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1.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (9): 34-39, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of cardiac surgeries and postoperative sternal osteomyelitis/sternomediastinitis, as well as treatment outcomes in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We summarized 171 patients with postoperative sternal osteomyelitis and sternomediastinitis. RESULTS: Organization of the Khabarovsk center for cardiovascular surgery in the Far Eastern Federal District was followed by 7.9- and 24.9-fold increase of the number of cardiac surgeries and CABG in 2005-2019, respectively. As a result, the number of patients with sternal osteomyelitis and sternomediastinitis after cardiac surgery increased from 0.50±0.10 to 1.59±0.17 cases per 100.000 (t=3.01; p<0.01). CPB and aortic clamping time (t=3.97; p<0.01), as well as surgery time (t=2.4; p<0.05) were significant risk factors of early postoperative complications. Two-stage surgical treatment of postoperative sternal osteomyelitis and sternomediastinitis (removal of ligatures and foreign bodies, sternal curettage with removal of sequesters at the first stage; resection of sternum with chest wall repair at the second stage) reduced hospital-stay from 31.9±13.4 to 29.2±10.8 days.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Osteomielite , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Esterno/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/cirurgia
2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021203, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sternal wound infection is a severe complication of cardiac surgery in the pediatric population (0-18 years old) that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospitalization. Health professionals have the ability to perform some interventions during the pre, intra and post-surgery to correctly manage sternal wounds, with the goal of preventing infections. OBJECTIVES: To identify and discuss current best practice in the prevention, incidence, and treatment of infections of the cardiac surgery site in the pediatric population. METHODS: Between February 20th 2021 and February 28th 2021 we consulted the PubMed database adopting full text, 20 years, Humans, English, Child aged 0 to 18 years as criteria. Twenty articles out of sixty-six were considered relevant to this study. These were divided into four themes. RESULTS: All studies highlight the lack of standard guidelines for managing pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Some centers developed protocols for managing antibiotic prophylaxis supported by measurable interventions; others implemented infection surveillance systems involving families taking care of patients after hospital discharge. DISCUSSIONS: the identification of healthcare-associated infections in the pediatric population after cardiac surgery is useful in all peri-operative phases. The limited and restricted literature connected to single centers, with relatively small sample sizes, the use of a single database. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of standard guidelines. The prevention of site infection ought to the goal of reducing surgical site infections. Building a network between the multidisciplinary staff and the pediatric patient's family improves the infection surveillance system, reducing the incidence of infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Infecção Hospitalar , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
3.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 39-48, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and independent predictors of gastrointestinal complications (GICs) following on-pump cardiac surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 9559 adults who underwent cardiac surgery in 2012-2017. Two groups of patients were distinguished: group 1 - 47 (0.5%) patients with abdominal complications followed by urgent surgery; group 2 - 9512 (95.5%) patients without complications or effective therapy. CONCLUSION: 1. Predictors of gastrointestinal complications: age >65 years, previous AF (p=0.011) and multifocal atherosclerosis (p=0.016), LV EF <40% (p=0.039), aortic cross-clamping time > 90 min (p=0.021), intraoperative blood loss over 600 ml (p=0.002), postoperative serum creatinine >140 µmol/l (p=0.005), mechanical ventilation >24 hours (p=0.023).2. Reduced hemodilution during CPB, warm blood cardioplegia, higher perioperative values of Hb, Ht and IDO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass can prevent ischemic injury of abdominal organs during prolonged cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Gastroenteropatias , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca Induzida , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2521-2529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), a new method for postoperative oxygenation, has increasingly received attention during postoperative care. However, its importance for obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared and evaluated HFNC and conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in this patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature was retrieved by searching eight public databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected. RevMan 5.3 was used to analyze the results and any potential bias. The primary outcome included atelectasis score at 24 h postoperatively. The secondary outcomes included PaO2/FiO2 (ratio), dyspnea score at 24 h postoperatively, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and reintubation. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 382 studies after duplicates were removed. Finally, 3 RCTs with a total of 526 patients were included in the present study. Compared with COT, there was no significant difference in atelectasis score, dyspnea score, reintubation, and ICU length of stay. CONCLUSION: For obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery, postoperative use of HFNC can maintain patient's oxygenation. Additional clinical studies are needed to investigate the role of HFNC in this patient group.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Insuficiência Respiratória , Cânula , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 558, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of cardiac surgery. Factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamping and surgical stress may precipitate renal hypoperfusion and ischaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with development of AKI. Albumin's pharmacological properties and widespread availability have the potential to mitigate these factors. However, the effect of albumin on cardiac surgery-associated AKI is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of postoperative 20% albumin infusion on kidney function after high-risk cardiac surgery. METHODS: We designed an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial-the ALBICS study (ALBumin Infusion and acute kidney injury following Cardiac Surgery). A total of 590 patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery (combined procedure or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) will be enrolled into the study and randomly allocated to receive a postoperative 20% albumin infusion or standard care in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by centre and baseline renal function. The study fluid will be administered upon arrival in intensive care for 15 h. Patients will be followed up until 28 days after surgery or until discharge from the hospital. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who develop AKI in both groups. Secondary outcomes to be measured are proportions of AKI stage II and III, 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation time and length of stay in intensive care and hospital. CONCLUSION: This trial aims to determine if a postoperative infusion of concentrated albumin reduces the risk of AKI following high-risk cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619001355167. Registered on 03 October 2019-retrospectively registered. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=378383 .


