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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371847

RESUMO

A recent animal study demonstrated that administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 isolated from Korean kimchi improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetic mice. In the present study, we evaluated Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01's effects on metabolic parameters of prediabetic human subjects. Forty subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to receive a daily placebo (n = 20) or a dose of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (n = 20) over eight weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in 2 h postprandial glucose (2h-PPG) levels and the secondary endpoints were assessment of other glucose metabolism parameters, including HbA1c, gut microbiota composition, and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The group with a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 saw a significant reduction in 2h-PPG and HbA1c levels compared to the placebo group. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, microbiota composition, and fecal SCFAs, however, were not significantly altered. No serious adverse effects were reported. This is the first clinical trial to show a beneficial effect of single-strain probiotic supplementation administered over eight weeks on HbA1c levels in prediabetic subjects.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Estado Pré-Diabético/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Microbiol ; 59(9): 827-839, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382149

RESUMO

Probiotics effectively prevent and improve metabolic diseases such as diabetes by regulating the intestinal microenvironment and gut microbiota. However, the effects of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus are not clear. Here, we showed that probiotic supplements significantly improved fasting blood glucose in a gestational diabetes mellitus rat model. To further understand the mechanisms of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus, the gut microbiota were analyzed via 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that compared with the normal pregnant group, the gestational diabetes mellitus rats had decreased diversity of gut microbiota. Moreover, probiotic supplementation restored the diversity of the gut microbiota in gestational diabetes mellitus rats, and the gut microbiota structure tended to be similar to that of normal pregnant rats. In particular, compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats, the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was higher after probiotic supplementation. Furthermore, activating carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport pathways may be involved in the potential mechanisms by which probiotic supplements alleviate gestational diabetes mellitus. Overall, our results suggested that probiotic supplementation might be a novel approach to restore the gut microbiota of gestational diabetes mellitus rats and provided an experimental evidence for the use of probiotic supplements to treat gestational diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 58, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244520

RESUMO

The low viability during gastrointestinal transit and poor mucoadhesion considerably limits the effectiveness of Ligilactobacillus salivarius Li01 (Li01) in regulating gut microbiota and alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, a delivery system was designed through layer-by-layer (LbL) encapsulating a single Li01cell with chitosan and alginate. The layers were strengthened by cross-linking to form a firm and mucoadhesive shell (~10 nm thickness) covering the bacterial cell. The LbL Li01 displayed improved viability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and mucoadhesive function. Almost no cells could be detected among the free Li01 after 2 h incubation in digestive fluids, while for LbL Li01, the total reduction was around 3 log CFU/mL and the viable number of cells remained above 6 log CFU/mL. Besides, a 5-fold increase in the value of rupture length and a two-fold increase in the number of peaks were found in the (bacteria-mucin) adhesion curves of LbL Li01, compared to those of free Li01. Oral administration with LbL Li01 on colitis mice facilitated intestinal barrier recovery and restoration of the gut microbiota. The improved functionality of Li01 by LbL encapsulation could increase the potential for the probiotic to be used in clinical applications to treat IBD; this should be explored in future studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202894

RESUMO

Consumption of different types of high-calorie foods leads to the development of various metabolic disorders. However, the effects of multi-strain probiotics on different types of diet-induced obesity and intestinal dysbiosis remain unclear. In this study, mice were fed a control diet, high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat and 20% kcal carbohydrate), or western diet (WD; 40% kcal fat and 43% kcal carbohydrate) and administered with multi-strain AB-Kefir containing six strains of lactic acid bacteria and a Bifidobacterium strain, at 109 CFU per mouse for 10 weeks. Results demonstrated that AB-Kefir reduced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with a minor influence on gut microbiota composition in HFD-fed mice, but not in WD-fed mice. In addition, AB-Kefir significantly reduced the weight and size of adipose tissues by regulating the expression of CD36, Igf1, and Pgc1 in HFD-fed mice. Although AB-Kefir did not reduce the volume of white adipose tissue, it markedly regulated CD36, Dgat1 and Mogat1 mRNA expression. Moreover, the abundance of Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group and Ruminiclostridium significantly correlated with changes in body weight, liver weight, and fasting glucose in test mice. Overall, this study provides important evidence to understand the interactions between probiotics, gut microbiota, and diet in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Kefir/microbiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Inflamação , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209804

