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2.
Respir Investig ; 57(2): 133-139, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assist use of inhaled short-acting beta 2 agonists (SABAs) is reportedly effective for preventing shortness of breath on exertion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, it is unclear what strategy would be useful for improving physical activity in such patients. The aim is to investigate the effects of assisted use of SABA (procaterol) on physical activity in Japanese COPD patients targeting patient-specific restrictions in daily behavior. METHODS: Fourteen patients with stable COPD (age: 72.1±1.5, %FEV1: 55.6±4.5%) were asked to inhale 20 µg of procaterol 15 minutes before patient-specific daily physical activity that had been identified as limited by a questionnaire and document their usage in a diary. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer and the results were collected every month for 2 months. In the first month, a clinician assessed whether inhalation of SABA was appropriate based on a usage diary and coached patients to conduct adequate assist use of SABA for limited physical activity. RESULTS: The strategy significantly improved the physical activity level, assessed using the values of the metabolic equivalents (METs) multiplied by physical activity endurance, at ≥3.0 METs (p<0.05), and physical activity endurance at ≥2.5 and ≥3.0 METs, (p<0.05, p<0.05, respectively). The degree of improvement of physical activity level was significantly positively correlated with the baseline %FVC and %FEV1 (p<0.05, p<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Assist use of SABA targeting patient-specific restrictions, particularly when better lung function is still preserved, could be a useful approach for improving physical activity in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Tutoria , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
AAPS J ; 20(5): 84, 2018 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003443

RESUMO

Although high-speed laser imaging is the current standard to characterize the plume angle of suspension-based pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), this method is limited by the inability to identify the drug content in a droplet and simulate inhalation flow. The Plume Induction Port Evaluator (PIPE) is a modified induction port for cascade impactors that allows for the calculation of the angle of a plume based on direct drug mass quantification rather than indirect droplet illumination under airflow conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the PIPE apparatus to evaluate the effect of airflow on the Mass Median Plume Angle (MMPA) of commercially available suspension-based pMDIs (Ventolin® HFA, ProAir® HFA, and Proventil® HFA). Deposition patterns within PIPE were log-normally distributed allowing for the calculation of the MMPA for the three suspension products. Mass-based plume angles were significantly smaller (narrower angle) when inhalation airflow was used compared to no flow conditions (reduction of MMPA was 8, 16, and 13% for Ventolin® HFA, ProAir® HFA, and Proventil® HFA, respectively). Additionally, new parameters for characterizing plume geometry were calculated (MMPA ex-actuator and plume orientation). Mass-based plume angles of the suspension-based pMDI formulations were highly reproducible and demonstrated the effect of inhalation flow rate. These results suggest that plume geometry tests should be evaluated under flow conditions which is not possible using current methodologies. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Química Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão
4.
Med Princ Pract ; 27(4): 350-355, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: International guidelines recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the usefulness of short-acting bronchodilator assist use for stable COPD remains uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to objectively demonstrate the effects of assist use of procaterol, a short-acting ß2-agonist, on the respiratory mechanics of stable COPD patients treated with a long-acting bronchodilator using forced oscillation technique (FOT) and conventional spirometry. We also confirmed the length of time for which procaterol assist could significantly improve the pulmonary function. METHODS: We enrolled 28 outpatients with mild to severe COPD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stages I-III), who had used the same long-acting bronchodilator for longer than 3 months and who were in stable condition. All measures were performed using both FOT and spirometry sequentially from 15 min to 2 h after inhalation. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, inhaled procaterol assist use modestly but significantly improved spirometric and FOT measurements within 2 h after inhalation. These significant effects continued for at least 2 h. -Significant correlations were found between parameters -measured by spirometry and those measured by FOT. CONCLUSIONS: Procaterol assist use modestly but significantly improved pulmonary function determined by spirometry and respiratory mechanics in patients with stable COPD treated with long-acting bronchodilators. Thus, inhaled procaterol has the potential for assist use for COPD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Procaterol/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Japão , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria
5.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 7(4): 392-399, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884969