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26992, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414981

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Postoperative delirium (PD) remains an issue in cardiac surgery despite the constant efforts to reduce its incidence. In this retrospective study, the incidence of PD was evaluated in patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) according to different primary anesthetic agents: sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine- versus propofol-based anesthesia.A total of 534 patients who underwent heart-valve surgery or coronary artery bypass graft surgery with CPB between January 2012 and August 2017 were divided into 2 groups according to the main anesthetic agent: sevoflurane with dexmedetomidine (sevo-dex group, n = 340) and propofol (propofol group, n = 194). The incidence of PD was evaluated as the primary outcome. Patient-, surgery-, and anesthesia-related factors and postoperative complications were investigated as secondary outcomes. To reduce the risk of confounding effects between the 2 groups, 194 patients were selected from the sevo-dex group after propensity-score matching.After propensity-score matching, the incidence of PD was not significantly different between the sevo-dex (6.2%) and propofol (10.8%) groups (P = .136). In comparisons of the incidence of each type of PD, only hyperactive PD occurred significantly less frequently in the sevo-dex group (P = .021). Older age, lower preoperative albumin levels, and emergency surgery were significant risk factors for PD.The overall incidence of PD after cardiac surgery with CPB did not differ between patients receiving sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine-based versus propofol-based anesthesia. Only hyperactive PD occurred less frequently in patients receiving sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine-based anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Gerais/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Idoso , Anestésicos Gerais/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121867, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448866

RESUMO

Importance: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurring after cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether POAF persists beyond discharge is not well defined. Objective: To determine whether continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring enhances detection of POAF among cardiac surgical patients during the first 30 days after hospital discharge compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 10 Canadian centers. Enrollment spanned from March 2017 to March 2020, with follow-up through September 11, 2020. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, enrollment stopped on July 17, 2020, at which point 85% of the proposed sample size was enrolled. Cardiac surgical patients with CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, female sex) score greater than or equal to 4 or greater than or equal to 2 with risk factors for POAF, no history of preoperative AF, and POAF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization were enrolled. Interventions: The intervention group underwent continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring with wearable, patch-based monitors for 30 days after randomization. Monitoring was not mandated in the usual care group within 30 days after randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was cumulative AF and/or atrial flutter lasting 6 minutes or longer detected by continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring or by a 12-lead electrocardiogram within 30 days of randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included cumulative AF lasting 6 hours or longer and 24 hours or longer within 30 days of randomization, death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, non-central nervous system thromboembolism, major bleeding, and oral anticoagulation prescription. Results: Of the 336 patients randomized (163 patients in the intervention group and 173 patients in the usual care group; mean [SD] age, 67.4 [8.1] years; 73 women [21.7%]; median [interquartile range] CHA2DS2-VASc score, 4.0 [3.0-4.0] points), 307 (91.4%) completed the trial. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 32 patients (19.6%) in the intervention group vs 3 patients (1.7%) in the usual care group (absolute difference, 17.9%; 95% CI, 11.5%-24.3%; P < .001). AF lasting 6 hours or longer was detected in 14 patients (8.6%) in the intervention group vs 0 patients in the usual care group (absolute difference, 8.6%; 95% CI, 4.3%-12.9%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In post-cardiac surgical patients at high risk of stroke, no preoperative AF history, and AF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization, continuous monitoring revealed a significant increase in the rate of POAF after discharge that would otherwise not be detected by usual care. Studies are needed to examine whether these patients will benefit from oral anticoagulation therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02793895.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Flutter Atrial/etiologia , COVID-19 , Canadá , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Hemorragia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044424, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244250