RESUMO

Probiotics have been shown to benefit patients with constipation and depression, but whether they specifically alleviate constipation in patients with depression remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain Shirota (LcS), formerly Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, on constipation in patients with depression with specific etiology and gut microbiota and on depressive regimens. Eighty-two patients with constipation were recruited. The subjects consumed 100 mL of a LcS beverage (108 CFU/mL) or placebo every day for 9 weeks. After ingesting beverages for this period, we observed no significant differences in the total patient constipation-symptom (PAC-SYM) scores in the LcS group when compared with the placebo group. However, symptoms/scores in item 7 (rectal tearing or bleeding after a bowel movement) and items 8-12 (stool symptom subscale) were more alleviated in the LcS group than in the placebo group. The Beck Depression Index (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores were all significantly decreased, and the degree of depression was significantly improved in both the placebo and LcS groups (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the groups. The LcS intervention increased the beneficial Adlercreutzia, Megasphaera and Veillonella levels and decreased the bacterial levels related to mental illness, such as Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Sutterella and Oscillibacter. Additionally, the interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly decreased in both the placebo and LcS groups (p < 0.05). In particular, the IL-6 levels were significantly lower in the LcS group than the placebo group after the ingestion period (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the daily consumption of LcS for 9 weeks appeared to relieve constipation and improve the potentially depressive symptoms in patients with depression and significantly decrease the IL-6 levels. In addition, the LcS supplementation also appeared to regulate the intestinal microbiota related to mental illness.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/microbiologia , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Depressão/microbiologia , Lactobacillus paracasei , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Animais , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209883

RESUMO

Studies using animal models have shed light into the molecular and cellular basis for the neuropathology observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, the role of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a crucial role in the formation of senile plaques and aging-dependent degeneration. Here, we focus our review on recent findings using the Drosophila AD model to expand our understanding of APP molecular function and interactions, including insights gained from the fly homolog APP-like (APPL). Finally, as there is still no cure for AD, we review some approaches that have shown promising results in ameliorating AD-associated phenotypes, with special attention on the use of nutraceuticals and their molecular effects, as well as interactions with the gut microbiome. Overall, the phenomena described here are of fundamental significance for understanding network development and degeneration. Given the highly conserved nature of fundamental signaling pathways, the insight gained from animal models such as Drosophila melanogaster will likely advance the understanding of the mammalian brain, and thus be relevant to human health.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198499

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Recent data suggest that probiotics can reduce some symptoms of this disorder and Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 has been reported to be especially useful. We recruited a sample of 131 autistic children and adolescents (M:F = 122:19; age: 86.1 ± 41.1 months) and evaluated their changes after use of probiotics by mean of CGI. We found some significant improvements with very few side effects; these positive effects were more evident in younger children. Patients taking Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 had greater improvements and fewer side effects than those taking other probiotics. Our real-life data are consistent with existing literature showing a specific effect of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 in Autism Spectrum Disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Lactobacillus plantarum , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Probióticos/efeitos adversos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206098

RESUMO

A probiotic formulation combining Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium infantis Rosell®-33, and Bifidobacterium bifidum Rosell®-71 with fructooligosaccharides, first commercialized in China, has been sold in over 28 countries since 2002. Clinical studies with this blend of strains were conducted mainly in pediatric populations, and most were published in non-English journals. This comprehensive review summarizes the clinical studies in infants and children to evaluate the efficacy of this probiotic for pediatric indications. Literature searches for pediatric studies on Biostime® or Probiokid® (non-commercial name) in 6 international and Chinese databases identified 28 studies, which were classified by indications. Twelve studies show that the probiotic significantly increases the efficacy of standard diarrhea treatment regardless of etiology, reducing the risk of unresolved diarrhea (RR 0.31 [0.23; 0.42]; p < 0.0001) by 69%. In eight studies, the probiotic enhanced immune defenses, assessed by levels of various immune competence and mucosal immunity markers (six studies), and reduced the incidence of common infections (two studies). The probiotic improved iron deficiency anemia treatment efficacy (three studies), reducing the risk of unresolved anemia by 49% (RR 0.51 [0.28; 0.92]; p = 0.0263) and significantly reducing treatment side effects by 47% (RR 0.53 [0.37; 0.77]; p = 0.0009). Other studies support further investigation into this probiotic for oral candidiasis, eczema, feeding intolerance in premature babies, or hyperbilirubinemia in newborns.


