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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(1): 12-16, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary modifications and patient-tailored medical management are significant in controlling renal stone disease. Nevertheless, the literature regarding effectiveness is sparse. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of dietary modifications and medical management on 24-hour urinary metabolic profiles (UMP) and renal stone status in recurrent kidney stone formers. METHODS: We reviewed our prospective registry database of patients treated for nephrolithiasis. Data included age, sex, 24-hour UMP, and stone burden before treatment. Under individual treatment, patients were followed at 6-8 month intervals with repeat 24-hour UMP and radiographic images. Nephrolithiasis-related events (e.g., surgery, renal colic) were also recorded. We included patients with established long-term follow-up prior to the initiation of designated treatment, comparing individual nephrolithiasis status before and after treatment initiation. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met by 44 patients. Median age at treatment start was 60.5 (50.2-70.2) years. Male:Female ratio was 3.9:1. Median follow-up was 10 (6-25) years and 5 (3-6) years before and after initiation of medical and dietary treatment, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities detected included: hypocitraturia (95.5%), low urine volume (56.8%), hypercalciuria (45.5%), hyperoxaluria (40.9%), and hyperuricosuria (13.6%). Repeat 24-hour UMP under appropriate diet and medical treatment revealed a progressive increase in citrate levels compared to baseline and significantly decreased calcium levels (P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively). A significant decrease was observed in stone burden (P = 0.001) and overall nephrolithiasis-related events. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary modifications and medical management significantly aid in correcting urinary metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, reduced nehprolithiasis-related events and better stone burden control is expected.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitíase , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálcio/urina , Ácido Cítrico/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico , Nefrolitíase/dietoterapia , Nefrolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrolitíase/metabolismo , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cólica Renal/epidemiologia , Cólica Renal/etiologia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Úrico/urina
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343794

RESUMO

The public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be overstated. Its impact on the cost of surgical and obstetric care is significant. More so, in a country like Nigeria, where even before the pandemic, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) has been the major payment method for healthcare. The increased cost of surgical and obstetric care occasioned by the pandemic has principally been due to the additional burden of ensuring the use of adequate/appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) during patient care as a disease containment measure. These PPE are not readily available in public hospitals across Nigeria. Patients are therefore compelled to bear the financial burden of procuring scarce PPE for use by health care personnel, further increasing the already high cost of healthcare. In this study, we sought to appraise the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the cost of surgical and obstetric care in Nigeria, drawing from the experience from one of the major Nigerian teaching hospitals- the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State. The cost of surgical and obstetric care was reviewed and compared pre- and during the COVID-19 pandemic, deriving relevant examples from some commonly performed surgical operations in our centre (OAUTHC). We reviewed patients' hospital bills and receipts of consumables procured for surgery. Our findings revealed that the cost of surgical and obstetric care during the COVID-19 pandemic had significantly increased. We identified gaps and made relevant recommendations on measures to reduce the additional costs of surgical and obstetric care during and beyond pandemic.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Nigéria , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Gravidez , Saúde Pública/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(10): 671-682, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177757

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether location-linked anaesthesiology calculator mobile application (app) data can serve as a qualitative proxy for global surgical case volumes and therefore monitor the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We collected data provided by users of the mobile app "Anesthesiologist" during 1 October 2018-30 June 2020. We analysed these using RStudio and generated 7-day moving-average app use plots. We calculated country-level reductions in app use as a percentage of baseline. We obtained data on COVID-19 case counts from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We plotted changing app use and COVID-19 case counts for several countries and regions. Findings: A total of 100 099 app users within 214 countries and territories provided data. We observed that app use was reduced during holidays, weekends and at night, correlating with expected fluctuations in surgical volume. We observed that the onset of the pandemic prompted substantial reductions in app use. We noted strong cross-correlation between COVID-19 case count and reductions in app use in low- and middle-income countries, but not in high-income countries. Of the 112 countries and territories with non-zero app use during baseline and during the pandemic, we calculated a median reduction in app use to 73.6% of baseline. Conclusion: App data provide a proxy for surgical case volumes, and can therefore be used as a real-time monitor of the impact of COVID-19 on surgical capacity. We have created a dashboard for ongoing visualization of these data, allowing policy-makers to direct resources to areas of greatest need.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias
4.