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cytokine storm and endotoxin release during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been related to vasoplegic shock and organ dysfunction. We hypothesised that early (during CPB) cytokine adsorption with oXiris membrane for patients at high risk of inflammatory syndrome following cardiac surgery may improve microcirculation, endothelial function and outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Oxicard trial is a prospective, monocentric trial, randomising 70 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. The inclusion criterion is patients aged more than 18 years old undergoing elective cardiac surgery under CPB with an expected CPB time >90 min (double valve replacement or valve replacement plus coronary arterial bypass graft). Patients will be allocated to the intervention group (n=35) or the control group (n=35). In the intervention group, oXiris membrane will be used on the Prismaflex device (Baxter) at blood pump flow of 450 mL/min during cardiac surgery under CPB. In the control group, cardiac surgery under CPB will be conducted as usual without oXiris membrane. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. The primary endpoint will be the microcirculatory flow index measured by sublingual microcirculation device at day 1 following cardiac surgery. The secondary endpoints will be other microcirculation variables at CPB end, 6 hours after CPB, at day 1 and at day 2. We also aim to evaluate the occurrence of major cardiovascular and cerebral events (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischaemic mesenteric, resuscitated cardiac arrest, acute kidney injury) within the first 30 days. Cumulative catecholamine use, intensive care unit length of stay, endothelium glycocalyx shedding parameters (syndecan-1, heparan-sulfate and hyaluronic acid), inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin 1 (IL1) beta, IL 10, IL 6, lipopolysaccharide, endothelin) and endothelial permeability biomarkers (angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, Tie2 soluble receptor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) will also be evaluated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University Hospital of Amiens (registration number ID RDB: 2019-A02437-50 in February 2020). Results of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04201119.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Adolescente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Microcirculação , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7247-7257, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of hyperbilirubinemia after cardiac surgery. METHODS: The Population, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, and Study design (PICOS) framework was employed to develop the search strategy, and the findings are reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for studies that provided data on the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of hyperbilirubinemia in cardiac surgery patients from January 1960 to May 2020. Publication bias was graphically explored through funnel plots, and the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Ten studies with 6,100 patients were included in our systematic review. The pooled incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was 23% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.13-0.32]. Preoperative factors, including right atrial pressure [mean difference (MD), 4.65; 95% CI, 4.43-4.88], total bilirubin (TB) concentration (MD, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.79), alkaline phosphatase (MD, 27.38; 95% CI, 12.94-41.82), and alanine aminotransferase (MD, 12.02; 95% CI, 10.73-13.31), and intraoperative factors, including cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (MD, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.52-2.63), aortic cross-clamping (ACC) time (MD, 11.82; 95% CI, 9.50-14.14), and the amount of blood transfused (MD, 3.77; 95% CI, 0.68-6.85), were the most robust risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia after cardiac surgery. Additionally, postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was associated with increased in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR), 9.9; 95% CI, 5.00-19.60, P<0.0001]. DISCUSSION: Hyperbilirubinemia was common and was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Preoperative high right atrial pressure, high TB concentration, prolonged CPB and ACC time, and a large amount of blood transfused were the commonly observed risk factors for postoperative hyperbilirubinemia in cardiac surgery patients. Addressing these risk factors may be helpful to lower the occurrence of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/epidemiologia , Hiperbilirrubinemia/etiologia , Incidência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(3): 365-375, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the innate immune response represents a therapeutic target for organ protection strategies in cardiac surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of trials of interventions targeting the inflammatory response to cardiac surgery reporting treatment effects on both innate immune system cytokines and organ injury was performed. The protocol was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews: CRD42020187239. Searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase were performed. Random-effects meta-analyses were used for the primary analysis. A separate analysis of individual patient data from six studies (n=785) explored sources of heterogeneity for treatment effects on cytokine levels. RESULTS: Searches to May 2020 identified 251 trials evaluating 