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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-11-12. (OPAS/NMH/MH/21-0023).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55187

RESUMO

Esta ficha informativa descreve os muitos riscos à saúde do consumo de álcool para homens e mulheres. Além dos riscos relacionados às principais causas de morte, tais como câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, doenças hepáticas e lesões, o uso do álcool pode causar ou exacerbar problemas sociais, legais, médicos, domésticos, escolares, de trabalho e financeiros. A ficha informativa mostra uma imagem do corpo humano cercado por alguns exemplos das mais de 200 condições de saúde relacionadas ao consumo de álcool.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Neoplasias , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Problemas Sociais
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665547

RESUMO

The article presents the results of pilot study implemented to determine cognitive disorders in patients taking "Spice". The purpose of research is to identify targets of psychological correction interventions to prevent cognitive deficiency in patients addicted to synthetic cannabinoids. The pilot sampling consisted of 30 patients taking "Spice". The control group consisted of 30 healthy individuals. Along with social consequences, one of the important focuses of the study was investigation of cognitive sphere of patients. A number of pathopsychologic tests was applied. The study established that patients demonstrated disorders of various functions of memory, attention, mental pace and thinking. In particular, disorders of short-term, long-term and mediate memory and mental tempo were revealed. Also, reduced activity of attention took place. The distortion and decreasing of generalization and poor prehension occurred reliably more often as compared with control group. The established cognitive disorders in patients taking "Spice" can be considered as targets for psychological correction interventions to prevent cognitive deficiency in patients addicted to synthetic cannabinoids.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Problemas Sociais
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54991

RESUMO

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have produced this second joint report to update the situation on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications for health, society and the economy. This report defines potential scenarios for control of the pandemic in the short term as well as long-term action recommended to strengthen the response capacity of countries with regard to the health needs of their populations and determinants in the context of a transformative recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Economia , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Problemas Sociais , Seguridade Social , Capital Social
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMO

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Economia , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Problemas Sociais , Seguridade Social , Capital Social
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639524

RESUMO

(1) Background: Lipoedema is a disease characterized by excessive bilateral and symmetrical accumulation of subcutaneous tissue in the lower extremities. It is a poorly understood condition, and low awareness of its existence often leads to incorrect diagnosis Initially, lipoedema was considered to be completely independent of lifestyle Currently, however, more and more cases of the coexistence of lipoedema and obesity are described in the literature as additionally affecting the severity of the disease The aim of the review is to present lipoedema as a social problem. (2) Methods: Materials on lipoedema in the social context were selected from 2018-2021. The PRISMA-Scr checklist was used in the review. (3) Results: Research has shown that more than 3/4 of patients with lipoedema are also overweight or obese. Patients with lipoedema have many comorbidities, and their presence negatively affects the quality of life. The quality of life in patients with lipoedema is lower than in healthy patients. (4) Conclusions: The number of studies available on lipoedema is low. Obesity is common in patients with lipoedema. Mental disorders increase the level of experienced pain. Lipoedema significantly reduces quality of life. A healthy lifestyle in patients with lipoedema could be helpful for prevention of complications and disability.


Assuntos
Lipedema , Humanos , Lipedema/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Problemas Sociais
8.
Dermatol Clin ; 39(4): 619-625, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556251

RESUMO

In this article, we discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on various areas of global health dermatology, including patient care, neglected tropical diseases, education, and collaborations. Information was collected from literature review and informal interviews with more than 20 dermatologists from around the world. Many of the setbacks and hardships experienced by the global health community in the last year highlight long-standing global interdependencies and systems that perpetuate ethnic, economic, and social inequalities on local and global scales. The pandemic has brought discussions on global health colonialism and domestic health inequality to the forefront.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dermatologia/tendências , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dermatopatias/terapia , Problemas Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486857

