the levels of g_Oxalobacter in the gut microbiota and total cholesterol plasma concentration. In conclusion, we confirmed the cholesterol-lowering effects of S. boulardii intake and we demonstrated for the first time the S. boulardii effect on gut microbiota in the context of hypercholesterolemia in hamsters. Our results provide new insights for a beneficial and safe approach of hypercholesterolemia treatment and could be considered for clinical development, alone or in addition to conventional treatment.


Assuntos
Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/terapia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Lipídeos/análise , Plasma/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Saccharomyces boulardii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Benef Microbes ; 10(5): 543-553, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122042

RESUMO

Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and experimental colitis models in mice are associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, and several probiotics are widely used to improve gastrointestinal health. Here, we investigated whether the probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng® (BL) ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota. Experimental colitis was induced in BALB/C mice by dissolving 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days, which were gavaged with 0.2 ml phosphate-buffered saline or BL (3×107 cfu/ml) once a day. Administration of BL attenuated several effects of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss, increased disease activity index, and disrupted intestinal barrier integrity. In addition, BL mitigated the reduction in faecal microbiota richness in DSS treated mice. Interestingly, BL was found to reduce the elevated circulating endotoxin level in mice with colitis by modulating the microbial composition of the microbiota, and this was highly associated with a proportional decrease in gut Bacteroidetes. Our results demonstrate that BL can attenuate DSS-induced colitis and provide valuable insight into microbiota interactions during IBD.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colite/patologia , Colite/terapia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Resultado do Tratamento
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