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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(35): 1466-1474, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822325

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. Organic food contains fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products. Recent studies suggest that the gut-liver axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, so probiotics could be a therapeutic tool. Comparing the health effects of yoghurt from organic origin with so-called conventional yoghurt is difficult, because there is no biomarker that would signal the difference with good specificity and sensitivity. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate numerous biomarkers to evaluate the difference between yoghurt from conventional and organic origin and their health effects in NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a prospective, cohort study consisting of 37 (age = 51.73 ± 11.82, male = 21, female = 16) patients with NAFLD at the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine of the Semmelweis University, Budapest. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography and the exclusion of other etiololgy. The patients were examined also with shear wave elastography to evaluate the hepatic fibrosis stage. We divided the patients randomly into two groups. The patients consumed individually daily 300 grams of yoghurt from organic (n = 21) or conventional (n = 16) origin for 8 weeks. We collected 37 routine laboratory data, measured 4 cytokines, 3 markers of the redox-homeostasis and 14 body composition values before, after, and 12 weeks after the yoghurt consumption. RESULTS: We found a mild elevation of vitamin D and a minimal reduction of LDL after the yoghurt consumption, but in the other 35 routine laboratory data there was no statistical difference. Adiponectin and leptin levels were elevated after the yoghurt consumption in the "conventional group". In contrast, we found significant decrease of adiponectin levels in the "organic group" after the treatment. Only the adiponectin tendency was different in the two groups. The induced free radical content was also statistically lower after the yoghurt consumption. In the body composition measurements, there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that adiponectin could be a possible biomarker to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic treatment in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our work can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between organic yoghurt consumption and health outcomes. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1466-1474.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Iogurte/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Alimentos Orgânicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764797

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in premature neonates. This disease is characterized by massive epithelial necrosis, gut barrier dysfunction and improper mucosal defense development. Studies have shown that probiotic administration can decrease NEC incidence and mortality. The proposed mechanisms of probiotics for the prevention of NEC are: promotion of intestinal development; improved barrier function through decreased apoptosis and improved mucin production; decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL8, and TNFα, and modulation of microbiota dysbiosis in preterm infants. However, reported sepsis in the immunocompromised preterm host has deterred routine prophylactic administration of probiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit. We hypothesize that maternal administration of probiotics to pregnant mouse dams can recapitulate the beneficial effects observed in neonates fed with probiotics directly. We exposed pregnant mice to the probiotics and monitored the changes in the developing intestines of the offspring. Pregnant mice were fed daily with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis (LB) from embryonic day15 to 2-week-old postnatally. Intraperitoneal administration of IL-1ß in the pups was used to model proinflammatory insults. Sera were collected at 2 weeks of age and evaluated for inflammatory cytokines by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay and gut permeability by Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran tracer assay. Ileal tissues were collected for the evaluation of apoptosis and proliferation of the intestinal epithelium; as well as mucin and tight junction integrity at mucosal surface by immunofluorescent staining. We find that maternal LB exposure facilitated intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, prevented loss of mucin and preserved the intestinal integrity and barrier function and decreased serum levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 in the preweaned offsprings. in LB exposed pups. We demonstrate that maternal probiotic supplementation promotes gut maturation in developing offspring. This is potentially a safe alternative therapy to induce intestinal maturation and prevent prematurity-associated neonatal disorders.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exposição Materna , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Camundongos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21612, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates the role of gut microbiota in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target of cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of gut microbiome-targeted therapies on cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents remain unclear. METHODS: We plan to perform a systematic search from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Two authors will independently select the relevant studies and extract data according to a previously defined data extraction sheet. We will use the Stata 14.0 statistical software and RevMan V.5.3 software to conduct data analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and provide more evidence for the application of gut microbiome-targeted therapies in children and adolescents for the intervention of cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202060050.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lactente , Insulina/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67 Suppl 3: e28324, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614139