24 interventions with 20 582 participants for inclusion. Most trials had important limitations. Methodological limitations of the included trials and heterogeneity of the treatment effects on cytokine levels between trials limited interpretation. The primary analysis demonstrated inconsistency in the direction of the treatment effects on innate immunity and organ failure or death between interventions. Analyses restricted to important subgroups or trials with fewer limitations showed similar results. Meta-regression, pooling available data from all trials, demonstrated no association between the direction of the treatment effects on inflammatory cytokines and organ injury or death. The analysis of individual patient data demonstrated heterogeneity in the association between the cytokine response and organ injury after cardiac surgery for people >75 yr old and those with some chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The certainty of the evidence for a causal relationship between innate immune system activation and organ injury after cardiac surgery is low.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Imunidade Inata , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Anesthesiology ; 135(3): 406-418, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of cardiac surgery. An intraoperative monitor of kidney perfusion is needed to identify patients at risk for AKI. The authors created a noninvasive urinary oximeter that provides continuous measurements of urinary oxygen partial pressure and instantaneous urine flow. They hypothesized that intraoperative urinary oxygen partial pressure measurements are feasible with this prototype device and that low urinary oxygen partial pressure during cardiac surgery is associated with the subsequent development of AKI. METHODS: This was a prospective observational pilot study. Continuous urinary oxygen partial pressure and instantaneous urine flow were measured in 91 patients undergoing cardiac surgery using a novel device placed between the urinary catheter and collecting bag. Data were collected throughout the surgery and for 24 h postoperatively. Clinicians were blinded to the intraoperative urinary oxygen partial pressure and instantaneous flow data. Patients were then followed postoperatively, and the incidence of AKI was compared to urinary oxygen partial pressure measurements. RESULTS: Intraoperative urinary oxygen partial pressure measurements were feasible in 86/91 (95%) of patients. When urinary oxygen partial pressure data were filtered for valid urine flows greater than 0.5 ml · kg-1 · h-1, then 70/86 (81%) and 77/86 (90%) of patients in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and post-CPB periods, respectively, were included in the analysis. Mean urinary oxygen partial pressure in the post-CPB period was significantly lower in patients who subsequently developed AKI than in those who did not (mean difference, 6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0 to 11; P = 0.038). In a multivariable analysis, mean urinary oxygen partial pressure during the post-CPB period remained an independent risk factor for AKI (relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.95; P = 0.009 for every 10-mmHg increase in mean urinary oxygen partial pressure). CONCLUSIONS: Low urinary oxygen partial pressures after CPB may be associated with the subsequent development of AKI after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/urina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/urina , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria/métodos , Pressão Parcial , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
CMAJ Open ; 9(3): E777-E787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of frailty before complex and invasive procedures may have relevance for prognostic and recovery purposes, to optimally inform patients, caregivers and clinicians about perioperative risk and postoperative care needs. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of frailty and describe the associated clinical course and outcomes of patients referred for nonemergent cardiac surgery. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients aged 50 years and older referred for nonemergent cardiac surgery in Alberta, Canada, from November 2011 to March 2014 were screened preoperatively for frailty, defined as a Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score of 5 or greater. Postoperatively, patients were followed by telephone to assess CFS score, health services use and vital status. The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included health services use, hospital discharge disposition, 1-year health-related quality of life and all-cause 5-year mortality. RESULTS: The cohort (n = 529) had a mean age of 67 (standard deviation [SD] 9) years; 25.9% were female, and the prevalence of frailty was 9.6% (n = 51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.3%-12.5%). Frail patients were older (median age 75, interquartile range [IQR] 65-80 v. 67, IQR 60-73, yr; p < 0.001), were more likely to be female (51.0% v. 23.2%; p < 0.001), had a higher mean EuroSCORE II (8, SD 3 v. 5, SD 3; p < 0.001) and received combined coronary artery bypass grafting and valve procedures more frequently (29.4% v. 15.9%; p = 0.02) than nonfrail patients. Postoperatively, frail patients had a longer median duration of stay in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (median difference 2.2, 95% CI 1.60-2.79) and hospital (median difference 9.3, 95% CI 8.2-10.3). Hospital mortality was 9.8% among frail patients and 1.0% among nonfrail