Minerva Chir ; 75(5): 320-327, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic entire countries rapidly ran out of intensive care beds, occupied by critically ill infected patients. Elective surgery was initially halted and acute non-deferrable surgical care drastically limited. The presence of COVID-19 patients into intensive care units (ICU) is currently decreasing but their congestion have restricted our therapeutic strategies during the last months. METHODS: In the COVID-19 era eighteen patients (8 men, 10 women) with a mean age of 80 years, needing undelayable abdominal surgery underwent awake open surgery at our Department. Prior to surgery, all patients underwent COVID-19 investigation. In all cases locoregional anesthesia (LA) was performed. Intraoperative and postoperative pain has been monitored and regularly assessed. A distinct pathway has been set up to keep patients of uncertain COVID-19 diagnosis separated from all other patients. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 104 minutes. In only one case conversion to general anesthesia was necessary. Postoperative pain was always well controlled. None of them required postoperative intensive care support. Only one perioperative complication occurred. Early readmissions after surgery were never observed. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our experience awake laparotomy under LA resulted feasible, safe, painless and, in specific cases, the only viable option. For patients presenting fragile cardiovascular and respiratory, reserves and in whom general anesthesia (GA) would presumably increase morbidity and mortality we encourage LA as an alternative to GA. In the COVID-19 era, it has become part of our ICU-preserving strategy allowing us to carry out undeferrable surgeries.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Local/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Emergências/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 155, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pediatric operations, and establish preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols to improve the pediatric operations. METHODS: We here compare the number of patients who underwent surgery in Chongqing Medical University Affiliated Children's Hospital during the pandemic (January 23-March 11), after the pandemic (March 12-April 30), after our measures were put in place (May 1-May 21), and the equivalent period in 2019. RESULT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, 62.68% fewer patients underwent surgery than during the homologous period of time 1 year earlier (P < 0.01). After the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of orchidopexy cases increased significantly from 175.14 to 504.57 per week (P < 0.01). The large number of patients that accrued in our hospital may have increased the risk of COVID-19 transmission. In response, hospitals and clinics have made protocols and reorganized healthcare facilities (e.g., performing nucleic acid tests (NAT), adding adequate personal protective equipment (PPE)) from May 1, 2020. After the measures were implemented, the number of operations performed remained stable and comparable to the pre-pandemic period. COVID-19 RNA detection was performed in 5104 cases and there were no new confirmed cases in our hospital. CONCLUSION: This outbreak of COVID-19 has affected not only individuals with COVID-19 but also patients seeking surgical operations. Understanding the present situation helps clinicians provide a high level of treatment to all children.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E431-E434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009897

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) injuries can be extremely challenging to manage. This scoping review (8438 citations) offers a number of recommendations. If diagnosis and therapy are rapid, patients with major hepatic injuries who present in physiologic extremis have high survival rates despite prolonged hospital stays. Nonoperative management of major liver injuries, as diagnosed using computed tomography, is typically successful. Adjuncts (e.g., angioembolization, laparoscopic washouts, biliary stents) are essential in managing high-grade injuries. Injury to the extrahepatic biliary tree is rare. Cholecystectomy is indicated for all gallbladder trauma. Full-thickness common bile duct injuries require a hepaticojejunostomy, although damage control remains closed suction drainage. Injuries to the pancreatic head often involve concurrent trauma to regional vasculature. Damage control necessitates drainage after stopping hemorrhage. Injury to the left pancreas commonly requires a distal pancreatectomy. Outcomes for high-grade pancreatic and liver injuries are improved by involving an HPB team. Complications are multidisciplinary and should be managed without delay.