RESUMO

Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) strategies are commonly used by pediatric cancer patients. Nutritional approaches to T&CM include bioactive compounds, supplements, and herbs as well as dietary approaches. Pediatric cancer patients and their families commonly request and use nutritional T&CM strategies. We review the potential risks and benefits of nutritional T&CM use in pediatric cancer care and provide an overview of some commonly used and requested supplements, including probiotics, antioxidants, cannabinoids, vitamins, turmeric, mistletoe, Carica papaya, and others. We also discuss the role of specific diets such as the ketogenic diet, caloric restriction diets, whole-food diets, and immune modulating diets. There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of some T&CM agents for the supportive care of children with cancer. However, further study is needed into these agents and approaches. Open communication with families about T&CM use is critical.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Pediatria/métodos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
5.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 101(3-4): 68-79, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608551

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is among the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the world and may result in several long-term complications. The crosstalk between gut microbiota and host metabolism is closely related to T2DM. Currently, fragmented data hamper defining the relationship between probiotics and T2DM. This systematic review aimed at investigating the effects of probiotics on T2DM in animal models. We systematically reviewed preclinical evidences using PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus databases, recovering 24 original articles published until September 27th, 2019. This systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. We included experimental studies with animal models reporting the effects of probiotics on T2DM. Studies were sorted by characteristics of publications, animal models, performed analyses, probiotic used and interventions. Bias analysis and methodological quality assessments were examined through the SYRCLE's Risk of Bias tool. Probiotics improved T2DM in 96% of the studies. Most studies (96%) used Lactobacillus strains, and all of them led to improved glycaemia. All studies used rodents as models, and male animals were preferred over females. Results suggest that probiotics have a beneficial effect in T2DM animals and could be used as a supporting alternative in the disease treatment. Considering a detailed evaluation of the reporting and methodological quality, the current preclinical evidence is at high risk of bias. We hope that our critical analysis will be useful in mitigating the sources of bias in further studies.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Disbiose , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Masculino
6.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620937170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600125

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1 is a 2019 novel coronavirus, which only in the European area has led to more than 300,000 cases with at least 21,000 deaths. This manuscript aims to speculate that the manipulation of the microbial patterns through the use of probiotics and dietary fibers consumption may contribute to reduce inflammation and strengthen the immune system response in COVID-19 infection. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Dieta , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525895

RESUMO

The goal of the study was to assess whether tonic immobility (TI)-induced stress reactions in laying hens can be reduced by probiotic supplementation and if the changes in body surface temperature, as a stress indicator, are genetically dependent and can be detected using infrared thermography (IRT). Seventy-one white and 70 brown hens were used. Hens were randomly assigned to three treatments at 1-day-old: beak trimmed and fed a regular diet; non-beak trimmed and fed a regular diet; and non-beak trimmed and fed a diet supplemented with probiotics, Bacillus subtilis. At 40 weeks of age, hens were tested for TI reactions. Eye and face temperatures were measured with IRT immediately before and after TI testing. Results revealed that the probiotic supplementation did not affect hens' stress responses to TI testing; the left and right eye temperatures increased by 0.26s°C and 0.15°C, respectively, while right face temperature tended to increase following TI testing. However, the right eye (32.60°C for white, and 32.35°C for brown) and face (39.51°C for white, and 39.36°C for brown) temperatures differed significantly among genetic lines. There was a positive correlation between TI duration and the changes of the left and right eye temperatures after TI testing in white hens. Based on these results, hens experienced TI-induced surface temperature changes that were detectable using IRT. White hens experienced greater stress reactions in response to TI than brown hens. However, supplementation with Bacillus subtilis did not attenuate hens' reaction to TI testing.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico , Termografia/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Raios Infravermelhos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
8.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2089-2101, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494972

