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1.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E460-E467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols use evidence-based perioperative practices that reduce morbidity and length of stay and improve patient satisfaction. ERAS is considered standard of care; however, utilization remains low and substantial practice variation exists. The aim of this study was to pragmatically characterize variation in colorectal surgery practice and identify predictors of ERAS utilization. METHODS: A survey of general surgeons identified using the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons database was conducted. Information on basic demographic characteristics, utilization of ERAS and predictors of ERAS implementation was collected. Nine ERAS behaviours were analyzed. Multivariable analysis was used to determine effects of demographic, hospital and surgeon covariates on ERAS utilization. RESULTS: Seven hundred and ninety-seven general surgeons were invited to participate in the survey, and 235 general surgeons representing 84 Ontario hospitals responded (30% response rate). Surgeons practising in academic settings and in large community hospitals represented 30% and 47% of the respondents, respectively. A total of 20% of the respondents used all 9 ERAS behaviours consistently. Rates of diet advancement on postoperative day 0, intravenous fluid restriction and having catheter and line procedures were significantly higher among respondents who adhered to ERAS protocols than among those who did not (74% v. 54%, p = 0.004; 92% v. 80%, p = 0.01; and 91% v. 41%, p < 0.001, respectively). Respondents from academic settings reported practising nearly 1 more ERAS behaviour than those from small community hospitals (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42 to 1.31, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that colorectal fellowship training or exposure to ERAS during training did not significantly affect ERAS behaviour utilization (OR 0.32, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.94, p = 0.16; OR 0.28, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.82, p = 0.16, respectively). CONCLUSION: Substantial practice variation in colorectal surgery still exists. Individual ERAS principles are commonly followed; however, ERAS behaviours are not widely formalized into hospital protocols.


Assuntos
Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reto/cirurgia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Comunitários/normas , Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Satisfação do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrão de Cuidado , Cirurgiões/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 133-140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866856

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has raised some important interrogations on minimally invasive gynaecological surgery. The International Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy (ISGE) has taken upon itself the task of providing guidance and best practice policies for all practicing gynaecological endoscopists. Factors affecting decision making processes in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) vary depending on factors such as the phase of the pandemic, policies on control and prevention, expertise and existing infrastructure. Our responsibility remains ensuring the safety of all health care providers, ancillary staff and patients during this unusual period. We reviewed the current literature related to gynecological and endoscopic surgery during the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) crisis. Regarding elective surgery, universal testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection should be carried out wherever possible 40 h prior to surgery. In case of confirmed positive case of SARS-CoV-2, surgery should be delayed. Priority should be given to relatively urgent cases such as malignancies. ISGE supports medical optimization and delaying surgery for benign non-life-threatening surgeries. When possible, we recommend to perform cases by laparoscopy and to allow early discharges. Any procedure with risk of bowel involvement should be performed by open surgery as studies have found a high amount of viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) in stool. Regarding urgent surgery, each unit should create a risk assessment flow chart based on capacity. Patients should be screened for symptoms and symptomatic patients must be tested. In the event that a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 is found, every attempt should be made to optimize medical management and defer surgery until the patient has recovered and only emergency or life-threatening surgery should be performed in these cases. We recommend to avoid intubation and ventilation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and if at all possible local or regional anesthesia should be utilized. Patients who screen or test negative may have general anesthesia and laparoscopic surgery while strict protocols of infection control are upheld. Surgery in screen-positive as well as SARS-CoV-2 positive patients that cannot be safely postponed should be undertaken with full PPE with ensuring that only essential personnel are exposed. If available, negative pressure theatres should be used for patients who are positive or screen high risk. During open and vaginal procedures, suction can be used to minimize droplet and bioaerosol spread. In a patient who screens low risk or tests negative, although carrier and false negatives cannot be excluded, laparoscopy should be strongly considered. We recommend, during