RESUMO

The article analyzes dynamics of main indices of disability in population older than able-bodied age in the Rostov Oblast. The trend of decreasing of scope of examinations of individuals of the mentioned age group, including decreasing the number of first and iteratively recognized as the disabled, against the background of increasing in the population structure of percentage of individuals older than able-bodied age. At the same time, increasing of accumulated disability was established in the studied category of population.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Idoso , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Problemas Sociais
10.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(3): 219-221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498442

RESUMO

Discontinuation of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) treatment (interruption of insulin therapy) rapidly leads to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) which is a life-threatening condition. Our case report is intended to draw attention to persons with T1DM and significant social/psychological problems. They typically, due to the lack of legal regulations, "fall out of the system", which should provide in such cases additional assistance in care conditioning proper treatment. Psychological an psychiatric disorders and/or social problems may interfere with self-control and diabetes treatment, making it difficult or even impossible. These patients represent a significant challenge for the diabetes team and require individualized management from the social care system. Patient safety-focused support from consulting physicians of other specialties is also essential. The case of our patient highlights the need for relevant legal and administrative regulations that would allow for quick, safe and adequate care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Cetoacidose Diabética , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/terapia , Humanos , Insulina , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Problemas Sociais
11.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(3): 561-579, jul.-set. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337751

RESUMO

Entre questões que se elaboram nas dimensões do público e do privado na internet, a partir da acessibilidade dos smartphones e da configuração de plataformas que se organizam discursiva e tecnologicamente para que usuárias(os) estejam on-line e ativas(os) nas redes, a exposição não consensual de conteúdo íntimo de meninas e mulheres se configura em um problema potencializado. Nesse sentido, o artigo trata da exposição desautorizada de materiais íntimos, chamada no campo de 'explanação', apresentando dados etnográficos de um grupo no Facebook que desenvolve práticas para ajudar meninas, geralmente menores de idade, a se proteger e combater casos de explanação. Percebemos o exercício de uma forma atualizada de poder sobre o corpo e a sexualidade que se dissocia do padrão do que é entendido como pornografia de vingança. Nessa direção, o universo digital funciona como uma extensão do cotidiano, produzindo e estendendo violências contra meninas e mulheres.


Among issues that are elaborated in the public and private dimensions on the internet, from the accessibility of smartphones and the configuration of platforms that are discursive and technologically organized so that users are online and active on the networks, non-consensual exposure of intimate content of girls and women is an increasing problem. In this sense, the article deals with the unauthorized exposure of intimate materials, called in the field of 'explanation', presenting ethnographic data from a Facebook group that develops practices to help girls, usually minors, to protect themselves and fight cases of explanation. We perceive the exercise of an updated form of power over the body and sexuality that is dissociated from the pattern of what is understood as revenge pornography. In this direction, the digital universe works as an extension of everyday life, producing and extending violence against girls and women.


Entre los temas que se elaboran en las dimensiones pública y privada en internet, desde la accesibilidad de los teléfonos inteligentes y la configuración de plataformas discursivas y tecnológicamente organizadas para que los usuarios estén en línea y activos en las redes, la exposición no consensuada de contenidos íntimos de niñas y mujeres es un problema cada vez mayor. En este sentido, el artículo trata sobre la exposición no autorizada de materiales íntimos, denominada en el campo de exposición, presentando datos etnográficos de un grupo de Facebook que desarrolla prácticas para ayudar a niñas, generalmente menores de edad, a protegerse y combatir casos de exposición. Percibimos el ejercicio de una forma actualizada de poder sobre el cuerpo y la sexualidad que se disocia del patrón de lo que se entiende como pornografía de venganza. En esta dirección, el universo digital funciona como una extensión de la vida cotidiana, produciendo y extendiendo la violencia contra niñas y mujeres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Mídias Sociais , Violência de Gênero , Cyberbullying , Problemas Sociais , Arquivos da Web como Assunto , Intervenção Baseada em Internet
12.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): 1145-1154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421018