Assuntos
Diarreia Infantil/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Anemia Ferropriva , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Candidíase/prevenção & controle , Criança , China , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A Secretora , Lactente
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062976

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with different illnesses and emotional disorders such as stress. Traditional fermented foods that are rich in probiotics suggest modulation of dysbiosis, which protects against stress-induced disorders. The academic stress was evaluated in medical students using the SISCO Inventory of Academic Stress before and after ingestion of an aguamiel-based beverage fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus brevis (n = 27) and a control group (n = 18). In addition, microbial phyla in feces were quantified by qPCR. The results showed that the consumption of 100 mL of a beverage fermented with lactic acid bacteria (3 × 108 cfu/mL) for 8 weeks significantly reduced academic stress (p = 0.001), while the control group (placebo intervention) had no significant changes in the perception of academic stress (p = 0.607). Significant change (p = 0.001) was shown in the scores for environmental demands, and physical and psychological factors. Consumption of the fermented beverage significantly increased the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes but not Gammaproteobacteria. No significant changes were found in the control group, except for a slight increase in the phylum Firmicutes. The intake of this fermented beverage suggest a modulation of gut microbiota and possible reduction in stress-related symptoms in university students, without changing their lifestyle or diet.


Assuntos
Agave , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/psicologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactobacillales , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062986

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a rapidly growing neurodevelopmental disorder. Both probiotics and oxytocin were reported to have therapeutic potential; however, the combination therapy has not yet been studied. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-stage pilot trial in 35 individuals with ASD aged 3-20 years (median = 10.30 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive daily Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 probiotic (6 × 1010 CFUs) or a placebo for 28 weeks; starting on week 16, both groups received oxytocin. The primary outcomes measure socio-behavioral severity using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). The secondary outcomes include measures of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, fecal microbiome, blood serum inflammatory markers, and oxytocin. All outcomes were compared between the two groups at baseline, 16 weeks, and 28 weeks into treatment. We observed improvements in ABC and SRS scores and significant improvements in CGI-improvement between those receiving probiotics and oxytocin combination therapy compared to those receiving placebo (p < 0.05). A significant number of favorable gut microbiome network hubs were also identified after combination therapy (p < 0.05). The favorable social cognition response of the combination regimen is highly correlated with the abundance of the Eubacterium hallii group. Our findings suggest synergic effects between probiotics PS128 and oxytocin in ASD patients, although further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridiales , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lactobacillus plantarum , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Cognição Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062867

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a form of interaction of the external environment on reading and transcription of genetic information encoded in nucleic acids. We provided evidence that early stimulation of the chicken microbiota with in ovo delivered synbiotics influenced gene expression and DNA methylation in the liver. Therefore, we hypothesize that the stimulation of microbiota by administering bioactive substances in ovo also affects the activity of miRNA in liver. For the analysis of miRNA activity, RNA was isolated from liver of adult broiler chicken and native chicken breed. The animals received a prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic in ovo on day 12 of egg incubation. The analysis of miRNA expression was performed using the LNA method on a miRNA panel selected on the basis of previous microarray experiments. We have found increased miRNA expression activity after probiotic and synbiotic administration, especially in native chicken breed. Our results suggest that prebiotics reduce or do not affect miRNA activity. We have also shown that miRNA activity is regulated by the substance and genotype of the chicken. We can conclude that miRNAs constitute an important component of the molecular mechanism of host-probiotic interaction in liver.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Transcriptoma
12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064762

RESUMO

Psychobiotics are used to treat neurological disorders, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying their neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Herein, we report that the administration of bifidobacteria in an AD mouse model improved behavioral abnormalities and modulated gut dysbiosis. Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1025 and WX treatment significantly improved synaptic plasticity and increased the concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). Furthermore, the microbiome and metabolomic profiles of mice indicate that specific bacterial taxa and their metabolites correlate with AD-associated behaviors, suggesting that the gut-brain axis contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Overall, these findings reveal that B. breve CCFM1025 and WX have beneficial effects on cognition via the modulation of the gut microbiome, and thus represent a novel probiotic dietary intervention for delaying the progression of AD.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium breve/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Fibronectinas , Camundongos , Plasticidade Neuronal
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070917