patients (adjusted hazard ratio 3.84, 95% CI 0.90-16.34). INTERPRETATION: Preoperative frailty was present in 10% of patients and was associated with a higher risk of morbidity and greater health services use. Preoperative frailty has important implications for the postoperative clinical course and resource utilization of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Período Pré-Operatório , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3711-3718, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Although dopamine and norepinephrine are recommended as first-line agents in the treatment of shock, it is unclear which is the optimal vasoactive inotropic agent (VIA) to manage postcardiotomy circulatory shock. This single-center, randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of dopamine versus norepinephrine in postcardiotomy circulatory shock. METHODS: We randomly assigned the patients with postcardiotomy circulatory shock to receive either dopamine or norepinephrine. When shock persisted despite the dose of 20 µg/kg/min of dopamine or the dose of 0.2 µg/kg/min of norepinephrine, epinephrine or vasopressin could be added. The primary endpoint was new-onset tachyarrhythmic event during drug infusion. Secondary endpoints included requirement of additional VIAs, postoperative complications, and all-cause mortality within 30 days of drug initiation. RESULTS: At the planned interim analysis of 100 patients, the boundary for the benefit of norepinephrine has been crossed, and the study was stopped early. Excluding two patients withdrawing a consent, 48 patients were assigned to dopamine and 50 patients to norepinephrine. New-onset tachyarrhythmic event occurred in 12 (25%) patients in the dopamine and one (2%) patient in the norepinephrine group (p = .009). The requirement for additional VIAs was more common in the dopamine group (p < .001). Other secondary endpoints were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited study subjects with early determination, in patients with postcardiotomy circulatory shock, dopamine as a first-line vasopressor was associated with higher tachyarrhythmic events and greater need for additional VIAs compared with norepinephrine.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Choque Séptico , Choque , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Dopamina , Humanos , Norepinefrina , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/etiologia , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores , Vasopressinas
16.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3577-3585, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Renal hypoxia may precede clinically detectable AKI. We compared the efficacy of two indices of renal hypoxia, (i) intraoperative urinary oxygen tension (UPO2 ) and (ii) the change in plasma erythropoietin (pEPO) during surgery, in predicting AKI. We also investigated whether the performance of these prognostic markers varies with preoperative patient characteristics. METHODS: In 82 patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery, blood samples were taken upon induction of anesthesia and upon entry into the intensive care unit. UPO2 was continuously measured throughout surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-two (39%) patients developed postoperative AKI. pEPO increased during surgery, but this increase did not predict AKI, regardless of risk of postoperative mortality assessed by EuroSCORE-II. For patients categorized at higher risk by EuroSCORE-II >1.98 (median score for the cohort), UPO2 ≤10 mmHg at any time during surgery predicted a 4.04-fold excess risk of AKI (p = .04). However, UPO2 did not significantly predict AKI in lower-risk patients. UPO2 significantly predicted AKI in patients who were older, had previous myocardial infarction, diabetes, lower preoperative serum creatinine, or shorter bypass times. pEPO and UPO2 were only weakly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative change in pEPO does not predict AKI. However, UPO2 shows promise, particularly in patients with higher risk of operative mortality. The disparity between these two markers of renal hypoxia may indicate that UPO2 reflects medullary oxygenation whereas pEPO reflects cortical oxygenation.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores de Risco
17.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(S 03): e41-e47, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides circulatory support in children with congenital heart disease, particularly in the setting of cardiopulmonary failure and inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass. This study summarized the clinical application of ECMO in the treatment of heart failure after cardiac surgery in neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 23 neonates who received ECMO support in our center from January 2017 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-three neonates, aged from 0 to 25 days and weight between 2,300 and 4,500 g, with heart failure postcardiotomy were supported with ECMO. The successful weaning rate was 78.26% and discharge rate was 52.17%. Bleeding and residual malformation were the most common complications. The univariate analysis showed that nonsurvivors were related to the factors such as higher lactate value of ECMO 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.008 and 0.001, respectively), longer time to lactate normalization (p = 0.001), lactate > 10 mmol/L before ECMO (p = 0.01), lower weight (p = 0.01), longer ECMO duration (p = 0.005), lower platelet count (p = 0.001), more surgical