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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201542

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that can colonize different human body sites, including primarily the gastrointestinal tract, but also the urinary tract, the skin, and breast milk. Literature data showed that the administration of L. reuteri can be beneficial to human health. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the role of L. reuteri in the management of gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation, both in adults and children, which are frequent reasons for admission to the emergency department (ED), in order to promote the best selection of probiotic type in the treatment of these uncomfortable and common symptoms. Materials and Methods: We searched articles on PubMed® from January 2011 to January 2021. Results: Numerous clinical studies suggested that L. reuteri may be helpful in modulating gut microbiota, eliminating infections, and attenuating the gastrointestinal symptoms of enteric colitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (also related to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection), irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic constipation. In both children and in adults, L. reuteri shortens the duration of acute infectious diarrhea and improves abdominal pain in patients with colitis or inflammatory bowel disease. It can ameliorate dyspepsia and symptoms of gastritis in patients with HP infection. Moreover, it improves gut motility and chronic constipation. Conclusion: Currently, probiotics are widely used to prevent and treat numerous gastrointestinal disorders. In our opinion, L. reuteri meets all the requirements to be considered a safe, well-tolerated, and efficacious probiotic that is able to contribute to the beneficial effects on gut-human health, preventing and treating many gastrointestinal symptoms, and speeding up the recovery and discharge of patients accessing the emergency department.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Lactobacillus reuteri , Probióticos , Adulto , Criança , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Diarreia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
2.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(2 Suppl. 1): 67-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281303

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to establish the significance of probiotic usage, both as a preventive as well as a therapeutic strategy for the management of periodontal disease. It also substantiates the existing studies of single/combined bacterial strain for exhibiting variable ecological impact on oral bacteria. Data sources included literature searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, Embase, CENTRAL and Web of science databases for placebo controlled randomized clinical trials of SRP with orally administered probiotics in any form as an adjunct. Data extraction was conducted and information from the included studies was tabulated according to the study designs, form of drug delivery, main outcomes, and clinical parameters. Data collected were based on the focused question outlined for the present systematic review. The reviewers cross-checked all extracted data. CAL and PD were assessed as the primary outcome to compare the effectiveness of adjunctive probiotic therapy in addition to SRP. Fourteen clinical studies were included and demonstrated efficacy in reducing periodontal probing depth (PPD) and gaining clinical attachment level (CAL), between probiotics and SRP/placebo. Adjunctive probiotic therapy in addition to SRP leads to decrease in probing depth and clinical attachment gain in chronic periodontitis patients. However, further high-quality randomized clinical trials with microbiological outcomes are required to fortify the conclusion.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Probióticos , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Aplainamento Radicular
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206478

RESUMO

Prevalences of Campylobacter (C.) jejuni infections are progressively rising globally. Given that probiotic feed additives, such as the commercial product Aviguard®, have been shown to be effective in reducing enteropathogens, such as Salmonella, in vertebrates, including livestock, we assessed potential anti-pathogenic and immune-modulatory properties of Aviguard® during acute C. jejuni-induced murine enterocolitis. Therefore, microbiota-depleted IL-10-/- mice were infected with C. jejuni strain 81-176 by gavage and orally treated with Aviguard® or placebo from day 2 to 4 post-infection. The applied probiotic bacteria could be rescued from the intestinal tract of treated mice, but with lower obligate anaerobic bacterial counts in C. jejuni-infected as compared to non-infected mice. Whereas comparable gastrointestinal pathogen loads could be detected in both groups until day 6 post-infection, Aviguard® treatment resulted in improved clinical outcome and attenuated apoptotic cell responses in infected large intestines during acute campylobacteriosis. Furthermore, less distinct pro-inflammatory immune responses could be observed not only in the intestinal tract, but also in extra-intestinal compartments on day 6 post-infection. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that Aviguard® exerts potent disease-alleviating effects in acute C. jejuni-induced murine enterocolitis and might be a promising probiotic treatment option for severe campylobacteriosis in humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/terapia , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Enterocolite/microbiologia , Enterocolite/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/deficiência , Jejuno/microbiologia , Jejuno/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207960