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol is oxidized to toxic and carcinogenic acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and further oxidized to a non-toxic acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). There are two major ALDH isoforms, cytosolic and mitochondrial, encoded by ALDH1 and ALDH2 genes, respectively. The ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with flushing response to alcohol use. Emerging evidence shows that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species encode alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mediate alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, respectively. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was designed to study the effects of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotic mixture in humans and assessed their effects on alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Here, twenty-seven wild types (ALDH2*1/*1) and the same number of heterozygotes (ALDH2*2/*1) were recruited for the study. The enrolled participants were randomly divided into either the probiotic (Duolac ProAP4) or the placebo group. Each group received a probiotic or placebo capsule for 15 days with subsequent crossover. Primary outcomes were measurement of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the blood after the alcohol intake. Blood levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde were significantly downregulated by probiotic supplementation in subjects with ALDH2*2/*1 genotype, but not in those with ALDH2*1/*1 genotype. However, there were no marked improvements in hangover score parameters between test and placebo groups. No clinically significant changes were observed in safety parameters. These results suggest that Duolac ProAP4 has a potential to downregulate the alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations, and their effects depend on the presence or absence of polymorphism on the ALDH2 gene.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Etanol/sangue , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064069

RESUMO

Weight loss interventions with probiotics have favourable effects on gut microbiota composition and derived metabolites. However, little is known about whether the consumption of natural probiotics, such as Bryndza cheeses, brings similar benefits. The purpose of the study was to find the effect of short-term weight loss programs and Bryndza cheese consumption on the structure of the gut microbiota, microbiota-derived metabolites and body composition in middle-aged women. We conducted a randomised controlled intervention study. Twenty-two female participants with a body fat percentage ≥25% underwent a short weight loss program (4 weeks). Subjects were randomised to either the control or intervention group according to diet. The intervention group comprised 13 participants, whose diet contained 30 g of "Bryndza" cheese daily (WLPB). The control group comprised nine participants without the regular consumption of Bryndza cheese (WLP) in their diet. Both interventions lead to a significant and favourable change of BMI, body fat, waist circumference and muscle mass. Moreover, the relative abundance of Erysipelotrichales significantly increased in both groups. However, the relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales, Streptococcaceae, Lactococcus and Streptococcus) significantly increased only in the WLPB group. Furthermore, short-chain fatty acid producers Phascolarctobacterium and Butyricimonas increased significantly in the WLPB group. A short-term weight loss program combined with Bryndza cheese consumption improves body composition and increases the abundance of lactic acid bacteria and short-chain fatty acid producers in middle-aged women.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 212-220, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146675

RESUMO

Eight weeks feeding experiment was managed to evaluate the impacts of dietary addition of pineapple peel powder (PAPP) and Lactobacillus plantarum CR1T5 (LP) individual or mixed on growth performance, skin mucus and serum immunities, as well as disease resistance of Nile tilapia. Fish (average weight 20.91 ± 0.11 g) were fed four diets: Diet 1 (0 g kg-1 PAPP and 0 CFU g-1 L. plantarum, Diet 2 (10 g kg-1 PAPP), Diet 3 (108 CFU g-1L. plantarum), and Diet 4 (10 g kg-1 PAPP + 108 CFU g-1L. plantarum). Serum and mucus immune responses, as well as growth rate, were assessed every 4 weeks. Ten fish were chosen for the challenge test with Streptococcus agalactiae after 8 weeks post-feeding. The findings showed that PAPP and/or LP diets increased (P ≤ 0.05) growth performance, skin mucus, and serum immune responses. The best data were obtained in fish fed a mixture of PAPP and LP. Nevertheless, no variation (P > 0.05) was recorded between groups fed PAPP or LP. The relative survival percentage (RSP, %) in Diet 2, Diet 3, and Diet 4 was 46.15%, 50.0%, and 73.08%. Fish fed mixture of PAPP + LP recorded the best (P < 0.05) survival rate versus other treatments. The current findings recommended using a mixture of PAPP and LP as promising functional additives for aquaculture practice.