RESUMO

Procaterol hydrochloride hydrate (procaterol) is a ß2 -adrenergic receptor agonist that induces a strong bronchodilatory effect. The procaterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) has been frequently used in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety between the new procaterol DPI (new DPI) and the approved procaterol DPI (approved DPI). This study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover comparison to evaluate the pharmacodynamic equivalence of the new DPI and the approved DPI in patients with bronchial asthma. Primary efficacy variables were area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 during the 480-minute measurement period. Patients were divided into 2 groups, New-DPI-First (n = 8) and Approved-DPI-First (n = 8), according to the investigational medical product that was administered first. Patients inhaled 20 µg of procaterol in each period. FEV1 was measured by a spirometer at predose and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, and 480 minutes after each investigational medical product administration. Equivalence was evaluated by confirming that the 2-sided 90%CIs for the difference between the new and the approved DPI in means of AUC (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 were within the acceptance criteria of -0.15 to 0.15 L. The difference in means of AUC (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 was 0.041 L and 0.033 L, respectively, and the 90%CI was 0.004 to 0.078 L and -0.008 to 0.074 L, respectively. These CIs were both within the acceptance criteria. The new DPI was assessed as being bioequivalent to the approved DPI.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Procaterol/farmacocinética , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Aprovação de Equipamentos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Equivalência Terapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Intern Med ; 56(15): 1949-1955, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768962

RESUMO

Objective The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a simple test that is used to examine the exercise tolerance and outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the 6MWT is useful for assessing exercise tolerance, it is difficult to evaluate time-dependent parameters such as the walking pattern. A modified 6MWT has been devised to assess the walking pattern by calculating the number of steps per second (NSPS). This study was performed to investigate walking pattern of COPD patients in the modified 6MWT before and after a single inhalation of the short-acting ß2-agonist procaterol. Methods Nine male COPD patients participated in this study. The 6MWT was performed before and after the inhalation of procaterol hydrochloride. A digital video recording of the 6MWT was made. After the 6MWT, the number of steps walked by the subject in each 5-s period was counted manually with a hand counter while viewing the walking test on the video monitor. Results After the inhalation of procaterol, the 6-min walking distance increased significantly in comparison to baseline (p<0.01). The mean NSPS was also significantly increased after the inhalation of procaterol in comparison to baseline (p<0.01). The walking pattern was displayed on a graph of time versus NSPS, and the walking pace was shown by a graph of time versus cumulative steps. Conclusion The analysis of the COPD patients' walking test performance and their walking pattern and pace in the 6MWT may help to evaluate the effects of drug treatment.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Procaterol/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Respir Care ; 62(9): 1123-1130, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albuterol hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) either alone or with a valved holding chamber is used to treat bronchoconstriction. Delays between actuation and inhalation are common. Currently, the recommended interval between actuations of an albuterol HFA is 60 s. Using a shorter interval when multiple actuations are ordered will improve productivity in the hospital setting. METHODS: We studied aerosol characteristics of albuterol HFA (Ventolin, ProAir, and Proventil) with a cascade impactor calibrated at 30 L/min. We studied pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) alone, coupled to a nonelectrostatic valved holding chamber, and coupled to the valved holding chamber but introducing a 10-s delay between actuation and measurement. We tested intervals between actuations of 60, 30, and 15 s (not for delay scenario). The variable of most interest was fine-particle mass. Albuterol was measured by spectrophotometer (276 nm). RESULTS: Variations in fine-particle mass from 60-s values were < 15% for Ventolin and ProAir for all conditions tested and for Proventil with a valved holding chamber. Variations in fine-particle mass from 60-s values were > 15% for Proventil (pMDI alone with a 30-s interval and pMDI/valved holding chamber with delay and a 30-s interval). Adding a valved holding chamber increased fine-particle mass for all brands (ProAir 7-12%, Ventolin 26-35%, and Proventil 44-47%). The introduction of a 10-s delay reduced fine-particle mass for all brands (ProAir 34-39%, Ventolin 39-42%, and Proventil 27-32%). Comparison of fine-particle mass among brands showed that Proventil was > ProAir > Ventolin. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing the interval between actuations from 60 to 30 and 15 s does not seem to affect the aerosol characteristics of ProAir and Ventolin. Although some changes were noticed for Proventil, the pMDI outperformed Ventolin that had the lowest fine-particle mass. The use of a valved holding chamber increased fine-particle mass, but introducing a 10-s delay between actuation and inhalation significantly reduced fine-particle mass.