site bleeding (p = 0.001), and surgical residual malformation (p = 0.04). Further logistic regression analysis revealed that higher lactate value of ECMO 24 hours (p = 0.003), longer ECMO duration (p = 0.015), and surgical site bleeding (p = 0.025) were independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: ECMO was an effective technology to support the neonates with cardiopulmonary failure after open heart surgery. Control the lactate acidosis and surgical site bleeding event may be helpful for patients' recovery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , China , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1845-1860, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of female sex on in-hospital outcomes and to provide estimates for sex-specific prediction models of adverse outcomes following left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cohort-based observational study querying the National Inpatient Sample database between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017. Demographics, baseline characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Elixhauser Comorbidity Index score (ECS), and CHA2DS2-VASc score. The primary outcome was in-hospital major adverse events (MAEs) defined as the composite of bleeding, vascular, cardiac complications, post-procedural stroke, and acute kidney injury. The associations of the CCI, ECS, and CHA2DS2-VASc score with in-hospital MAE were examined using logistic regression models for women and men, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 3294 hospitalizations were identified, of which 1313 (40%) involved women and 1981 (60%) involved men. Women were older (76.3±7.7 vs 75.2±8.4 years, P<.001), had a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (4.9±1.4 vs 3.9±1.4, P<.001) but showed lower CCI and ECS compared with men (2.1±1.9 vs 2.3±1.9, P=.01; and 9.3±5.9 vs 9.9±5.7, P=.002, respectively). The primary composite outcome occurred in 4.6% of patients and was higher in women compared with men (women 5.6% vs men 4.0%, P=.04), and this was mainly driven by the occurrence of cardiac complications (2.4% vs 1.2%, P=.01). In women, older age, higher median income, and higher CCI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 1.44; P<.001), ECS (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07; P=.002), and CHA2DS2-VASc score (aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.39; P<.001) were associated with increased risk of in-hospital MAE. In men, non-White race/ethnicity, lower median income, and higher ECS (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; P<.001) were associated with increased risk of in-hospital MAE. CONCLUSION: Women had higher rates of in-hospital adverse events following LAAC than men did. Women with older age and higher median income, CCI, ECS, and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were associated with in-hospital adverse events, whereas men with non-White race/ethnicity, lower median income, and higher ECS were more likely to experience adverse events. Further research is warranted to identify sex-specific, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic pathways during the patient selection process to minimize complications in patients undergoing LAAC.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Prognóstico , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(8): 2385-2391, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydration status after cardiac surgery can be difficult to assess, often requiring invasive measurements. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is based on patterns of resistance (R) and reactance (Xc), corrected by height, and has been used in various clinical scenarios to determine body composition and monitor its changes over time. The purpose of the present study was to apply this method in cardiac surgery patients to assess the variation in hydration status and to compare its changes according to the use of extracorporeal circulation. DESIGN: Single-center, observational, prospective study including patients older than 18 years undergoing elective or urgent cardiac surgery. SETTING: Intensive cardiac care unit of a tertiary center in a metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 76 patients with a median age of 60 years and mostly undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 47 [61.8%]) with extracorporeal circulation (n = 54 [73%]). INTERVENTIONS: Bioimpedance was measured with a standard tetrapolar single-frequency bioimpedance meter using a standardized procedure and plotted in an R-Xc graph. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study demonstrated an increase in total body water immediately after surgery that was sustained until producing hyperhydration 24 hours later. Off-pump CABG was associated with a normal hydration status after surgery, whereas on-pump CABG produced a significant increase in total body water. CONCLUSIONS: Fluid status assessment with BIVA in cardiac surgery showed an increase in total body water up to 24 hours after surgery. Off-pump surgery prevented overhydration, which partially could explain the reduction in some of the postoperative complications. BIVA could serve as a useful method for monitoring fluid status in the setting of goal-directed therapy to assist in maintaining euvolemia in cardiac surgical patients.


Assuntos
Água Corporal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Impedância Elétrica , Circulação Extracorpórea , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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