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/terapia , Sistema Biliar/lesões , Fígado/lesões , Pâncreas/lesões , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tratamento Conservador/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Tratamento Conservador/normas , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E396-E408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scope of practice of general surgeons in Canada is highly variable. The objective of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics of general surgeons in Canada and compare surgical procedures performed across community sizes and specialties. METHODS: Data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's National Physician Database were used to analyze fee-for-service (FFS) care provided by general surgeons and other providers across Canada in 2015/16. RESULTS: Across 8 Canadian provinces, 1669 general surgeons provided FFS care. The majority of the surgeons worked in communities with more than 100 000 residents (71%), were male (78%), were aged 35-54 years (56%) and were Canadian medical graduates (76%). Only 7% of general surgeons practised in rural areas and 14% in communities with between 10 000 and 50 000 residents. Rural communities were significantly more likely to have surgeons who were international medical graduates or who were older than 65 years. The surgical procedures most commonly performed by general surgeons were hernia repairs, gallbladder and biliary tree surgery, excision of skin tumours, colon and intestine resections and breast surgery. Many general surgeons performed procedures not listed in their Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada training objectives. CONCLUSION: Canadian general surgeons provide a wide array of surgical services, and practice patterns vary by community size. Surgeons practising in rural and small communities require proficiency in skills not routinely taught in general surgery residency. Opportunities to acquire these skills should be available in training to prepare surgeons to meet the care needs of Canadians.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Âmbito da Prática/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canadá , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/economia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/tendências , Cirurgiões/economia , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação
8.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E435-E441, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the literature on emergency general surgery (EGS) has investigated appendiceal and biliary disease; however, EGS surgeons manage many other complex conditions. This study aimed to describe the operative burden of these conditions throughout Canada. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective cohort study evaluated EGS patients at 7 centres across Canada in 2014. Adult patients (aged ≥ 18 yr) undergoing nonelective operative interventions for nonbiliary, nonappendiceal diseases were included. Data collected included information on patients' demographic characteristics, diagnosis, procedure details, complications and hospital length of stay. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 2595 patients were included, with a median age of 60 years (interquartile range 46-73 yr). The most common principal diagnoses were small bowel obstruction (16%), hernia (15%), malignancy (11%) and perianal disease (9%). The most commonly performed procedures were bowel resection (30%), hernia repair (15%), adhesiolysis (11%) and débridement of skin and soft tissue infections (10%). A total of 47% of cases were completed overnight (between 5 pm and 8 am). The overall inhospital mortality rate was 8%. Thirty-three percent of patients had a complication, with independent predictors including increasing age (p = 0.001), increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (p = 0.02) and transfer from another centre (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study characterizes the epidemiology of nonbiliary, nonappendiceal EGS operative interventions across Canada. Canadian surgeons are performing a large volume of EGS, and conditions treated by EGS services are associated with a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Results of this study will be used to guide future research efforts and set benchmarks for quality improvement.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Benchmarking , Canadá , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1057-1061, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely access to emergency general surgery services, including trauma, is a critical aspect of patient care. This study looks to identify resource availability at small rural hospitals in order to improve the quality of surgical care. METHODS: Forty-five nonteaching hospitals in West Virginia were divided into large community hospitals with multiple specialties (LCHs), small community hospitals with fewer specialties (SCHs), and critical access hospitals (CAHs). A 58-question survey on optimal resources for surgery was completed by 1 representative surgeon at each hospital. There were 8 LCHs, 18 SCHs, and 19 CAHs with survey response rates of 100%, 83%, and 89%, respectively. RESULTS: One hundred percent of hospitals surveyed had respiratory therapy and ventilator support, computerized tomography (CT) scanner and ultrasound, certified operating rooms, lab support, packed red blood cells (PRBC), and FFP accessible 24/7. Availability of cryoprecipitate, platelets, tranexamic acid (TXA), and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) decreased from LCHs to CAHs. The majority had board-certified general surgeons; however, only 86% LCHs, 53% SCHs, and 50% CAHs had advanced trauma life support (ATLS) certification. One hundred percent of LCHs had operating room (OR) crew on call within 30 minutes, emergency cardiovascular equipment, critical care nursing, on-site pathologist, and biologic/synthetic mesh, whereas fewer SCHs and CAHs had these resources. One hundred percent of LCHs and SCHs had anesthesia availability 24/7 compared to 78% of CAHs. DISCUSSION: Improving access to the aforementioned resources is of utmost importance to patient outcomes. This will enhance rural surgical care and decrease emergency surgical transfers. Further education and research are necessary to support and improve rural trauma systems.