Assuntos
Ananas/química , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Imunidade Inata , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 188-195, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171542

RESUMO

In canine nutrition, the use of goat nutraceutical dairy products is an innovative proposal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prepare fermented goat milk with probiotic potential in dogs in an in vitro model. A total of 40 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species were grown, of which 30 were CAP isolates originally from goat milk and 10 were CAN isolates originally from fecal material of newborn dogs. The isolates were selected based on resistance to the simulated canine gastrointestinal condition and acidifying ability. After this preliminary screening, the analyses were performed regarding ß-galactosidase and exopolysaccharide formation, diacetyl production, adhesion proteins Mub and mapa, hydrophobicity, DPPH assay, virulence and antibiotic resistance. With these evaluations, four LAB isolates were identified using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. These were identified as Enterococcus hirae and were used to produce fermented goat milk. For statistical analysis, the data were analyzed using the Scott-Knott test and also submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). In the evaluation of goat milk fermented with E. hirae and control, over the 36-day storage period there was a reduction in pH and an increase in acidity, and higher levels of LAB were observed in goat milk fermented with E. hirae. Therefore, both these E. hirae isolates and the fermented goat milk produced showed satisfactory results in vitro, demonstrating probiotic efficiency and food safety for dogs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Cães/microbiologia , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 185-191, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222950

RESUMO

Introducción. Existe evidencia del beneficio de los probióticos en prevenir enterocolitis necrotizante en prematuros extremos. Desde 2015, se usa probiótico preventivo en el Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de este probiótico en la incidencia, gravedad, necesidad de terapia quirúrgica y letalidad por enterocolitis necrotizante en prematuros extremos. Pacientes y método. Estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. Datos analizados con Stata. Se aplicó la prueba exacta de Fisher para comparar porcentajes y, para los promedios, la prueba t para varianzas distintas. Los egresados entre 2015 y 2017 recibieron Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (LRP), dosis única (1 x 108 unidades formadora de colonias) desde los primeros días de vida hasta cumplir las 36 semanas de edad gestacional corregida. Los controles egresados entre 2012 y 2014 no recibieron LRP.Resultados. El 3,45 % de los casos tuvo algún grado de enterocolitis: grado i (el 64 %), ii (el 18 %), iii (el 18 %); requirió cirugía el 18 % y no hubo letalidad. El 3,75 % de los controles históricos presentaron enterocolitis: grado i (el 12 %), ii (el 35 %), iii (el 53 %); el 64,7 % requirió cirugía, y el 47 % falleció. El grupo intervenido presentó grado ii o iii en un 36 %; en el grupo control, la sumatoria de estos estadios fue del 88 %.Conclusión.LRP administrado en dosis única diaria al prematuro extremo no modificó la incidencia de enterocolitis, pero disminuyó su gravedad, la letalidad y necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico.


Introduction. There is evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants. Probiotic prevention has been used since 2015 in the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.Objective. To assess the impact of this probiotic on the incidence, severity, surgical treatment requirement, and fatality rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants.Patients and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Data were analyzed using Stata. Fisher's exact test was used to compare percentages, and the unequal variances t-test, for averages. Infants discharged between 2015 and 2017 received Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (LRP), in a single dose (1 x 108 colony forming units), since the first days of life until 36 weeks of corrected gestational age. Controls discharged between 2012 and 2014 did not receive LRP.Results. Some degree of enterocolitis was observed in 3.45 % of cases: stage I (64 %), stage II (18 %), stage III (18 %); 18 % required surgery, and there were no deaths. Among historical controls, 3.75 % had enterocolitis: stage I (12 %), stage II (35 %), stage III (53 %); 64.7 % required surgery, and 47 % died. In the intervention group, stage II or III accounted for 36 % of cases, whereas in the control group, for 88 %.Conclusion. Administering a single daily dose of LRP to extremely preterm infants did not affect the incidence of enterocolitis, but reduced its severity, fatality rate, and surgical treatment requiremen


