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5.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions in the neonatal patient population are common, but there are no established guidelines regarding transfusion thresholds. Little is known about postoperative outcomes in neonates who receive preoperative blood transfusions (PBTs). METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric Participant Use Data Files from 2012 to 2015, we identified all neonates who underwent surgery. Mortality and composite morbidity (defined as any postoperative complication) in neonates who received a PBT within 48 hours of surgery were compared with that in neonates who did not receive a transfusion. RESULTS: A total of 12 184 neonates were identified, of whom 1209 (9.9%) received a PBT. Neonates who received a PBT had higher rates of preoperative comorbidities and worse postoperative outcomes when compared with those who did not receive a transfusion (composite morbidity: 46.2% vs 16.2%; P < .01). On multivariable regression analysis, PBTs were independently associated with increased 30-day morbidity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.22; P < .01) and mortality (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.55-2.55; P < .01). In a propensity score-matched analysis, PBTs continued to be associated with increased 30-day morbidity (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.29-1.81; P < .01) and mortality (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.01; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In a propensity score-matched model, PBTs are independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality in neonates who undergo surgery. Prospective data are needed to better understand the potential effects of a red blood cell transfusion in this patient population.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Melhoria de Qualidade , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Pneumologie ; 74(10): 670-677, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059373

RESUMO

Data on surgical lung cancer cases were extracted from the German Federal Statistics on Diagnosis-related groups (DRG) and a possible association between hospital volume and surgical mortality was explored. All treatment cases documented between 2005 and 2015 with the main diagnosis of lung cancer (International Classification of Disease code C34) and the German Operations and Procedure Key (OPS) codes 5-323 to 5-328 for anatomical lung resections were analysed. The treatment cases were assigned to hospital groups, defined according to the number of procedures performed per year. The total number of anatomical lung resections for the diagnosis of lung cancer increased by 24 % from 9376 resections in 2005 to 11,614 resections in 2015. In 2015, 57 % of anatomical lung resections in patients with lung cancer were performed in 47 high volume centres (hospitals with ≥ 75 resections/year); the remaining 43 % of the resections were distributed among 271 hospitals performing fewer than 75 resections per year. In hospitals performing fewer than 25 procedures/year, hospital mortality was almost twice as high as in large centres with ≥ 75 resections per year (5.7 vs. 3.0 %, mean value 2005 to 2015). In summary, our data indicate that a small number of high-volume hospitals perform the major part of lung resections of lung cancer in Germany with better survival as compared to low-volume hospitals. Based on current nationwide data a clear association between hospital volume and surgical mortality could be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
7.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1083-1089, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to estimate the surgical risk of noncardiac procedures on the incidence of 30-day mortality in children with congenital heart disease. METHODS: Children with congenital heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery from 2012 to 2016 and included in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Pediatric database were included in the derivation cohort, while the 2017 database was used as a validation cohort. Intrinsic surgical risk quartiles were built utilizing 30-day mortality rates for each Current Procedural Terminology code and relative value units to create 2 groups defined as low surgical risk (quartiles 1-3) and high surgical risk procedures (quartile 4). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the predictors for 30-day mortality including patient comorbidities and intrinsic surgical risk. A partially external validation of the model was performed using the 2017 version of the database. RESULTS: We included 37,658 children with congenital heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery with an incidence of overall 30-day mortality of 1.7% in the derivation cohort and 1.5% in the validation cohort (n = 13,129). Intrinsic surgical risk of procedures represented by Current Procedural Terminology procedural codes and relative value units risk quartiles was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (unadjusted P < .001). Predicted probability of 30-day mortality ranges from 0.