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais Rurais/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , West Virginia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficulties accessing surgical care (e.g., related to wait times, cancellations, cost, receiving a diagnosis) are understudied in Canada. Using population-based data, we studied difficulty accessing non-emergency surgical care, including (1) the incidence and annual changes in incidence, (2) types of difficulties, and (3) associated factors (e.g., sociodemographics, surgery characteristics). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Canadian Community Health Survey annual components were analyzed from 2005-2014. Weighted frequencies established the annual incidence of difficulty accessing surgical care, and total incidence of types of difficulties. Chi-square analyses, independent samples t-tests, and a multivariable logistic regression examined sociodemographic and surgery-related characteristics associated with difficulty accessing surgical care. RESULTS: Among individuals who required past-year non-emergency surgery between 2005-2014 (weighted n = 3,052,072), 15.6% experienced difficulty accessing surgical care. The most common difficulty was "waited too long for surgery" (58.5%). There were significant differences in the incidence of difficulty according to year (Χ2 = 83.50, p < .001) from 2005-2014. The incidence of difficulty accessing surgery varied according to sex (Χ2 = 4.02, p < .05), surgery type (Χ2 = 96.09, p < .001), party responsible for cancellation/postponement (Χ2 range: 4.36-19.01, p < .05), and waiting time (t = 10.59, p < .001). In particular, males, orthopedic surgery, and surgery cancelled by the surgeon or hospital had the highest rates of difficulty. CONCLUSION: Results provide insight into the difficulties experienced by patients accessing elective surgery, and the associated factors. These results may inform targeted healthcare interventions and resource reallocation to reduce these occurrences.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Listas de Espera
13.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1237-1248, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term opioid use has negative health care consequences. Opioid-naïve adults are at risk for prolonged and persistent opioid use after surgery. While these outcomes have been examined in some adolescent and teenage populations, little is known about the risk of prolonged and persistent postoperative opioid use after common surgeries compared to children who do not undergo surgery and factors associated with these issues among pediatric surgical patients of all ages. METHODS: Using a national administrative claims database, we identified 175,878 surgical visits by opioid-naïve children aged ≤18 years who underwent ≥1 of the 20 most common surgeries from each of 4 age groups between December 31, 2002, and December 30, 2017, and who filled a perioperative opioid prescription 30 days before to 14 days after surgery. Prolonged opioid use after surgery (filling ≥1 opioid prescription 90-180 days after surgery) was compared to a reference sample of 1,354,909 nonsurgical patients randomly assigned a false "surgery" date. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of surgical procedures and 22 other variables of interest with prolonged opioid use and persistent postoperative opioid use (filling ≥60 days' supply of opioids 90-365 days after surgery) for each age group. RESULTS: Prolonged opioid use after surgery occurred in 0.77%, 0.76%, 1.00%, and 3.80% of surgical patients ages 0-<2, 2-<6, 6-<12, and 12-18, respectively. It was significantly more common in surgical patients than in nonsurgical patients (ages 0-<2: odds ratio [OR] = 4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.7-5.6]; ages 2-<6: OR = 2.5 [95% CI, 2.1-2.8]; ages 6-<12: OR = 2.1 [95% CI, 1.9-2.4]; and ages 12-18: OR = 1.8 [95% CI, 1.7-1.9]). In the multivariable models for ages 0-<12 years, few surgical procedures and none of the other variables of interest were associated with prolonged opioid use. In the models for ages 12-18 years, 10 surgical procedures and 5 other variables of interest were associated with prolonged opioid use. Persistent postoperative opioid use occurred in <0.1% of patients in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Some patient characteristics and surgeries are positively and negatively associated with prolonged opioid use in opioid-naïve children of all ages, but persistent opioid use is rare. Specific pediatric subpopulations (eg, older patients with a history of mood/personality disorder or chronic pain) may be at markedly higher risk.