Assuntos
Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/administração & dosagem , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Fatores de Tempo , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Procaterol/administração & dosagem
8.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 79, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is currently recognized as an important mechanism for the increased number of myofibroblasts in cancer and fibrotic diseases. We have already reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is involved in airway remodeling induced by eosinophils. Procaterol is a selective and full ß2 adrenergic agonist that is used as a rescue of asthmatic attack inhaler form and orally as a controller. In this study, we evaluated whether procaterol can suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition of airway epithelial cells induced by eosinophils. METHODS: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and primary human eosinophils or an eosinophilic leukemia cell line. RESULTS: Procaterol significantly inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of bronchial epithelial cells, decreased the expression of vimentin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin compared to control. Butoxamine, a specific ß2-adrenergic antagonist, significantly blocked changes induced by procaterol. In addition, procaterol inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules induced during the interaction between eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting the involvement of adhesion molecules in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoting agent, exhibits similar inhibitory activity of procaterol. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these observations support the beneficial effect of procaterol on airway remodeling frequently associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Brônquios/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eosinófilos/citologia , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 103(2): 447-453, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an injured lung graft from donation after cardiac death donors could be reconditioned before transplantation using an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) system and ventilation with high-dose short-acting ß2-adrenergic receptor agonists. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in a canine model by intravenous potassium chloride injection. Lungs were randomly assigned to two groups after 150 minutes of warm ischemia: inhalation of 1,400 µg of procaterol (BETA group, n = 5) or control group receiving solvent (CON group, n = 5) during EVLP. Left lungs were transplanted after 120 minutes of EVLP. Functional variables, tissue adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels, and tissue cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels were measured 240 minutes after transplantation. RESULTS: Physiologic pulmonary function was similar at the end of EVLP in both groups. However, significantly better graft oxygenation, dynamic pulmonary compliance, and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance were observed in the BETA group than in the CON group 240 minutes after transplantation. No severe adverse effects were observed after lung transplantation in the BETA group. Lung tissue adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels were significantly higher in the BETA group than in the CON group at the end of EVLP and at 240 minutes after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose nebulized procaterol during EVLP ameliorated lung graft dysfunction at the early posttransplantation period without severe adverse effects. These data suggest that lung reconditioning with procaterol ventilation during EVLP improves lung graft function after transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Quente/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Rejeição de Enxerto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Parada Cardíaca , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/patologia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Perfusão , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Doadores de Tecidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in order to investigate the differences in the respiratory physiology of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), and asthma with airflow limitation (asthma FL(+)). METHODS: The medical records for a series of all stable patients with persistent airflow limitation due to COPD, ACOS, or asthma were retrospectively reviewed and divided into the COPD group (n=118), the ACOS group (n=32), and the asthma FL(+) group (n=27). All the patients underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests, including respiratory impedance. RESULTS: The low attenuation area score on chest HRCT was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the ACOS group (9.52±0.76 vs 5.09±1.16, P<0.01). The prevalence of bronchial wall thickening on chest HRCT was significantly higher in the asthma FL(+) group than in the COPD group (55.6% vs 25.0%, P<0.01). In pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate were significantly higher in the asthma FL(+) group than in the ACOS group (76.28%±2.54% predicted vs 63.43%±3.22% predicted, P<0.05 and 74.40%±3.16% predicted vs 61.08%±3.54% predicted, P<0.05, respectively). Although residual volume was significantly lower in the asthma FL(+) group than in the COPD group (112.05%±4.34% predicted vs 137.38%±3.43% predicted, P<0.01) and the ACOS group (112.05%±4.34% predicted vs148.46%±6.25% predicted, P<0.01), there were no significant differences in functional residual capacity or total lung capacity. The increase in FEV1 in response to short-acting ß2-agonists was significantly greater in the ACOS group than in the COPD group (229±29 mL vs 72±10 mL, P<0.01) and the asthma FL(+) group (229±29 mL vs 153±21 mL, P<0.05). Regarding respiratory impedance, resistance at 5 Hz and resistance at 20 Hz, which are oscillatory parameters of respiratory resistance, were significantly higher in the asthma FL(+) group than in the COPD group at the whole-breath (4.29±0.30 cmH2O/L/s vs 3.41±0.14 cmH2O/L/s, P<0.01 and 3.50±0.24 cmH2O/L/s vs 2.68±0.10 cmH2O/L/s, P<0.01, respectively), expiratory, and inspiratory phases. CONCLUSION: Although persistent airflow limitation occurs in patients with COPD, ACOS, and asthma FL(+), they may have distinct characteristics of the respiratory physiology and different responsiveness to bronchodilators.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Fenótipo , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espirometria , Síndrome , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Drug Test Anal ; 8(10): 1056-1064, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26990656