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Approximately 20-40% of patients with cancer will experience brain metastasis (BM), which has a great impact on the quality of life and survival rates of patients. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is an effective method for the treatment of BM. However, it cannot be ignored that WBRT might induce a series of neuropsychiatric side effects, including cognitive dysfunction (CD). Accumulating evidence shows that the gut microbiota and the gut-microbiota-brain axis may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of CD. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We adopted WBRT to mimic CD after a hierarchical cluster analysis of the Morris water maze test (MWMT) results. In addition, we observed the effects of antibiotics and prebiotics on WBRT-induced CD. Variations were revealed via the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis at different levels. RESULTS: The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed an altered composition of gut microbiota between CD and non-CD phenotypes. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in the levels of Phylum-Bacteroidete, Class-Bacteroidia, and Order-Bacteroidales in the CD group and an increase in the Genus-Allobaculum level after WBRT. Pretreatment with antibiotics caused a significant decrease in the level of Phylum-TM7 01, whereas an increase in the levels of Class-Gammaproteobacteria, Order-Enterobacteriales, and Species-Escherichia coli. After pretreatment with probiotics, the levels of Phylum-Cyanobacteria, Class-4C0d-2, and Order-YS2 were decreased, while the levels of Family-Bacteroidaceae, Genus-Bacteroides, and Species-Parabacteroides distasonis were increased. CONCLUSIONS: WBRT-induced CD might be highly related to abnormal composition of gut microbiota. Strategies improving the composition of the gut microbiota may provide beneficial effects on CD in individuals exposed to WBRT.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012394, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing, with approximately 15% of pregnant women affected worldwide, varying by country, ethnicity and diagnostic thresholds. There are associated short- and long-term health risks for women and their babies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of interventions for preventing GDM. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6 August 2019) with key words 'gestational diabetes' OR 'GDM' to identify reviews pre-specifying GDM as an outcome. We included reviews of interventions in women who were pregnant or planning a pregnancy, irrespective of their GDM risk status. Two overview authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data and assessed quality of evidence using ROBIS and GRADE tools. We assigned interventions to categories with graphic icons to classify the effectiveness of interventions as: clear evidence of benefit or harm (GRADE moderate- or high-quality evidence with a confidence interval (CI) that did not cross the line of no effect); clear evidence of no effect or equivalence (GRADE moderate- or high-quality evidence with a narrow CI crossing the line of no effect); possible benefit or harm (low-quality evidence with a CI that did not cross the line of no effect or GRADE moderate- or high-quality evidence with a wide CI); or unknown benefit or harm (GRADE low-quality evidence with a wide CI or very low-quality evidence). MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 Cochrane Reviews (71 trials, 23,154 women) with data on GDM. Nine additional reviews pre-specified GDM as an outcome, but did not identify GDM data in included trials. Ten of the 11 reviews were judged to be at low risk of bias and one review at unclear risk of bias. Interventions assessed included diet, exercise, a combination of diet and exercise, dietary supplements, pharmaceuticals, and management of other health problems in pregnancy. The quality of evidence ranged from high to very low. Diet Unknown benefit or harm: there was unknown benefit or harm of dietary advice versus standard care, on the risk of GDM: risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.04; 5 trials; 1279 women; very low-quality evidence. There was unknown benefit or harm of a low glycaemic index diet versus a moderate-high glycaemic index diet on the risk of GDM: RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.31; 4 trials; 912 women; low-quality evidence. Exercise Unknown benefit or harm: there was unknown benefit or harm for exercise interventions versus standard antenatal care on the risk of GDM: RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.84; 3 trials; 826 women; low-quality evidence. Diet and exercise combined Possible benefit: combined diet and exercise interventions during pregnancy versus standard care possibly reduced the risk of GDM: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.01; 19 trials; 6633 women; moderate-quality evidence. Dietary supplements Clear evidence of no effect: omega-3 fatty acid supplementation versus none in pregnancy had no effect on the risk of GDM: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26; 12 trials; 5235 women; high-quality evidence. Possible benefit: myo-inositol supplementation during pregnancy versus control possibly reduced the risk of GDM: RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.64; 3 trials; 502 women; low-quality evidence. Possible benefit: vitamin D supplementation versus placebo or control in pregnancy possibly reduced the risk of GDM: RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 4 trials; 446 women; low-quality evidence. Unknown benefit or harm: there was unknown benefit or harm of probiotic with dietary intervention versus placebo with dietary intervention (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.89; 1 trial; 114 women; very low-quality evidence), or probiotic with dietary intervention versus control (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.92; 1 trial; 111 women; very low-quality evidence) on the risk of GDM. There was unknown benefit or harm of vitamin D + calcium supplementation versus placebo (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.84; 1 trial; 54 women; very low-quality evidence) or vitamin D + calcium + other minerals versus calcium + other minerals (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.73; 1 trial; 1298 women; very low-quality evidence) on the risk of GDM. Pharmaceutical Possible benefit: metformin versus placebo given to obese pregnant women possibly reduced the risk of GDM: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.19; 3 trials; 892 women; moderate-quality evidence. Unknown benefit or harm:eight small trials with low- to very low-quality evidence showed unknown benefit or harm for heparin, aspirin, leukocyte immunisation or IgG given to women with a previous stillbirth on the risk of GDM. Management of other health issues Clear evidence of no effect: universal versus risk based screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction had no effect on the risk of GDM: RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.25; 1 trial; 4516 women; moderate-quality evidence. Unknown benefit or harm: there was unknown benefit or harm of using fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide versus a clinical algorithm to adjust asthma therapy on the risk of GDM: RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.77; 1 trial; 210 women; low-quality evidence. There was unknown benefit or harm of pharmacist led multidisciplinary approach to management of maternal asthma versus standard care on the risk of GDM: RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.82; 1 trial; 58 women; low-quality evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No interventions to prevent GDM in 11 systematic reviews were of clear benefit or harm. A combination of exercise and diet, supplementation with myo-inositol, supplementation with vitamin D and metformin were of possible benefit in reducing the risk of GDM, but further high-quality evidence is needed. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation and universal screening for thyroid dysfunction did not alter the risk of GDM. There was insufficient high-quality evidence to establish the effect on the risk of GDM of diet or exercise alone, probiotics, vitamin D with calcium or other vitamins and minerals, interventions in pregnancy after a previous stillbirth, and different asthma management strategies in pregnancy. There is a lack of trials investigating the effect of interventions prior to or between pregnancies on risk of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Dieta para Diabéticos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inositol/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555739