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ann Surg ; 272(4): 548-553, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients may call urgent care centers (UCCs) with urgent surgical conditions but may not be properly referred to a higher level of care. This study aims to characterize how UCCs manage Medicaid and privately insured patients who present with an emergent condition. METHODS: Using a standardized script, we called 1245 randomly selected UCCs in 50 states on 2 occasions. Investigators posed as either a Medicaid or a privately-insured patient with symptoms of an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Rates of direct emergency department (ED) referral were compared between insurance types. RESULTS: A total of 1223 (98.2%) UCCs accepted private insurance and 981 (78.8%) accepted Medicaid. At the 971 (78.0%) UCCs that accepted both insurance types, direct-to-ED referral rates for private and Medicaid patients were 27.9% and 33.8%, respectively. Medicaid patients were significantly more likely than private patients to be referred to the ED [odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.60]. Private patients who were triaged by a clinician compared to nonclinician staff were over 6 times more likely to be referred to the ED (OR 6.46, 95% CI 4.63-9.01). Medicaid patients were nearly 9 times more likely to have an ED referral when triaged by a clinician (OR 8.72, 95% CI 6.19-12.29). CONCLUSIONS: Only one-third of UCCs across the United States referred an apparent emergent surgical case to the ED, potentially delaying care. Medicaid patients were more likely to be referred directly to the ED versus privately insured patients. All patients triaged by clinicians were significantly more likely to be referred to the ED; however, the disparity between private and Medicaid patients remained.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos
16.
ANZ J Surg ; 90(11): 2254-2258, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The New Zealand Government announced a four-level COVID-19 alert system soon after the first confirmed case in the country. New Zealand moved swiftly to the highest alert level 4, described as lockdown, as the epidemic curve quickly accelerated. Auckland City Hospital saw a temporary change in acute surgical admissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the national lockdown on emergency general surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients admitted to Auckland City Hospital via the Acute Surgical Unit during lockdown from 26 March to 27 April 2020. A comparison group was collected from the 33 days prior to lockdown, 22 February to 25 March 2020. RESULTS: The number of admissions decreased by 26% (P-value 0.000). A 56.8% decrease in patients presenting with trauma was found (P-value 0.002). After exclusion of trauma patients, no statistical difference in discharge diagnosis was found. There was a 43.6% reduction in operations performed (P-value 0.037). There was a difference found in the management of appendicitis and cholecystitis (P-value 0.003). Median length of stay was decreased from 1.8 to 1.3 days (P-value 0.031). CONCLUSION: Auckland City Hospital had a decrease in admissions and operations during the COVID-19 lockdown. These findings suggest people with serious pathology were staying at home untreated or being treated in the community. This is a snapshot of our experience in managing emergency general surgical patients in this unusual period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New financial incentives, such as reduced Medicare reimbursements, have led hospitals to closely monitor their readmission rates and initiate efforts aimed at reducing them. In this context, many surgical departments participate in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which collects detailed demographic, laboratory, clinical, procedure and perioperative occurrence data. The availability of such data enables the development of data science methods which predict readmissions and, as done in this paper, offer specific recommendations aimed at preventing readmissions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study leverages NSQIP data for 722,101 surgeries to develop predictive and prescriptive models, predicting readmissions and offering real-time, personalized treatment recommendations for surgical patients during their hospital stay, aimed at reducing the risk of a 30-day readmission. We applied a variety of classification methods to predict 30-day readmissions and developed two prescriptive methods to recommend pre-operative blood transfusions to increase the patient's hematocrit with the objective of preventing readmissions. The effect of these interventions was evaluated using several predictive models. RESULTS: Predictions of 30-day readmissions based on the entire collection of NSQIP variables achieve an out-of-sample accuracy of 87% (Area Under the Curve-AUC). Predictions based only on pre-operative variables have an accuracy of 74% AUC, out-of-sample. Personalized interventions, in the form of pre-operative blood transfusions identified by the prescriptive methods, reduce readmissions by 12%, on average, for patients considered as candidates for pre-operative transfusion (pre-operative hematoctic <30). The prediction accuracy of the proposed models exceeds results in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to develop a methodology for making specific, data-driven, personalized treatment recommendations to reduce the 30-day readmission rate. The reported predicted reduction in readmissions can lead to more than $20 million in savings in the U.S. annually.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hematócrito , Humanos , Medição de Risco