minimal access surgeries, to use strategies to reduce production of bioaerosols (such as minimal use of energy, experienced surgeon), to reduce leakage of smoke aerosols (for example, minimizing the number of ports used and size of incisions, as well as reducing the operating pressures) and to promote safe elimination of smoke during surgery and during the ports' closure (such as using gas filters and smoke evacuation systems). During the post-peak period of pandemic, debriefing and mental health screening for staff is recommended. Psychological support should be provided as needed. In conclusion, based on the existent evidence, ISGE largely supports the current international trends favoring laparoscopy over laparotomy on a case by case risk evaluation basis, recognizing the different levels of skill and access to minimally invasive procedures across various countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Sociedades Médicas
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative stroke is a rare but potentially devastating complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of the current study was to determine the incidence, independent risk factors, and timing of stroke following THA and TKA utilizing the National Surgical Quality Improvement (NSQIP) database. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective primary THA and TKA were identified in the 2005-2016 NSQIP database. Thirty-day postoperative strokes were identified, timing was characterized, and an incidence curve was created. Multivariate analyses determined the independent predictors of these strokes. RESULTS: Of 333,117 patients identified, 286 (0.09%) experienced a stroke. Given that THA vs TKA was not a univariate predictor of stroke, the two procedures were considered together. The majority (65%) of strokes occurred before discharge. Of the strokes observed, 25% occurred by postoperative day one, 50% by postoperative day two, and 75% by postoperative day nine. Independent risk factors for postoperative stroke were: age (60-69 years old odds ratio [OR] = 4.2; 70-79 years old OR = 8.1; ≤80 years old OR = 16.1), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (ASA≥3 OR = 1.7), and smoking [OR = 1.6). CONCLUSION: The incidence of stroke after THA/TKA was low at 0.09%, with the majority occurring prior to discharge and half occurring by postoperative day two. Patients who were older, sicker, or who were smokers were at greater risk of postoperative stroke. These findings can be used to council patients and to optimize patient care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Retrospective comparative study.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
4.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 726-731, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913116

RESUMO

It has recently been reported that some hospitals in the UK have placed a blanket restriction on the provision of maternal request caesarean sections (MRCS) as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnancy and birthing services are obviously facing challenges during the current emergency, but we argue that a blanket ban on MRCS is both inappropriate and disproportionate. In this paper, we highlight the importance of MRCS for pregnant people's health and autonomy in childbirth and argue that this remains crucial during the current emergency. We consider some potential arguments-based on pregnant people's health and resource allocation-that might be considered justification for the limitation of such services. We demonstrate, however, that these arguments are not as persuasive as they might appear because there is limited evidence to indicate either that provision of MRCS is always dangerous for pregnant people in the circumstances or would be a substantial burden on a hospital's ability to respond to the pandemic. Furthermore, we argue that even if MRCS was not a service that hospitals are equipped to offer to all pregnant persons who seek it, the current circumstances cannot justify a blanket ban on an important service and due attention must be paid to individual circumstances.


Assuntos
Cesárea/ética , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/ética , Feminino , Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Mães , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes , Reino Unido
5.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1091-1093, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The highest rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) are associated with colorectal operations (up to 30%). A sentinel paper showed that the use of intravenous (IV) cefazolin and metronidazole was associated with decreased rates of SSI compared with cefoxitin (6% vs 13%). We reviewed the association of SSI with prophylactic antibiotic choice. We specifically investigated the regimens of ceftriaxone and metronidazole IV, cefoxitin IV, or ertapenem. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 532 colon surgeries between 2016 and 2018. Inclusion criteria were patients 18-89 years of age undergoing elective colon surgery who received ceftriaxone/metronidazole, cefoxitin, or ertapenem for prophylaxis. All emergent cases were excluded. This resulted in 241 elective colon cases for review. The primary endpoint was to determine if the use of ceftriaxone/metronidazole decreased the rate of SSI. RESULTS: In total, there were 241 elective colon cases with 21 SSI. We compared SSI rates in the ceftriaxone/metronidazole group to those patients receiving either cefoxitin or ertapenem (4.5% vs 12.2%; P = .035). We then compared SSI in ceftriaxone/metronidazole to SSI in cefoxitin (4.5% vs 10%; P = .13). Finally, we compared SSI in the ceftriaxone/metronidazole group to SSI in the ertapenem group (4.5% vs 14%; P = .03). Comorbidities and underlying factors were similar across all antibiotic groups. CONCLUSION: In our experience, the use of ceftriaxone/metronidazole is associated with a decreased SSI rate. Furthermore, ceftriaxone/metronidazole use is superior to the use of ertapenem, with a trend toward superiority over cefoxitin. Based on this study, we recommend ceftriaxone/metronidazole as antibiotic prophylaxis for elective colon surgery.