RESUMO

In poultry production, birds are raised under intensive conditions, which can enable rapid spread of infections, with Clostridium perfringens-caused necrotic enteritis (NE) being one of the most devastating for the industry. The current investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis PB6 probiotic supplementation on bird's post NE recovery, based on chicken performance, cecal microbiota composition, ileum histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in the cecum of the birds that were challenged with NE mid-production. Birds were split into four groups, including a negative control, positive control challenged with C. perfringens, group supplemented with B. subtilis probiotic, and NE challenged birds supplemented with B. subtilis probiotic. Following NE challenge birds were allowed to reach the end of production time at 40 days, and samples were collected to estimate if probiotic supplementation resulted in better post-NE recovery. Intestinal lesion score across the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum indicated that at the end of production timeline NE challenged birds supplemented with B. subtilis probiotic had lower intestinal lesion scores compared to NE challenged birds without probiotic supplementation implying improved recovery. Probiotic supplementation improved performance of NE challenged birds only in the post-NE recovery stage. NE challenged birds had a significant increase in cecal propionic acid, which was not observed in NE challenged birds supplemented with B.subtilus. Both B. subtilis supplemented groups (challenged and unchanged) were characterized by a significant rise in cecal acetic and butyric acid. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis supplementation can assist the birds in dealing with NE outbreak and long term recovery.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/dietoterapia , Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterite/dietoterapia , Enterite/patologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559198