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Chile , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Infusões Parenterais/métodos
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 36, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elite athletes may suffer from impaired immune function and gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms, which may affect their health and may impede their performance. These symptoms may be reduced by multi-strain probiotic supplementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the effects of probiotic supplementation on aerobic fitness characteristics, inflammatory markers and incidence and severity of GI symptoms in elite cyclists. METHODS: Twenty-seven male cyclists, ranked elite or category 1 level competitions, were randomly assigned to a multi-strain probiotic-supplemented group (E, n = 11) or placebo group (C, n = 16). All participants visited the laboratory at the beginning of the study and following 90 d of supplementation/placebo. Prior to testing, all participants completed a GI symptoms questionnaire and underwent physical and medical examination, and anthropometric measurements. Venous blood was drawn for inflammatory markers analysis. The cyclists then underwent maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test and time-to-fatigue (TTF) test at 85 % of maximal power, 3 h following the VO2max test. All testing procedures were repeated after 90 d of probiotic / placebo treatment (double blind design). RESULTS: Lower incidence of nausea, belching, and vomiting (P < 0.05) at rest, and decreased incidence of GI symptoms during training were found in E group vs. C Group, respectively (∆GI -0.27 ± 0.47 % vs. 0.08 ± 0.29 %, P = 0.03), no significant changes were observed in the incidence of total overall GI symptoms (∆GI -5.6 ± 14.7 % vs. 2.6 ± 11.6 %, P = 0.602) Mean rate of perceived exertion (RPE) values during the TTF were lower in E group (∆RPE: -0.3 ± 0.9 vs. 0.8 ± 1.5, P = 0.04). No significant changes were measured between and within groups in VO2max and TTF values, mean levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6-and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) values following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics supplementation may have beneficial effects on GI symptoms in elite cyclists. Future studies, using higher doses and during different training seasons, might help understanding the effects of probiotic supplementation on elite athletes' health and performance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NIH clinicaltrial.gov #NCT02756221 Registered 25 April 2016.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 14-21, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015480

RESUMO

The heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture leads to elevated antibiotic residues, posing a huge hidden danger in aquaculture products and other natural aquatic environments. Therefore, this study aims to isolate probiotics that can replace antibiotics from the gut of grass carp for disease control. Bacillus velezensis B8 was isolated from the gut of grass carp and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against several fish pathogenic bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophilis, Aeromonas veronii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio mimicus. The safety evaluation showed that the strain B8 was non-toxic to grass carp, had no hemolytic activity, and was sensitive to most antibiotics. In vitro study indicated that strain B8 was viable at pH 2-7, had weak tolerance to 0.1% (w/v) bile salt, and could grow at 10°C-40 °C. The grass carps were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 107, and 109 cfu/g of strain B8 for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. The results of non-specific immunoassay showed that diets supplemented with B8 significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum samples (p < 0.05). The expression levels of immune-related genes in the kidney and spleen of grass carp were measured. Among them, the expression levels of IgM and TNF-α both in spleen and kidney were significantly increased after 3 and 4 weeks of post-feeding (p < 0.05). The expression of IgD and MHCI in kidney was significantly upregulated in high-dose groups after 2 and 3 weeks of feeding, respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, after 7 days of challenging with A. veronii, the high-dose group and low-dose group had 48% and 53% survival compared to 25% survival for the control group. These results suggest that B. velezensis B8 has the potential to be developed into a microecological preparation for the alternatives of antibiotics in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus/química , Carpas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Probióticos/metabolismo , Aeromonas veronii/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(3): 293-295, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934809

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia: risk factors, outcome and links with S. boulardii-containing probiotic administration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to review cases of S. cerevisiae fungemia along with the corresponding risk factors (including S. boulardii probiotic intake), treatment and outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (2005-2017) of S. cerevisiae fungemia. All the data were extracted from medical files. RESULTS: We identified 10 patients with S. cerevisiae fungemia. Mean age was 59.4 years (range 21-88). Four fifths (80%) were on total parenteral or enteral nutrition, 70% had a central venous line, and 30% were admitted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). S. boulardii-containing probiotic prescription was identified in 6 subjects. Three patients with no risk factors such as ICU or central venous catheter were 80 years old or more. Mortality rate was 50%. CONCLUSION: S. cerevisiae fungemia is a rare but life-threatening infection, associated with intake of probiotics containing S. boulardii. Besides classical risk factors, older age should be a contraindication for these probiotics.


Assuntos
Fungemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fungemia/microbiologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Saccharomyces boulardii/patogenicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/patogenicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fungemia/mortalidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saccharomyces boulardii/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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