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Surgery ; 168(4): 572-577, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resumption of elective surgery during the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic crisis has been debated widely and largely discouraged. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the feasibility of resuming elective operations during the current and possible future peaks of this coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We collected data during the peak of the current pandemic in the United Kingdom on adult patients who underwent elective surgery in a "COVID-19-free" hospital from April 8 to May 29, 2020. The study included patients from various surgical specialties. Nonelective and pediatric cases were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were the rate of coronavirus disease 2019 infections, new onset of pulmonary symptoms after hospitalization, and requirement for admission to the intensive care unit. RESULTS: A total of 309 consecutive adult patients were included in this study. No patients died nor required intensive care unit admission. Operations graded "Intermediate" were the most performed procedure representing 91% of the total number. One patient was diagnosed with a coronavirus disease 2019 infection after being transferred to the nearest local emergency hospital for management of postoperative pain secondary to common bile duct stone and was successfully treated conservatively on the ward. No patient developed pulmonary complications. Three patients were admitted for greater than 23 hours. Twenty-seven patients (8.7%) developed complications. Complications graded as 2 and 3 according to the Clavien-Dindo classification occurred in 14 and 2 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: This prospective study shows that, despite the severity and high transmissibility of novel coronavirus 2 disease, COVID-19-free hospitals can represent a safe setting to resume many types of elective surgery during the peak of a pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Admissão do Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1256-1260, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627569

RESUMO

AIMS: The risk to patients and healthcare workers of resuming elective orthopaedic surgery following the peak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been difficult to quantify. This has prompted governing bodies to adopt a cautious approach that may be impractical and financially unsustainable. The lack of evidence has made it impossible for surgeons to give patients an informed perspective of the consequences of elective surgery in the presence of SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to determine, for the UK population, the probability of a patient being admitted with an undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection and their resulting risk of death; taking into consideration the current disease prevalence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, and preassessment pathway. METHODS: The probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a false negative test was calculated using a lower-end RT-PCR sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 95%, and the UK disease prevalence of 0.24% reported in May 2020. Subsequently, a case fatality rate of 20.5% was applied as a worst-case scenario. RESULTS: The probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a false negative preoperative test was 0.07% (around 1 in 1,400). The risk of a patient with an undetected infection being admitted for surgery and subsequently dying from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is estimated at approximately 1 in 7,000. However, if an estimate of the current global infection fatality rate (1.04%) is applied, the risk of death would be around 1 in 140,000, at most. This calculation does not take into account the risk of nosocomial infection. Conversely, it does not factor in that patients will also be clinically assessed and asked to self-isolate prior to surgery. CONCLUSION: Our estimation suggests that the risk of patients being inadvertently admitted with an undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection for elective orthopaedic surgery is relatively low. Accordingly, the risk of death following elective orthopaedic surgery is low, even when applying the worst-case fatality rate. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1256-1260.