RESUMO

In early life and around weaning, pigs are at risk of developing infectious diseases which compromise animal welfare and have major economic consequences for the pig industry. A promising strategy to enhance resistance against infectious diseases is immunomodulation by feed additives. To assess the immune stimulating potential of feed additives in vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were used. These cells play a central role in the innate and adaptive immune system and are the first cells encountered by antigens that pass the epithelial barrier. Two different feed additives were tested on dendritic cells cultured from fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow cells; a widely used commercial feed additive based on yeast-derived ß-glucans and the gram-negative probiotic strain E. coli Nissle 1917. E. coli Nissle 1917, but not ß-glucans, induced a dose-dependent upregulation of the cell maturation marker CD80/86, whereas both feed additives induced a dose-dependent production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10. Furthermore, E. coli Nissle 1917 consistently induced higher levels of cytokine production than ß-glucans. These immunomodulatory responses could be assessed by fresh as well as cryopreserved in vitro cultured porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both ß-glucans and E. coli Nissle 1917 are able to enhance dendritic cell maturation, but in a differential manner. A more mature dendritic cell phenotype could contribute to a more efficient response to infections. Moreover, both fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can be used as in vitro pre-screening tools which enable an evidence based prediction of the potential immune stimulating effects of different feed additives.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
12.
Rev. iberoam. fertil. reprod. hum ; 37(2): 3-11, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193739

RESUMO

El uso de probióticos es un área de investigación traslacional en continuo progreso debido al creciente interés de los clínicos del área de fertilidad y sus pacientes. Por lo que el objetivo principal de este trabajo es recabar y resumir la información de la literatura científica relevante sobre los probióticos y su posible papel modulador efectivo en alteraciones relacionadas con la fertilidad y reproductivas. Para ello se describen los aspectos de interés relativos a: 1. La microbiota humana y sitios naturales de colonización relacionados con la salud reproductiva: microbiota vaginal, microbiota endometrial, microbiota y embarazo. 2. A continuación, hemos resaltado las disbiosis de los sitios de colonización y las repercusiones en fertilidad del estado de salud/enfermedad y por último 3. La hipótesis sobre los tratamientos efectivos con probióticos orales vs vaginales y sus vías fisiológicas de transferencia y actuación; que lleva asociado la descripción del concepto de translocación efectiva o llegada de los probióticos alsitio natural de colonización tras su administración como suplementos. La mayoría de probióticos utilizados en disbiosis relacionadas con la fertilidad pertenecen al género Lactobacillus. Se suelen administrar principalmente por vía oral a una concentración del orden de 1x109UFC/día y una duración de4-12 semanas, siendo diferencial en función de la disbiosis a tratar


The use of probiotics is an area of translational research in continuous progress due to the growing interest of fertility clinicians and their patients. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to collect and summarise relevant information from the available scientific literature on probiotics and their effective modulating role in fertility-related and reproductive disorders. To approach this objective, we have summarised the knowledge regarding the following pertinent aspects: 1. The human microbiota: intestinal microbiota already well studied, and other natural colonization sites related to reproductive health: vaginal microbiota, endometrial microbiota, pregnancy microbiota. 2. Next, we have highlighted the dysbiosis of the colonization sites and the repercussions on the state of health / disease and finally 3. The hypothesis that exists about effective treatments with oral probiotics and their physiological transfer and performance pathways and the associated concept of translocation or arrival at the natural site of colonization. Most probiotics used in fertility-related dysbiosis be-long to the genus Lactobacillus. They are mainly administered via oral at average concentrations of 1x109CFU/day during 4-12 weeks, being differential depending on the dysbiosis to be treated


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 158-169, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-239782