18.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1070-1079, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report hospitalization patterns from 2000 to 2016 for young children (ages 0-5 years old) in California who underwent 1 of the 20 most common inpatient procedures that required general anesthesia and evaluate the estimated probability of treatment at a tertiary care children's hospital (CH) by year. METHODS: We hypothesized that children ≤5 years old increasingly undergo care at tertiary care CHs for common inpatient surgeries or other procedures that require general anesthesia. Data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development dataset were used to determine procedure, patient age, year of procedure, and hospital name. Hospitals were designated as either tertiary care CHs, children's units within general hospitals (CUGHs), or general hospitals (GHs) based on the California Children's Services Provider List. A tertiary care CH was defined using the California Children's Services definition as a referral hospital that provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, regionalized pediatric care to children from birth up to 21 years of age with a full range of medical and surgical care for severely ill children. We report the unadjusted percentage of patients treated at each hospital type and, after controlling for patient covariates and comorbidities, the estimated probability of undergoing care at a tertiary care CH from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: There were 172,318 treatment episodes from 2000 to 2016. The estimated probability of undergoing care at a tertiary care CH increased from 63.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 62.4%-64.4%) in 2000 to 78.3% (95% CI, 77.3%-79.4%) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Children ≤5 years old undergoing common inpatient procedures that require general anesthesia increasingly receive care at tertiary care CHs in California.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Geral , California , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Demografia , Feminino , Hospitais/classificação , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 916-919, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic, South Africa (SA) began a national lockdown on 27 March 2020, and many hospitals implemented measures to prepare for a potential COVID-19 surge. OBJECTIVES: To report changes in SA hospital surgical practices in response to COVID-19 preparedness. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, surgeons working in SA hospitals were recruited through surgical professional associations via an online survey. The main outcome measures were changes in hospital practice around surgical decision-making, operating theatres, surgical services and surgical trainees, and the potential long-term effect of these changes. RESULTS: A total of 133 surgeons from 85 hospitals representing public and private hospitals nationwide responded. In 59 hospitals (69.4%), surgeons were involved in the decision to de-escalate surgical care. Access was cancelled or reduced for non-cancer elective (n=84; 99.0%), cancer (n=24; 28.1%) and emergency operations (n=46; 54.1%), and 26 hospitals (30.6%) repurposed at least one operating room as a ventilated critical care bed. Routine postoperative visits were cancelled in 33 hospitals (36.5%) and conducted by telephone or video in 15 (16.6%), 74 hospitals (87.1%) cancelled or reduced new outpatient visits, 64 (75.3%) reallocated some surgical inpatient beds to COVID-19 cases, and 29 (34.1%) deployed some surgical staff (including trainees) to other hospital services such as COVID-19 testing, medical/COVID-19 wards, the emergency department and the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital surgical de-escalation in response to COVID-19 has greatly reduced access to surgical care in SA, which could result in a backlog of surgical needs and an excess of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Comunicação por Videoconferência
20.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(5): 835-847, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882166

RESUMO

Nearly 60 million people live in a rural area across the United States. Since 2005, 162 rural hospitals have closed, and the rate of rural hospital closures seems to be accelerating. Major drivers of rural hospital closures are poor financial health, aging facilities, and low occupancy rates. Rural hospitals are particularly vulnerable to policy and market changes, and even small changes can have a disproportionate effect on rural hospital financial viability. Surgery can be safely performed in rural hospitals; however, hospital closures may be putting the rural population at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from surgical disease.


Assuntos
Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde/economia , Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Rurais/economia , Hospitais Rurais/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/economia , Serviços de Saúde Rural/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Hospitais Rurais/tendências , Humanos , População Rural , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/tendências , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
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