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate pharmacokinetics of procaterol in asthmatics and non-asthmatics after nebulized and oral administration in relation to doping. Ten asthmatic and ten non-asthmatic subjects underwent two pharmacokinetic trials. At first trial, 4 µg procaterol was administered as nebulization. At second trial, 100 µg procaterol was administered orally. Serum and urine samples were collected before and after administration of procaterol. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum and urine concentrations of procaterol were markedly higher after oral administration compared to nebulized administration. After oral administration, serum procaterol concentration-time area under the curve (AUC) was higher (P ≤ 0.05) for asthmatics than non-asthmatics. Likewise, urine concentrations were higher (P ≤ 0.01) for asthmatics than non-asthmatics 4 (47 ± 12 vs. 28 ± 9 ng/mL) and 8 h (39 ± 9 vs. 15 ± 5 ng/mL) after oral administration. Detection of serum procaterol was difficult after nebulized administration with 38 samples (27%) below limit of quantification (LOQ) and only trends were observed. No differences were observed between asthmatics and non-asthmatics in the urine concentrations of procaterol after nebulized administration. In summary, our data showed that asthmatics had higher urine concentrations of procaterol than non-asthmatics after oral administration of 100 µg, whereas no difference was observed between the groups after nebulized administration. For doping control purposes, our observations indicate that it is possible to differentiate therapeutic nebulized administration of procaterol from prohibited use of oral procaterol. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/urina , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Procaterol/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Administração Oral , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/química , Doping nos Esportes , Humanos , Procaterol/química
12.
Int J Pharm ; 505(1-2): 139-46, 2016 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27012982