RESUMO

Severe and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were usually with underlying diseases, which led to the problems of complicated drug use, potential drug-drug interactions and medication errors in special patients. Based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6), and Management of COVID-19: the Zhejiang experience, we summarized the experience in the use of antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, vascular active drugs, antibacterial, probiotics, nutrition support schemes in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. It is also suggested to focus on medication management for evaluation of drug efficacy and duration of treatment, prevention and treatment of adverse drug reactions, identification of potential drug-drug interactions, individualized medication monitoring based on biosafety protection, and medication administration for special patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Tratamento Farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
14.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 158-169, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391659

RESUMO

Severe and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were usually with underlying diseases, which led to the problems of complicated drug use, potential drug-drug interactions and medication errors in special patients. Based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6), and Management of COVID-19: the Zhejiang experience, we summarized the experience in the use of antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, vascular active drugs, antibacterial, probiotics, nutrition support schemes in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. It is also suggested to focus on medication management for evaluation of drug efficacy and duration of treatment, prevention and treatment of adverse drug reactions, identification of potential drug-drug interactions, individualized medication monitoring based on biosafety protection, and medication administration for special patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Tratamento Farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20095, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that intestinal flora may play an important role in allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics of Bifidobacterium triplex on the symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR). The effects of this probiotic on the immune system have been reported in some studies, but most previous studies have been in animals. METHODS/DESIGN: 60 infants and young children with AR were randomly divided into 2 groups: probiotics/placebo group. The main outcome was the use of a comprehensive symptom drug score to assess allergy symptoms. In addition, health-related quality of life was investigated (rhinitis quality of life questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included a visual analog scale of allergy burden and a second quality of life questionnaire. This report describes the study design of a randomized controlled trial. DISCUSSION: The study design described a double-center, randomized, location at the Minda Hospital of Hubei Minzu University and West China Hospital of Sichuan University, which will be focused on the study about probiotics treatment and its effect on AR symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: It has been registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn/listbycreater.aspx (Identifier: ChiCTR2000031175), Registered March 22, 2020.


Assuntos
Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , Bifidobacterium , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lactente , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H32-H41, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412785