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease that may be treated with probiotics. In this study, probiotic strains that could or could not decrease interleukin (IL)-17 levels were applied to imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice via oral administration. Bifidobacteriumadolescentis CCFM667, B. breve CCFM1078, Lacticaseibacillusparacasei CCFM1074, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri CCFM1132 ameliorated psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and suppressed the release of IL-23/T helper cell 17 (Th17) axis-related inflammatory cytokines, whereas B. animalis CCFM1148, L. paracasei CCFM1147, and L. reuteri CCFM1040 neither alleviated the pathological characteristics nor reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. All effective strains increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids, which were negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. By performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the diversity of gut microbiota in psoriasis-like mice was found to decrease, but all effective strains made some specific changes to the composition of gut microbiota compared to the ineffective strains. Furthermore, except for B. breve CCFM1078, all other effective strains decreased the abundance of the family Rikenellaceae, which was positively correlated with psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and was negatively correlated with propionate levels. These findings demonstrated effects of strain-specificity, and how probiotics ameliorated psoriasis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/dietoterapia , Psoríase/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Imiquimode , Interleucinas/análise , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/farmacologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th17/imunologia
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931321, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Uveitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute blurry vision related to an inflammation of the uvea. Gut microbiome dysbiosis can influence the prognosis of uveitis by inducing a loss of intestinal immune homeostasis leading to a lower activation threshold of the immune cells. This promotes a pro-inflammatory response resulting in reactivation of the disease. This is the case report of a 21-year-old woman with a 3-year history of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) of the right eye, who responded favorably to probiotic dietary supplementation. CASE REPORT A 21-year-old woman, previously unknown to our Ophthalmology Unit, presented with ocular pain and redness. Three years ago, she had been diagnosed with monolateral AAU in the right eye. Her medical and family histories were unremarkable. After a complete clinical evaluation, we decided to start a combination treatment protocol with continuous use of probiotics and the use of ocular steroids only during an exacerbation of the condition. To monitor the trend of the disease, she underwent a monthly clinical examination for the following year. During this period, we observed a decrease in ocular inflammation with a gain in the primary outcome (best-corrected visual acuity), and the steroids and atropine were discontinued for the following months. CONCLUSIONS This case report describes a patient with a 3-year history of AAU, who responded well to a combination treatment of dietary probiotic supplementation and steroids, demonstrating that probiotics can reduce recurrences of AAU.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Uveíte Anterior , Uveíte , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Uveíte Anterior/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203002

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is still a common functional gastrointestinal disease that presents chronic abdominal symptoms but with a pathophysiology that is not yet fully elucidated. Moreover, the use of the synergistic combination of prebiotics and probiotics, known as synbiotics, for IBS therapy is still in the early stages. Advancements in technology led to determining the important role played by probiotics in IBS, whereas the present paper focuses on the detailed review of the various pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics via multidisciplinary domains involving the gastroenterology (microbiota modulation, alteration of gut barrier function, visceral hypersensitivity, and gastrointestinal dysmotility) immunology (intestinal immunological modulation), and neurology (microbiota-gut-brain axis communication and co-morbidities) in mitigating the symptoms of IBS. In addition, this review synthesizes literature about the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of prebiotics and synbiotics for patients with IBS, discussing clinical studies testing the efficiency and outcomes of synbiotics used as therapy for IBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Comorbidade , Depressão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/imunologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 669901, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295831

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metronidazole and oral probiotics adjunct to metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). One hundred and twenty-six Chinese women with BV were enrolled in this parallel, controlled trial, and were randomly assigned into two study arms: the metronidazole group, which was prescribed metronidazole vaginal suppositories for 7 days, and the adjunctive probiotic group, which received Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Limosilactobacillus reuteri RC-14 orally for 30 days as an adjunct to metronidazole. Clinical symptoms and Nugent scores at the initial visit, 30 days and 90 days were compared. There was no significant difference of the 30-day total cure rate between the adjunctive probiotic group (57.69%) and the metronidazole group (59.57%), with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70 to 1.35, p-value = 0.04), or of the 90-day total cure rate (36.54% vs. 48.94%, OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.19; p-value = 0.213). Also, no significant difference of the vaginal and faecal microbial diversity and structure between the two groups at 0, 30 or 90 days were shown based on 16S rRNA sequences. The probiotic species were rarely detected in either the vaginal microbiota or the faecal microbiota after administration which may revealed the cause of noneffective of oral probiotics. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trial. The study indicated that oral probiotic adjunctive treatment did not increase the cure rate of Chinese BV patients compared to metronidazole.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Vaginose Bacteriana , China , Feminino , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 185-191, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222950