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 343, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is a common complication following major surgeries, leading to a variety of adverse effects. However, there is a paucity of literatures studying the incidence and risk factors associated with delirium after primary elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a large-scale national database. METHODS: A retrospective database analysis was performed based on Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2014. Patients who underwent primary elective THA were included. Patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities, length of hospital stay (LOS), total charges, in-hospital mortality, and major and minor perioperative complications were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 388,424 primary elective THAs were obtained from the NIS database, and the general incidence of delirium after THA was 0.90%. Patients with delirium after THA presented more preoperative comorbidities, longer LOS, extra hospital charges, and higher in-hospital mortality rate (P < 0.001). Delirium following THA was associated with major complications during hospitalization including acute renal failure and pneumonia. Preoperative risk factors associated with postoperative delirium included advanced age, alcohol or drug abuse, depression, neurological disorders, psychoses, fluid and electrolyte disorders, diabetes, weight loss, deficiency anemia, coagulopathy, hypertension, congestive heart failure, valvular disease, pulmonary circulation disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, and renal failure. Both female and obesity were detected to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study identified a relatively low incidence of delirium after primary elective THA, which is as reported in the NIS and not necessarily the surgical population as a whole. Postoperative delirium of THA was associated with increased preoperative comorbidities, LOS, total charges, in-hospital mortality, and major perioperative complications including acute renal failure and pneumonia. It is of benefit to study risk factors associated with postoperative delirium to moderate its consequences.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Delírio/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Delírio/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(15): 1081-1088, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675616

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal Cohort Study OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this study was to determine whether duration of postoperative opioids is associated with long-term outcomes, and if initial postoperative opioid dosage is associated with opioid cessation after spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Preoperative opioid use is associated with poor outcomes, but little evidence exists regarding the implications of opioid dosage and duration after spine surgery. METHODS: Data from our state's prescription drug database was linked to our prospective clinical spine registry to analyze opioid dispensing and outcomes in elective surgical spine patients between 2010 and 2017. Patients were stratified based on preoperative chronic opioid use and multivariable regression was used to assess associations between duration of postoperative opioids and outcomes at one year, including satisfaction, chronic opioid use, and meaningful improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life. In a secondary aim, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine whether initial postoperative opioid dosage was associated with time to opioid cessation. RESULTS: Of 2172 patients included, 35% had preoperative chronic opioid use. In patients without preoperative chronic opioid use, a postoperative opioid duration of 31 to 60 days was associated with chronic opioid use at 1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.1 [1.7-9.8]) and no meaningful improvement in extremity pain (aOR: 1.8 [1.3-2.6]) or axial pain (aOR: 1.6 [1.1-2.2]); cessation between 61 and 90 days was associated with no meaningful improvement in disability (aOR: 2 [1.3-3]) and dissatisfaction (aOR:1.8 [1-3.1]). In patients with preoperative chronic opioid use, postoperative opioids for ≥90 days was associated with dissatisfaction. Cox regression analyses showed lower initial postoperative opioid dosages were associated with faster opioid cessation in both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a shorter duration of postoperative opioids may result in improved 1-year patient-reported outcomes, and that lower postoperative opioid dosages may lead to faster opioid cessation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 661-671, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma or serum troponin, indicating perioperative myocardial injury (PMI), is common after noncardiac surgery. However, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with the early appearance of circulating microRNAs, which regulate post-translational gene expression. We hypothesised that if PMI and ACS share pathophysiological mechanisms, common microRNA signatures should be evident. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study of samples obtained before and after noncardiac surgery from patients enrolled in two prospective observational studies of PMI (postoperative troponin I/T>99th centile). In cohort one, serum microRNAs were compared between patients with or without PMI, matched for age, gender, and comorbidity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantified (qRT-PCR) relative microRNA expression (cycle quantification [Cq] threshold <37) before and after surgery for microRNA signatures associated with ACS, blinded to PMI. In cohort two, we analysed (EdgeR) microRNA from plasma extracellular vesicles using next-generation sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 500). microRNA-messenger RNA-function pathway analysis was performed (DIANA miRPath v3.0/TopGO). RESULTS: MicroRNAs were detectable in all 59 patients (median age 67 yr [61-75]; 42% male), who had similar clinical characteristics independent of developing PMI. In cohort one, serum microRNA expression increased after surgery (mean fold-change) hsa-miR-1-3p: 3.99 (95% confidence interval [CI: 1.95-8.19]; hsa-miR-133-3p: 5.67 [95% CI: 2.94-10.91]; P<0.001). These changes were not associated with PMI. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs from cohorts one (n=48) and two (n=11) identified pathways associated with adrenergic stress and calcium dysregulation, rather than ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating microRNAs associated with cardiac ischaemia were universally elevated in patients after surgery, independent of development of myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Surgery ; 168(4): 753-759, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of several measures to reduce incidence, postoperative infections have been reported to increase. We aimed to assess trends in the incidence and impact of postoperative infections using a recent national cohort. METHODS: Patients undergoing the most commonly performed elective inpatient procedures in 9 surgical specialties were identified from the 2006 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample. Diagnostic coding was utilized to identify patients with postoperative infections. To adjust for patient and operative differences in assessing outcomes, an inverse probability of treatment weighing protocol was used. RESULTS: Of an estimated 23,696,588 patients, 1,213,182 (5.1%) developed postoperative infections. Skin and soft tissue operations had the highest burden (12.9%) and endocrine the lowest (1.3%). During the study period, we found decreasing incidence, case fatality, and incremental cost of postoperative infections. Infection was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (1.4 vs 0.4%, P < .001), duration of stay (7.6 vs 3.7 days, P < .001), and costs ($27,597 vs $17,985, P < .001). Annually, postoperative infections led to an average incremental cost burden exceeding $700 million in the United States alone. CONCLUSION: During the study period there was a substantial decrease in the burden of postoperative infections. Despite encouraging trends, postoperative infections continue to serve as a suitable quality improvement target, particularly in specialties with a high burden of infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20127, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious, sometimes life-threatening complication that can occur following spine surgery. The incidence of VTE, and the optimal type and timing of thromboprophylaxis for this complication in elective spine surgery is a matter of debate. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review with the aim of clarifying the efficacy and adverse effects of mechanical and chemical prophylaxis for preventing thromboembolic complications in elective spine surgery for conditions other than trauma and malignant disease. METHODS/DESIGN: A search strategy of related articles up to March 2018 was designed and executed in Medline and Embase. PATIENTS: adolescents (>10 years) and adults undergoing elective surgery for spinal deformity or degenerative disease (from C1 to S1). INTERVENTION: Perioperative mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis. Studies could be randomized controlled trials or observational studies that reported data on any relevant clinical outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 2451 uniquecitations were identified and 35 studies were ultimately included in the systematic review. The overall mean incidence of complications was 3.7% for deep venous thrombosis, 0.0% for pulmonary embolism, and 3.7% for bleeding in chemoprophylaxis group; 2.9% for deep venous thrombosis, 0.4% for pulmonary embolism and 0.0% for bleeding in mechanoprophylaxis; and 0.7% for deep venous thrombosis, 0.1% for pulmonary embolism and 0.2% for bleeding in mixed prophylaxis group with no specific data on these rates for the type of patient and type and location of surgery. None of the articles retrieved provided information on the adolescent population. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The poor design and high variability among the studies regarding characteristics of study population, details of interventions, and definitions of outcomes, determines a low quality of the available evidence and limits the interpretation of the results. We were unable to identify a clear advantage of one type of thromboprophylaxis over the other, although there was an increased risk of bleeding with chemoprophylaxis, which could favor the use of mechanoprophylaxis in this scenario.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia
13.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 578-583, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521978

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the current practice of preoperative bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery in China. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted through wechat. The content of the questionnaire survey included professional title of the participants, the hospital class, dietary preparation and protocol, oral laxatives and specific types, oral antibiotics, gastric intubation, and mechanical enema before elective colorectal surgery. A stratified analysis based on hospital class was conducted to understand their current practice of preoperative bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery. Result: A total of 600 questionnaires were issued, and 516 (86.00%) questionnaires of participants from different hospitals, engaged in colorectal surgery or general surgeons were recovered, of which 366 were from tertiary hospitals (70.93%) and 150 from secondary hospitals (29.07%). For diet preparation, the proportions of right hemicolic, left hemicolic and rectal surgery were 81.59% (421/516), 84.88% (438/516) and 84.88% (438/516) respectively. The average time of preoperative dietary preparation was 2.03 days. The study showed that 85.85% (443/516) of surgeons chose oral laxatives for bowel preparation in all colorectal surgery, while only 4.26% (22/516) of surgeons did not choose oral laxatives. For mechanical enema, the proportions of right hemicolic, left hemicolic and rectal surgery were 19.19% (99/516), 30.04% (155/516) and 32.75% (169/516) respectively. Preoperative oral antibiotics was used by 34.69% (179/516) of the respondents. 