RESUMO

Disruption of the normal gut microbiome (dysbiosis) is implicated in the progression and severity of myriad disorders, including hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. Probiotics attenuate and reverse gut dysbiosis to improve cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Lactobacillus reuteri is a well-studied lactic acid-producing probiotic with known cholesterol-lowering properties and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we hypothesized that L. reuteri delivered to hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr KO) mice will reduce cholesterol levels and minimize cardiac injury from an ischemic insult. L. reuteri [1 × 109 or 50 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/day] was administered by oral gavage to wild-type mice and LDLr KO for up to 6 wk followed by an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) protocol. After 4 wk of gavage, total serum cholesterol in wild-type mice receiving saline was 113.5 ± 5.6 mg/dL compared with 113.3 ± 6.8 and 101.9 ± 7.5 mg/dL in mice receiving 1 × 109 or 50 × 106 CFU/day, respectively. Over the same time frame, administration of L. reuteri at 1 × 109 or 50 × 106 CFU/day did not lower total serum cholesterol (283.0 ± 11.1, 263.3 ± 5.0, and 253.1 ± 7.0 mg/dL; saline, 1 × 109 or 50 × 106 CFU/day, respectively) in LDLr KO mice. Despite no impact on total serum cholesterol, L. reuteri administration significantly attenuated cardiac injury following I/R, as evidenced by smaller infarct sizes compared with controls in both wild-type and LDLr KO groups. In conclusion, daily L. reuteri significantly protected against cardiac injury without lowering cholesterol levels, suggesting anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri uncoupled from improvements in serum cholesterol.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated that daily delivery of Lactobacillus reuteri to wild-type and hypercholesterolemic lipoprotein receptor knockout mice attenuated cardiac injury following ischemia-reperfusion without lowering total serum cholesterol in the short term. In addition, we validated protection against cardiac injury using histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. L. reuteri offers promise as a probiotic to mitigate ischemic cardiac injury.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus reuteri/patogenicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are suggested to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of some potential probiotics in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anticancer effects of the following potential probiotic groups were investigated in LS174T cancer cells compared to IEC-18 normal cells. 1. a single strain of Bifidobacterium. breve, 2. a single strain of Lactobacillus. reuteri, 3. a cocktail of 5 strains of Lactobacilli (LC), 4. a cocktail of 5 strains of Bifidobacteria (BC), 5. a cocktail of 10 strains from Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (L+B). Apoptosis rate, EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2 protein) expression levels were assessed as metrics of evaluating anticancer properties. Effect of BC, as the most effective group in vitro, was further assessed in mice models. RESULTS: BC induced ~21% and only ~3% apoptosis among LS174T and IEC-18 cells respectively. BC decreased the expression of EGFR by 4.4 folds, HER-2 by 6.7 folds, and PTGS-2 by 20 folds among the LS174T cells. In all these cases, BC did not interfere significantly with the expression of the genes in IEC-18 cells. This cocktail has caused only 1.1 folds decrease, 1.8 folds increase and 1.7 folds decrease in EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 expression, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed these results in the protein level. BC significantly ameliorated the disease activity index, restored colon length, inhibited the increase in incidence and progress of tumors to higher stages and grades. CONCLUSIONS: BC was the most efficient treatment in this study. It had considerable "protective" anti-cancer properties and concomitantly down regulated EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2), while having significant anti-CRC effects on CRC mice models. In general, this potential probiotic could be considered as a suitable nutritional supplement to treat and prevent CRC.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007137, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates. Secondarily, we assessed the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds on the duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to update our search. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 20 January 2020), PREMEDLINE (1996 to 20 January 2020), Embase (1980 to 20 January 2020), and CINAHL (1982 to 20 January 2020). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: In our search, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating enteral lactoferrin supplementation at any dose or duration to prevent sepsis or NEC in preterm neonates. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Meta-analysis of data from twelve randomized controlled trials showed that lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds decreased late-onset sepsis (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI, -0.06, -0.02; NNTB 25, 95% CI 17 to 50; 12 studies, 5425 participants, low-certainty evidence) and decreased length of hospital stay (MD -2.38, 95% CI, -4.67, -0.09; 3 studies, 1079 participants, low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis including only good methodological certainty studies suggested a decrease in late-onset sepsis with enteral lactoferrin supplementation (typical RR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78, 0.97; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI, -0.05, -0.0; 9 studies, 4702 participants, low-certainty evidence). There were no differences in NEC stage II or III (typical RR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.41; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.02, 0.01; 7 studies, 4874 participants; low-certainty evidence) or 'all-cause mortality' (typical RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69, 1.17; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.01, 0.01; 11 studies, 5510 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). One study reported no differences in neurodevelopmental testing by Mullen's or Bayley III at 24 months of age after enteral lactoferrin supplementation (one study, 292 participants, low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with probiotics decreased late-onset sepsis (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.46; RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.08; NNTB 8, 95% CI 6 to 13; 3 studies, 564 participants; low-certainty evidence) and NEC stage II or III (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.62; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.03; NNTB 20, 95% CI 12.5 to 33.3; 1 study, 496 participants; very low-certainty evidence), but not 'all-cause mortality' (very low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with or without probiotics had no effect on CLD, duration of mechanical ventilation or threshold retinopathy of prematurity (low-certainty evidence). Investigators reported no adverse effects in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence from studies of good methodological quality that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds decreases late-onset sepsis but not NEC ≥ stage II or 'all cause mortality' or neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of age in preterm infants without adverse effects. Low- to very low-certainty evidence suggests that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds in combination with probiotics decreases late-onset sepsis and NEC ≥ stage II in preterm infants without adverse effects, however, there were few included studies of poor methodological quality. The presence of publication bias and small studies of poor methodology that may inflate the effect size make recommendations for clinical practice difficult.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Números Necessários para Tratar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
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