RESUMO

Introducción. Existe evidencia del beneficio de los probióticos en prevenir enterocolitis necrotizante en prematuros extremos. Desde 2015, se usa probiótico preventivo en el Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de este probiótico en la incidencia, gravedad, necesidad de terapia quirúrgica y letalidad por enterocolitis necrotizante en prematuros extremos. Pacientes y método. Estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. Datos analizados con Stata. Se aplicó la prueba exacta de Fisher para comparar porcentajes y, para los promedios, la prueba t para varianzas distintas. Los egresados entre 2015 y 2017 recibieron Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (LRP), dosis única (1 x 108 unidades formadora de colonias) desde los primeros días de vida hasta cumplir las 36 semanas de edad gestacional corregida. Los controles egresados entre 2012 y 2014 no recibieron LRP.Resultados. El 3,45 % de los casos tuvo algún grado de enterocolitis: grado i (el 64 %), ii (el 18 %), iii (el 18 %); requirió cirugía el 18 % y no hubo letalidad. El 3,75 % de los controles históricos presentaron enterocolitis: grado i (el 12 %), ii (el 35 %), iii (el 53 %); el 64,7 % requirió cirugía, y el 47 % falleció. El grupo intervenido presentó grado ii o iii en un 36 %; en el grupo control, la sumatoria de estos estadios fue del 88 %.Conclusión.LRP administrado en dosis única diaria al prematuro extremo no modificó la incidencia de enterocolitis, pero disminuyó su gravedad, la letalidad y necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico.


Introduction. There is evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants. Probiotic prevention has been used since 2015 in the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.Objective. To assess the impact of this probiotic on the incidence, severity, surgical treatment requirement, and fatality rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants.Patients and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Data were analyzed using Stata. Fisher's exact test was used to compare percentages, and the unequal variances t-test, for averages. Infants discharged between 2015 and 2017 received Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (LRP), in a single dose (1 x 108 colony forming units), since the first days of life until 36 weeks of corrected gestational age. Controls discharged between 2012 and 2014 did not receive LRP.Results. Some degree of enterocolitis was observed in 3.45 % of cases: stage I (64 %), stage II (18 %), stage III (18 %); 18 % required surgery, and there were no deaths. Among historical controls, 3.75 % had enterocolitis: stage I (12 %), stage II (35 %), stage III (53 %); 64.7 % required surgery, and 47 % died. In the intervention group, stage II or III accounted for 36 % of cases, whereas in the control group, for 88 %.Conclusion. Administering a single daily dose of LRP to extremely preterm infants did not affect the incidence of enterocolitis, but reduced its severity, fatality rate, and surgical treatment requiremen


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Chile , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Infusões Parenterais/métodos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066560