RESUMO

A mobile addiction-focused outreach program designed to improve access to care for people experiencing homelessness was implemented in response to the opioid overdose crisis. This innovative program was readily accepted among participants and can inform the development of similar programs delivering addiction-focused care to people experiencing homelessness elsewhere.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Problemas Sociais
13.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(9): 622-627, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448733

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Nostalgia and homesickness are not currently regarded as mental disorders. The psychic pain associated with longing to return home had been considered a mental disorder for centuries, especially in Europe, where it was a sign of moral weakness between nations. Nostalgia's effects on American Civil War soldiers-anxiety, depression, and sleep and appetite disturbances, for example-were described by clinicians and linked to significant morbidity and mortality. Since then, although these effects of combat have been of interest, focus has shifted to psychic trauma, relegating the concept of nostalgia to an unclassified but commonly encountered condition. Besides wartime trauma, symptomatic conditions related to nostalgia have been described among displaced persons and refugees living in the diaspora longing for their homelands (e.g., social displacement syndrome). More recently, nostalgia has pervaded culture as a benign pastime, with no implications for psychopathology. Finally, the longing for return to an idyllic or imagined lifestyle has returned amid worldwide quarantining and isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this new sense, nostalgia has become a remedy rather than a disease. We identify four major iterations of nostalgia: the medical condition of homesickness, the condition studied in wartime, the application to migration and social displacement, and as a remedy for existential anxiety. We conclude that nostalgia per se is neither pathological nor normative, but a consistent phenomenon in human existence that should not be overlooked in cultural assessment and psychotherapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Problemas Sociais
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1294, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeless people face large excess mortality in comparison with the general population, but little is known about the effect of housing interventions like Housing First (HF) on their mortality. AIMS OF THE STUDY: 1) to explore 2-years mortality among homeless people with severe mental illness (SMI) included in French HF randomized controlled trial (RCT). 2) To examine causes of death among homeless participants. METHODS: For 703 participants of HF RCT: 353 in experimental group (HF) and 350 in control group (Treatment As Usual - TAU), any proof of life or death and causes of death were collected with a thorough retrospective investigation among relatives, institutions and administrative databases. Data collection took place from March to June 2017. RESULTS: 4.8% (n = 34) of the study participants died over the study period. Mean age of death was 40.9 (+/- 11.4) years. The overall 2-years mortality rate was 0.065 in the HF group (n = 23) versus 0.034 in the TAU group (n = 11). Mortality was associated with medications for opioid use disorder in multivariate Cox analysis (HR: 2.37, 95%CI 1.15-5.04, p = 0.025). Those in HF group seem to be more at risk of death compared to TAU group, mainly during the first 6 months of being housed, although the difference did not reach significance (HR: 0.49, 95%CI 0.24-1.01, p = 0.054). Violent deaths occurred in 52.2% of HF group's deaths versus 18.2% of TAU group's deaths, this excess being explained by 34.8% (n = 8) deaths by overdoses in HF group versus none in TAU group. LIMITATIONS: 1) 8.7% (n = 2) people in HF group died before HF intervention but were analyzed in intention-to-treat. 2) No proof of life or death has been found for only 0.6% in HF group (n = 2) but for 9.5% people in TAU group (n = 33) that could be anonymous deaths. 3) Undetermined causes represented 8.7% of deaths in HF group versus 36.4% in TAU group. 4) The small number of events (deaths) in the study population is a limitation for statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Due to important limitations, we cannot conclude on HF effect on mortality, but our results nevertheless confirm that the vulnerability of long-term homeless people with SMI persists after accessing independent housing. Earlier intervention in the pathways of homelessness should be considered, alongside active specific support for addictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ethics Committee Sud Mediterrannée V n° 11.050: trial number 2011-A00668-33: 28/07/2011. Clinicaltrials ID NCT01570712 : 4/4/2012.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Habitação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Problemas Sociais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299782