94.38% (487/516) of participants were satisfied with bowel preparation, and 55.43% (286/516) of participants believed that preoperative bowel preparation was well tolerated. In terms of preoperative oral laxatives, there was no statistically significant difference between different levels of hospitals [secondary hospitals vs. tertiary hospitals: 90.00% (135/150) vs. 84.15% (308/366), χ(2)=2.995, P=0.084]. Compared with the tertiary hospitals, the surgeons in the secondary hospitals accounted for higher proportions in diet preparation [87.33% (131/150) vs. 76.78% (281/366), χ(2)=7.369, P=0.007], gastric intubation [54.00% (81/150) vs. 36.33% (133/366), χ(2)=13.672, P<0.001], preoperative oral antibiotics [58.67% (88/150) vs. 24.86% (91/366), χ(2)=12.259, P<0.001] and enema [28.67% (43/150) vs. 15.30% (56/366), χ(2)=53.661, P<0.001]. Conclusion: Although the preoperative bowel preparation practice in elective colorectal surgery for most of surgeons in China is basically the same as the current international protocol, the proportions of mechanical enema and gastric intubation before surgery are still relatively high.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Enema/métodos , Protectomia/métodos , Prática Profissional/normas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , China , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
14.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 82-89, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the course of perioperative period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 93 patients who underwent elective abdominal and retroperitoneal surgery. In the main group (n=47), carbohydrate drink was prescribed prior to surgery (33.5 g of carbohydrates and 4 g of hydrolyzed protein per 100 ml): 400 ml in the evening before surgery and 200 ml 2 hours before surgery. The control group included 46 patients who followed conventional fasting protocol recommended by the ASA (solid food no later than 6 hours before surgery, intake of clear fluids no later than 2 hours before surgery). Surgical interventions and anesthetic management were similar in both groups. RESULTS: There were no differences in perioperative glycemia between both groups. The main group was characterized by less intraoperative infusion volume and more stable hemodynamic parameters, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and complications was significantly lower. Postoperative nausea and vomiting and general weakness were less significant in the main group while subjective assessment of patient's satisfaction with postoperative period was higher. CONCLUSION: Preoperative carbohydrate loading does not affect perioperative glycemia, reduces intraoperative infusion volume, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and complications, postoperative nausea and vomiting, ensures more stable intraoperative hemodynamics and more comfortable subjective perception of early postoperative period.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Jejum , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
16.
J Card Surg ; 35(6): 1202-1208, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been demonstrated that patients with pre-frailty have more adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery; however, data on prognosis and long-term evolution in patients with pre-frailty after elective cardiac surgery without postoperative complications are still scarce. To evaluate the impact of pre-frailty status on functional survival in patients after elective cardiac surgery without surgical complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective study with 141 patients over 65 years old, with an established diagnosis of myocardial infarction or valve disease. Patients were evaluated by Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) before surgery, according to the hospital protocol, and allocated into two groups: non-frail (CFS, 1-3) and pre-frail (CFS = 4). Patients with adverse cardiovascular events during surgery or at intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation more than 24 hours, ICU length of stay more than 48 hours, and in-hospital complications were excluded. For all analyses, the statistical significance was set at 5% (P < .05). RESULTS: There were no differences in demographic, anthropometric, surgical procedure, or baseline data on ICU. Pre-frail patients had more adverse events during the 3-year follow-up period with rehospitalization compared to non-frail (39.4% vs 14.3%, respectively). Rehospitalizations in pre-frail patients were in the first year after cardiac surgery (P < .05), and higher cumulative events in pre-frail have occurred with increased odds ratio (OR) (2.828, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.298-6.160; P = .001) and hazard ratio (HR) (3.560, 95% CI: 1.508-84.04; P = .004). The OR and HR for stroke or death were similar between groups when analyzed separately. CONCLUSION: Pre-frail patients have more adverse events after elective cardiac surgery without complications when compared to non-frail patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Fragilidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
17.