RESUMO

In recent decades, researchers around the world have been studying intensively how micro-organisms that are present inside living organisms could affect the main processes of life, namely health and pathological conditions of mind or body. They discovered a relationship between the whole microbial colonization and the initiation and development of different medical disorders. Besides already known probiotics, novel products such as postbiotics and paraprobiotics have been developed in recent years to create new non-viable micro-organisms or bacterial-free extracts, which can provide benefits to the host with additional bioactivity to probiotics, but without the risk of side effects. The best alternatives in the use of probiotics and postbiotics to maintain the health of the intestinal microbiota and to prevent the attachment of pathogens to children and adults are highlighted and discussed as controversies and challenges. Updated knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the balance between microbiota and immune system for the introspection on the gut-lung-brain axis could reveal the latest benefits and perspectives of applied photobiomics for health. Multiple interconditioning between photobiomodulation (PBM), probiotics, and the human microbiota, their effects on the human body, and their implications for the management of viral infectious diseases is essential. Coupled complex PBM and probiotic interventions can control the microbiome, improve the activity of the immune system, and save the lives of people with immune imbalances. There is an urgent need to seek and develop innovative treatments to successfully interact with the microbiota and the human immune system in the coronavirus crisis. In the near future, photobiomics and metabolomics should be applied innovatively in the SARS-CoV-2 crisis (to study and design new therapies for COVID-19 immediately), to discover how bacteria can help us through adequate energy biostimulation to combat this pandemic, so that we can find the key to the hidden code of communication between RNA viruses, bacteria, and our body.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , COVID-19/radioterapia , COVID-19/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/radioterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Metabolômica , Fototerapia/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos da radiação
10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 599-607, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of probiotics in preventing late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics in preventing LOS in VLBW infants. LOS was classified as clinical LOS and confirmed LOS. RevMan 5.4 was used to perform the Meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 31 RCTs were included, with 3 490 VLBW infants in the probiotics group and 3 376 VLBW infants in the control group. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the control group, the probiotics group had significantly lower risks of clinical LOS (RR=0.79, 95%CI:0.66-0.94, P=0.009) and clinical/confirmed LOS (RR=0.79, 95% CI:0.67-0.94, P=0.007). In the probiotics group, the infants receiving exclusive breastfeeding had a significantly lower risk of confirmed LOS (RR=0.77, 95%CI:0.62-0.96, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the risk of clinical LOS and clinical/confirmed LOS in VLBW infants, and the risk of confirmed LOS in VLBW infants who are exclusively breastfed.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Sepse , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Sepse/prevenção & controle
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068669

RESUMO

Probiotic bacteria are widely accepted as therapeutic agents against inflammatory bowel diseases for their immunostimulating effects. In the last decade, more evidence has emerged supporting the positive effects of probiotics on the course of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. This brief review summarizes the data from clinical studies of probiotics possessing antidepressant properties and focuses on the potential genes and proteins underlying these mechanisms. Data from small-sample placebo-controlled pilot studies indicate that certain strains of bacteria can significantly reduce the symptoms of depression, especially in depressed patients. Despite the disparity between studies attempting to pinpoint the bacterial putative genes and proteins accounting for these mechanisms, they ultimately show that bacteria are a potential source of metabiotics-microbial metabolites or structural components. Since the constituents of cells-namely, secreted proteins, peptides and cell wall components-are most likely to be entangled in the gut-brain axis, they can serve as starting point in the search for probiotics with concrete properties.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais
12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6606-6616, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory disease which is difficult to cure, is increasing in incidence, and is expensive to manage. The impact of long-term remission and recurrence in UC patients can cause a loss of confidence in patients regarding the efficacy of treatment and a lack of compliance, which creates a vicious circle. There is a lack of research on the nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) of UC patients in China. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics supplementation combined with WeChat platform health management on the nutritional status, inflammatory factor levels, and QOL of patients with mild to moderate UC. METHODS: We enrolled 150 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate UC in the outpatient and inpatient department of the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University between January 2018 to December 2020. Patients were randomly divided into an intervention group (probiotics supplement combined with WeChat platform) and a control group (routine follow-up). Changes to the nutritional status, inflammatory factor levels, and QOL of patients at discharge and 12 weeks after discharge were compared. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of intervention, the nutritional status, inflammatory factor levels, and QOL scores of the two groups were improved compared with those before 12 weeks. Nutritional status related indicators (PA, ALB, and TP) of the intervention group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05); the inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) of the intervention group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05); the SF-36 scores (PF, RP, and SF) in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05); and the IBDQ scores (BS, SS, and EF) in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics supplements combined with WeChat platform health management have a better curative effect on UC than conventional treatment by significantly improving the nutritional status of patients, reducing the level of inflammatory factors, and improving the QOL of patients. This intervention adds value to the management of UC patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100046446.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Probióticos , China , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066903