RESUMO

Drug inhalation provides localized drug therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled drugs is limited by rapid clearance from the lungs. Small hydrophilic compounds have short half-lives to systemic absorption. We developed a liposomal formulation as a sustained-release strategy for pulmonary delivery of procaterol hydrochloride (PRO), a short-acting pulmonary ß2-agonist for asthma treatment. After PRO-loaded liposomes were prepared using a pH gradient (remote loading) method, 100-nm liposomes improved residence times of PRO in the lungs. PRO encapsulation efficiency and release profiles were examined by screening several liposomal formulations of lipid, cholesterol, and inner phase. Although PRO loading was not achieved using the conventional hydration method, PRO encapsulation efficiency was >60% using the pH gradient method. PRO release from liposomes was sustained for several hours depending on liposomal composition. The liposomal formulation effects on the PRO behavior in rat lungs were evaluated following pulmonary administration in vivo. Sustained PRO release was achieved using simplified egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)/cholesterol (8/1) liposome in vitro, and greater PRO remnants were observed in rat lungs following pulmonary administration. Extended pharmacological PRO effects were observed for 120min in a histamine-induced bronchoconstriction guinea pig model. We indicated the simplified EPC/cholesterol liposome potential as a controlled-release PRO carrier for pulmonary administration.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Pulmão/metabolismo , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacocinética , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Animais , Broncoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Colesterol/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Cobaias , Histamina/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipossomos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Procaterol/farmacocinética , Procaterol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 100(2): 480-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26141779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attenuation of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is important in lung transplantation. Our group previously reported that ß2-adrenoreceptor agonist inhalation during the period before procurement successfully attenuated IRI in donated lungs after cardiac death. We therefore hypothesized that ß2-adrenoreceptor agonist inhalation during ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) after procurement might also have a protective effect. METHODS: Cardiac-dead beagles were left at room temperature for 210 minutes, and all lungs were subsequently procured and subjected to EVLP for 240 minutes. The beagles were allocated to 2 groups: the ß2 group (receiving an aerosolized ß2-adrenoreceptor agonist 20 minutes after initiation of EVLP; n = 7) and the control group (receiving an aerosolized control solvent at the same time point; n = 6). Physiologic data, including lung function, were evaluated during EVLP. RESULTS: The ß2 group showed significantly lower peak airway pressure and pulmonary artery pressure than the control group. Dynamic pulmonary compliance was higher, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was lower, and the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio was lower in the ß2 group than in the control group. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and total adenosine nucleotide (TAN) levels in lung tissue after EVLP were higher in the ß2 group than in the control group. The ß2 group also showed more cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: After procurement, ß2-adrenoreceptor agonist inhalation during EVLP attenuates lung injury in a canine model of organ donation after cardiac death.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cães , Técnicas In Vitro , Perfusão , Procaterol/uso terapêutico
17.
Allergol Int ; 62(1): 131-5, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23348859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nebulized drugs for asthma treatment are often mixed together in order to simplify inhalation regimens, although not recommended. We therefore evaluated aerosol characteristics and physicochemical stability of the admixture of an inhaled corticosteroid suspension with a beta2-agonist solution. METHODS: An 8-stage cascade impactor was used to measure the particle size distribution of admixture of Pulmicort® Respules® (budesonide, 0.5mg/2mL) with Meptin® Inhalation Solution Unit (procaterol hydrochloride, 30µg/0.3mL) from a jet nebulizer, PARI LC Plus®. Concentration of each drug was assayed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Physicochemical compatibility was also assessed up to 24 hours after mixing. RESULTS: With regard to budesonide, impactor parameters such as mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and respirable mass (RM) were comparable between admixtures and single-drug preparations (2.92 ± 0.03 vs 2.99 ± 0.14µm, 146.8 ± 2.9 vs 147.6 ± 8.2µg, respectively). On the other hand, delivery rates of procaterol increased when admixed with budesonide suspension, resulting in significantly higher RM (15.1 ± 0.8 vs 10.2 ± 0.5µg, p < 0.01). Variations from initial concentration in the percentages of drug remaining at any time point were less than 10%, and there were no appreciable changes in pH of the admixtures for up to 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There is a possibility that admixture might influence of aerodynamic characteristics of procaterol, but not budesonide. In vivo data will be needed for the clinical implications of our findings.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/química , Aerossóis , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/química , Budesonida/química , Combinação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Tamanho da Partícula , Procaterol/química , Suspensões
18.
Respir Investig ; 50(4): 135-9, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23199977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition that classically causes dyspnea during physical activity. Destruction of alveoli and bronchostenosis are thought to lead to shortness of breath and result in decreased physical activity. In this study, we examined the influence of inhaled procaterol on exercise therapy for pulmonary rehabilitation. METHODS: Patients with moderate to severe stable COPD were randomly divided into 2 groups those who inhaled procaterol before exercise (n=10) and those who did not (control group) (n=11). For 12 weeks, all patients performed their pulmonary rehabilitation exercises at home. We measured the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) to assess exercise tolerance and used St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) before and after the 12-week exercise program. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the group receiving inhaled procaterol showed significant improvement of 6MWD and SGRQ scores. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a pulmonary rehabilitation program combined with inhaled procaterol can improve both HRQOL and exercise tolerance in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Administração por Inalação , Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Qualidade de Vida
19.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 31(7): 773-9, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22534458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is a matter of great importance in a donation after cardiac death to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) related to the inevitable warm ischemic time. METHODS: Donor dogs were rendered cardiac-dead and left at room temperature. The dogs were allocated into 2 groups: the ß-2 group (n = 5) received an aerosolized ß-2 adrenoreceptor agonist (procaterol, 350 µg) and ventilation with 100% oxygen for 60 minutes starting at 240 minutes after cardiac arrest, and the control group (n = 6) received an aerosolized control solvent with the ventilation. Lungs were recovered 300 minutes after cardiac arrest. Recipient dogs underwent left single-lung transplantation to evaluate the functions of the left transplanted lung for 240 minutes after the reperfusion. RESULTS: Oxygenation and dynamic compliance were significantly higher in the ß-2 group than in the control group. The ß-2 group revealed significantly higher levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and high-energy phosphates in the donor lung after the inhalation than before it. Histologic findings revealed that the ß-2 group had less edema and fewer inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ß-2 adrenoreceptor agonist inhalation during the pre-procurement period may ameliorate IRI.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Morte , Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Procaterol/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Animais , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cães , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Isquemia Quente
20.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 49(10): 614-21, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21961486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ß2 agonists have been used widely as relievers in asthma management. Procaterol is a selective ß2 agonist, claimed to be more selective than salbutamol. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of nebulized procaterol with nebulized salbutamol in the treatment of moderate acute asthma. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study in 140 patients with moderate acute asthma according to modified GINA 1998 who visited emergency department of Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three doses of either nebulized procaterol or salbutamol. The primary efficacy variable was the improvement in predicted peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), while the secondary efficacy variable was the improvement in asthma score and the incidence and severity of adverse events. This study is registered at Current Controlled Trials, number ISCTRN25669625. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. After treatment, there were significant improvement of % PEFR (p < 0.001) and asthma score (p < 0.001) in procaterol (n = 68) and salbutamol (n = 69) groups. It was shown that procaterol and salbutamol produced similar efficacy in improving % predicted PEFR and decreasing asthma score. Both treatments were well tolerated. Palpitation and sinus tachycardia were found as adverse events with low incidence. CONCLUSION: In moderate acute asthma, nebulized procaterol and nebulized salbutamol were both effective in improving PEFR and decreasing asthma score. Both treatments were well tolerated, adverse reactions were rare.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Asma/fisiopatologia , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Oxigênio/sangue , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Procaterol/efeitos adversos
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