Lancet ; 396(10243): 27-38, 2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. FINDINGS: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28-2·40], p<0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65-3·22], p<0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3-5 versus grades 1-2 (2·35 [1·57-3·53], p<0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01-2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06-2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01-2·31], p=0·047). INTERPRETATION: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anesth Analg ; 130(6): 1516-1523, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and delirium are the most common perioperative cognitive complications in older adults undergoing surgery. A recent study of cardiac surgery patients suggests that physical frailty is a risk factor for both complications. We sought to examine the relationship between preoperative frailty and postoperative delirium and preoperative frailty and POCD after major noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of patients >65 years old having major elective noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia. Exclusion criteria were preexisting dementia, inability to consent, cardiac, intracranial, or emergency surgery. Preoperative frailty was determined using the FRAIL scale, a simple questionnaire that categorizes patients as robust, prefrail, or frail. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) twice daily, starting in the recovery room until hospital discharge. All patients were assessed with neuropsychological tests (California Verbal Learning Test II, Trail Making Test, subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Logical Memory Story A, Immediate and Delayed Recall, Animal and Vegetable verbal fluency, Boston Naming Test, and the Mini-Mental Status Examination) before surgery and at 3 months afterward. RESULTS: A total of 178 patients met inclusion criteria; 167 underwent major surgery and 150 were available for follow-up 3 months after surgery. The median age was 70 years old. Thirty-one patients (18.6%) tested as frail, and 72 (43.1%) prefrail before surgery. After adjustment for baseline cognitive score, age, education, surgery duration, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, type of surgery, and sex, patients who tested frail or prefrail had an estimated 2.7 times the odds of delirium (97.5% confidence interval, 1.0-7.3) when compared to patients who were robust. There was no significant difference between the proportion of POCD between patients who tested as frail, prefrail, or robust. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for baseline cognition, testing as frail or prefrail with the FRAIL scale is associated with increased odds of postoperative delirium, but not POCD after noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Delírio/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/complicações , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Cognição , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Angiology ; 71(7): 641-649, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351123

RESUMO

A screening program for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), inviting 65-year-old men, was started in Stockholm in 2010 (2.3 million inhabitants). The aim was to present a long-term follow-up of men participating in screening, as well as AAA repair and ruptures among nonparticipants. Demographics were collected for men with screening detected with AAA 2010 to 2016 (n = 672) and a control group with normal aortas at screening (controls, n = 237). Medical charts and regional Swedvasc (Swedish Vascular registry) data were analyzed for aortic repair for men born 1945 to 1951. Ultrasound maximum aortic diameter (AD) as well as Aortic Size Index (ASI) was recorded. Participation was 78% and prevalence of AAA was 1.2% (n = 672). Aortic repair rates correlated with high ASI and AD. During the study period, 22% of the AAA patients were treated with the elective repair; 35 men in surveillance died (5.2%), non-AAA-related causes (82.9%) dominated, followed by unknown causes among 4 (11.4%), and 2 (5.7%) possibly AAA-related deaths. Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture rate was higher among nonparticipants (0.096% vs 0.0036%, P < .001). The low dropout rate confirms acceptability of follow-up after screening. The efficacy is shown by the much higher rupture rate among the nonparticipating men.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Fatores Sexuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 108, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with moderate-severe systolic dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft have a higher incidence of postoperative low cardiac output. Preconditioning with levosimendan may be a useful strategy to prevent this complication. In this context, design cost-effective strategies like preconditioning with levosimendan may become necessary. METHODS: In a sequential assignment of patients with Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction less than 40%, two strategies were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness: standard care (n = 41) versus preconditioning with Levosimendan (n = 13). The adverse effects studied included: postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation, low cardiac output, renal failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation. The costs were evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. RESULTS: Preconditioning with levosimendan in moderate to severe systolic dysfunction (Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction < 40%), was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative low cardiac output in elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery 2(15.4%) vs 25(61%) (P < 0.01) and lesser intensive care unit length of stay 2(1-4) vs 4(3-6) days (P = 0.03). Average cost on levosimendan group was 14,792€ while the average cost per patient without levosimendan was 17,007€. Patients with no complications represented 53.8% of the total in the levosimendan arm, as compared to 31.7% in the non-levosimendan arm. In all Montecarlo simulations for sensitivity analysis, use of levosimendan was less expensive and more effective. CONCLUSIONS: Preconditioning with levosimendan, is a cost-effective strategy preventing postoperative low cardiac output in patients with moderate-severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Simendana/farmacologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/etiologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/economia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
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