RESUMO

The effect of effective microorganisms (EM) on internal organ morphology, intestinal morphometry, and serum biochemical activity in Japanese quails under Clostridium perfringens challenge was determined. After 30 days of EM addition, one group of quails was orally inoculated with Clostridium perfringens. The second group did not receive EM and was inoculated with C. perfringens. In the gut, EM supplementation reduced the number of lesions, enhanced gut health, and protected the mucosa from pathogenic bacteria. EM showed an anti-inflammatory effect and fewer necrotic lesions in villi. In the internal organs, EM showed a protective effect against a typical lesion of C. perfringens infection. Necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes, necrosis of bile ducts, and bile duct proliferation were more severe in the infected group without EM. Morphometric evaluation showed significantly higher villi in the jejunum after EM addition. A greater crypt depth was observed in the C. perfringens group. Biochemical analysis of the blood indicated lower cholesterol on the 12th day of the experiment and between-group differences in total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin levels in the EM group. Further studies are needed to improve EM activity against pathologic bacteria as a potential alternative to antibiotics and to develop future natural production systems.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/dietoterapia , Infecções por Clostridium/sangue , Infecções por Clostridium/dietoterapia , Clostridium perfringens , Enterite/sangue , Enterite/dietoterapia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Codorniz/sangue , Codorniz/microbiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Feminino , Hepatócitos/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Jejuno/patologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Necrose , Albumina Sérica/análise , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Life Sci ; 280: 119717, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139232

RESUMO

AIMS: Since our troops had returned from the first Persian Gulf War in 1990-91, the veterans have reported chronic multisymptomatic illness widely referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI). We aim to review the current directions of GWI pathology research in the context of chronic multisymptomatic illness and its possible gut microbiome targeted therapies. The veterans of Gulf War show symptoms of chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and a subsection report of gastrointestinal complications. METHOD: Efforts of finding a suitable treatment regimen and clinical management remain a challenge. More recently, we have shown that the pathology is connected to alterations in the gut microbiome, and efforts of finding a suitable regimen for gut-directed therapeutics are underway. We discuss the various clinical interventions and summarize the possible effectiveness of gut-directed therapies such as the use of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), phenolic compounds, and their metabolites, use of probiotics, and fecal microbiota transfer. SIGNIFICANCE: The short review will be helpful to GWI researchers to expand their studies to the gut and find an effective treatment strategy for chronic multisymptomatic illness.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/terapia , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Disbiose/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Humanos , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/microbiologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/virologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
15.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065873

RESUMO

The combination of diet, lifestyle, and the exposure to food obesogens categorized into "microbiota disrupting chemicals" (MDC) could determine obesogenic-related dysbiosis and modify the microbiota diversity that impacts on individual health-disease balances, inducing altered pathogenesis phenotypes. Specific, complementary, and combined treatments are needed to face these altered microbial patterns and the specific misbalances triggered. In this sense, searching for next-generation beneficial microbes or next-generation probiotics (NGP) by microbiota culturing, and focusing on their demonstrated, extensive scope and well-defined functions could contribute to counteracting and repairing the effects of obesogens. Therefore, this review presents a perspective through compiling information and key strategies for directed searching and culturing of NGP that could be administered for obesity and endocrine-related dysbiosis by (i) observing the differential abundance of specific microbiota taxa in obesity-related patients and analyzing their functional roles, (ii) developing microbiota-directed strategies for culturing these taxa groups, and (iii) applying the successful compiled criteria from recent NGP clinical studies. New isolated or cultivable microorganisms from healthy gut microbiota specifically related to obesogens' neutralization effects might be used as an NGP single strain or in consortia, both presenting functions and the ability to palliate metabolic-related disorders. Identification of holistic approaches for searching and using potential NGP, key aspects, the bias, gaps, and proposals of solutions are also considered in this review.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bifidobacterium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactobacillus
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065187

RESUMO

The field of probiotic has been exponentially expanding over the recent decades with a more therapeutic-centered research. Probiotics mediated microbiota modulation within the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) have been proven to be beneficial in various health domains through pre-clinical and clinical studies. In the context of mental health, although probiotic research is still in its infancy stage, the promising role and potential of probiotics in various mental disorders demonstrated via in-vivo and in-vitro studies have laid a strong foundation for translating preclinical models to humans. The exploration of the therapeutic role and potential of probiotics in major depressive disorder (MDD) is an extremely noteworthy field of research. The possible etio-pathological mechanisms of depression involving inflammation, neurotransmitters, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and epigenetic mechanisms potentially benefit from probiotic intervention. Probiotics, both as an adjunct to antidepressants or a stand-alone intervention, have a beneficial role and potential in mitigating anti-depressive effects, and confers some advantages compared to conventional treatments of depression using anti-depressants.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/microbiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/microbiologia , Inflamação
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067354