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aim of this study was (i) to analyze problems faced by informal caregivers in three areas of their life: health, work and finances, and family and social relationships, (ii) to investigate the main determinants of these problems, and (iii) to explore differences between men and women. (2) Methods: The study population consisted of people aged ≥18 years living in a family home who were providing unpaid care to a dependent person in the same or another home and who were registered as caregivers with the Primary Health Care District of Granada or the Provincial Council of Gipuzkoa. Several logistic regression models were built to analyze the likelihood of caregivers experiencing health, work-related, or social problems as a result of their caregiving responsibilities. (3) Results: Informal female caregivers were more likely to experience problems attributed to caregiving than their male counterparts, particularly in the areas of health and work. Additional factors associated with an increased likelihood of problems were low perceived social support, performance of ungratifying tasks, and fewer years as a caregiver. (4) Conclusions: Informal caregivers in Spain face significant problems as a result of their caregiving duties, and the impact on men and women is different. Policies and interventions to mitigate the negative effects of unpaid caregiving should incorporate differential strategies to meet the specific needs of male and female caregivers in different caregiving contexts.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Problemas Sociais , Espanha
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197508

RESUMO

The narrative mindset is a tendency to interpret social information in the frame of stories. Two experiments were conducted to determine if and why the narrative mindset increases social problem-solving effectivity. The experiments consisted of two parts: the experimental manipulation (inducing the narrative mindset or control condition) and the observation of effects. In the second part, presented as a separate study, a participant was asked to advise other people facing interpersonal problems (experiment 1) or emotional problems (experiment 2). Three pairs of coders judged each piece of advice independently on three scales: Effectivity of the advice, empathy, and personalization (using their own experiences in providing the advice). The results indicate that the narrative mindset increases empathy, supported by the co-occurring increase in the problem's personalization, which leads to higher effectivity. The results reveal the positive real-life implications of structuring social information within a story frame. It may encourage the introduction of the narrative mindset effects into an area of social cognition research. Finally, the experiments show that the narrative mindset may be activated experimentally, providing an effective instrument to test the impact of narrative knowledge on social cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Narração , Resolução de Problemas , Problemas Sociais , Adulto , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(2): 581-585, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190794

RESUMO

Despite efforts by the Peruvian state to contain the outbreak and spread of covid-19, including a strict nationwide quarantine for more than one hundred days, Peru had one of the highest numbers of cases and deaths in the world due to the pandemic. The pandemic highlighted the precariousness of the health care system, work, living conditions and transport. The pandemic also demonstrated that until underlying problems in the country's social and economic system are solved (such as inequality and poverty), the health sector can do little to combat a health care crisis. This article analyzes state and societal responses to the pandemic between February and August 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Governo , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Problemas Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 555, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs are disproportionately incurred by a relatively small group of people often described as high-cost users. Understanding the factors associated with high-cost use of health services among people experiencing homelessness could help guide service planning. METHODS: Survey data from a general cohort of adults with a history of homelessness and a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness were linked with administrative healthcare records in Ontario, Canada. Total costs were calculated using a validated costing algorithm and categorized based on population cut points for the top 5%, top 6-10%, top 11-50% and bottom 50% of users in Ontario. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with higher healthcare costs (with bottom 50% as the reference). RESULTS: Sixteen percent of the general homeless cohort and 30% percent of the cohort with a mental illness were in the top 5% of healthcare users in Ontario. Most healthcare costs for the top 5% of users were attributed to emergency department and inpatient service costs, while the costs from other strata were mostly for physician services, hospital outpatient clinics, and medications. The odds of being within the top 5% of users were higher for people who reported female gender, a regular medical doctor, past year acute service use, poor perceived general health and two or more diagnosed chronic conditions, and were lower for Black participants and other racialized groups. Older age was not consistently associated with higher cost use; the odds of being in the top 5% were highest for 35-to-49-year year age group in the cohort with a mental illness and similar for the 35-49 and ≥ 50-year age groups in the general homeless cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This study combines survey and administrative data from two cohorts of homeless adults to describe the distribution of healthcare costs and identify factors associated with higher cost use. These findings can inform the development of targeted interventions to improve healthcare delivery and support for people experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Problemas Sociais
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