RESUMO

In this review, we link ecological adaptations of different gut microbiota members with their potential for use as a new generation of probiotics. Gut microbiota members differ in their adaptations to survival in aerobic environments. Interestingly, there is an inverse relationship between aerobic survival and abundance or potential for prolonged colonization of the intestinal tract. Facultative anaerobes, aerotolerant Lactobacilli and endospore-forming Firmicutes exhibit high fluctuation, and if such bacteria are to be used as probiotics, they must be continuously administered to mimic their permanent supply from the environment. On the other hand, species not expressing any form of aerobic resistance, such as those from phylum Bacteroidetes, commonly represent host-adapted microbiota members characterized by vertical transmission from mothers to offspring, capable of long-term colonization following a single dose administration. To achieve maximal probiotic efficacy, the mode of their administration should thus reflect their natural ecology.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia
18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 6611222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953641

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the outbreak of a new viral respiratory infection. It has been demonstrated that the microbiota has a crucial role in establishing immune responses against respiratory infections, which are controlled by a bidirectional cross-talk, known as the "gut-lung axis." The effects of microbiota on antiviral immune responses, including dendritic cell (DC) function and lymphocyte homing in the gut-lung axis, have been reported in the recent literature. Additionally, the gut microbiota composition affects (and is affected by) the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which is the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and contributes to regulate inflammation. Several studies demonstrated an altered microbiota composition in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, it has been shown that vaccine efficacy against viral respiratory infection is influenced by probiotics pretreatment. Therefore, the importance of the gut microbiota composition in the lung immune system and ACE2 expression could be valuable to provide optimal therapeutic approaches for SARS-CoV-2 and to preserve the symbiotic relationship of the microbiota with the host.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965727

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of milk kefir (MK) on periodontitis in rats. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was performed on MK at different fermentation times to verify the presence of Lactobacillus kefiri. From these results, Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: C (Control); EP (experimental periodontitis); K1 (animals that received MK with one day of fermentation); K1+EP; K4 (animals without EP using MK with four days of fermentation) and K4+EP. MK was administered 28 days before EP induction and during the disease development period (11 days). On day 28, in the EP groups, periodontitis was induced. The animals were euthanized on day 39. The hemimaxillae were removed and the following parameters were evaluated: micro-Raman analysis of the presence of inflammation; histomorphometric analysis to quantify alveolar bone loss and immunohistochemistry for IL-6, TNF-α, IL-Iß and IL-10 in the periodontal ligament. Micro-Raman analysis showed that four days fermentation MK has a higher intensity spectrum of L. kefiri. Furthermore, the administration of this probiotic reduced the intensity of the inflammation spectrum when compared to one day fermentation MK. It was observed that the animals from the K4+EP group showed significant reduction of alveolar bone loss, as well as a lower IL-6, TNF-α and IL-Iß immunoexpression and a higher IL-10 immunoexpression, when compared to EP groups. We conclude that MK has anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects on periodontitis in rats and that these effects are fermentation time dependent.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Kefir , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ligamento Periodontal/patologia , Periodontite/patologia , Periodonto/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
Life Sci ; 278: 119622, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015282

RESUMO

The human microbiome is a complex and dynamic ecosystem, and the imbalance of its microbial community structure from the normal state is termed dysbiosis. The dysbiotic gut microbiome has been proved to be related to several pathological conditions like Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Colorectal Cancer (CRC), etc., and several other extra-intestinal conditions like Type 1 & 2 diabetes, obesity, etc. The complex gut microbial ecosystem starts to build before the birth of an individual. It is known to get affected by several factors such as birth mode, individual lifestyle, dietary practices, medications, and antibiotics. A dysbiotic microbiome can potentially hamper host homeostasis due to its role in immune modulation, metabolism, nutrient synthesis, etc. Restoration of the dysbiotic gut microbiome has emerged as a promising aid and a better therapeutic approach. Several approaches have been investigated to achieve this goal, including prebiotics and probiotics, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), extracellular vesicles, immune modulation, microbial metabolites, dietary interventions, and phages. This review discusses the various factors that influence the human microbiome with respect to their cause-effect relationship and the effect of gut microbiome compositional changes on the brain through the gut-brain axis. We also discuss the practices used globally for gut microbiome restoration purposes, along with their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Disbiose/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Microbiota , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
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