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-0.2) with no comorbidities to 39.6% (95% CI, 23.2-56.0) when all comorbidities were present among high surgical risk procedures and from 0.3% (95% CI, 0.3-0.3) to 54.8% (95% CI, 39.4-70.1) among low surgical risk procedures. An excellent discrimination was reported for the multivariable model with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.85-0.88). High surgical risk was not associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality after adjustment for all other predictors (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.75, 95% CI, 0.62-0.91). We also estimated the discriminative ability of a model that does not include the surgical risk (0.86 [95% CI, 0.84-0.88], with P value for the direct comparison of the AUC of the 2 models = 0.831). The multivariable model obtained from an external validation cohort reported an optimism corrected AUC of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that integration of intrinsic surgical risk to comorbidities and severity of cardiac disease does not improve prediction of 30-day mortality in children undergoing noncardiac surgery. In children with congenital heart disease, patient comorbidities, and severity of the cardiac lesion are the predominant predictors of 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Resultados Negativos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012451, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery suffer from preoperative anaemia. Preoperative anaemia is a risk factor for mortality and adverse outcomes in different surgical specialties and is frequently the reason for blood transfusion. The most common causes are renal, chronic diseases, and iron deficiency. International guidelines recommend that the cause of anaemia guide preoperative anaemia treatment. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) with iron supplementation has frequently been used to increase preoperative haemoglobin concentrations in patients in order to avoid the need for perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative rHuEPO therapy (subcutaneous or parenteral) with iron (enteral or parenteral) in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusions in preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid Embase, ISI Web of Science: SCI-EXPANDED and CPCI-S, and clinical trial registries WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov on 29 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared preoperative rHuEPO + iron therapy to control treatment (placebo, no treatment, or standard of care with or without iron) for preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. We used the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anaemia: haemoglobin concentration (g/dL) less than 13 g/dL for males, and 12 g/dL for non-pregnant females (decision of inclusion based on mean haemoglobin concentration). We defined two subgroups of rHuEPO dosage: 'low' for 150 to 300 international units (IU)/kg body weight, and 'high' for 500 to 600 IU/kg body weight. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors collected data from the included studies. Our primary outcome was the need for RBC transfusion (no autologous transfusion, fresh frozen plasma or platelets), measured in transfused participants during surgery (intraoperative) and up to five days after surgery. Secondary outcomes of interest were: haemoglobin concentration (directly before surgery), number of RBC units (where one unit contains 250 to 450 mL) transfused per participant (intraoperative and up to five days after surgery), mortality (within 30 days after surgery), length of hospital stay, and adverse events (e.g. renal dysfunction, thromboembolism, hypertension, allergic reaction, headache, fever, constipation). MAIN RESULTS: Most of the included trials were in orthopaedic, gastrointestinal, and gynaecological surgery and included participants with mild and moderate preoperative anaemia (haemoglobin from 10 to 12 g/dL). The duration of preoperative rHuEPO treatment varied across the trials, ranging from once a week to daily or a 5-to-10-day period, and in one trial preoperative rHuEPO was given on the morning of surgery and for five days postoperatively. We included 12 trials (participants = 1880) in the quantitative analysis of the need for RBC transfusion following preoperative treatment with rHuEPO + iron to correct preoperative anaemia in non-cardiac surgery; two studies were multiarmed trials with two different dose regimens. Preoperative rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults reduced the need RBC transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.80; participants = 1880; studies = 12; I2 = 84%; moderate-quality evidence due to inconsistency). This analysis suggests that on average, the combined administration of rHuEPO + iron will mean 231 fewer individuals will need transfusion for every 1000 individuals compared to the control group. Preoperative high-dose rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults increased the haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 1.87 g/dL, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.49; participants = 852; studies = 3; I2 = 89%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and risk of bias) but not low-dose rHuEPO + iron (MD 0.11 g/dL, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.69; participants = 334; studies = 4; I2 = 69%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and risk of bias). There was probably little or no difference in the number of RBC units when rHuEPO + iron was given preoperatively (MD -0.09, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.05; participants = 1420; studies = 6; I2 = 2%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision).  There was probably little or no difference in the risk of mortality within 30 days of surgery (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.63; participants = 230; studies = 2; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision) or of adverse events including local rash, fever, constipation, or transient hypertension (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; participants = 1722; studies = 10; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision). The administration of rHuEPO + iron before non-cardiac surgery did not clearly reduce the length of hospital stay of preoperative anaemic adults (MD -1.07, 95% CI -4.12 to 1.98; participants = 293; studies = 3; I2 = 87%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and imprecision). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that preoperative rHuEPO + iron therapy for anaemic adults prior to non-cardiac surgery reduces the need for RBC transfusion and, when given at higher doses, increases the haemoglobin concentration preoperatively. The administration of rHuEPO + iron treatment did not decrease the mean number of units of RBC transfused per patient. There were no important differences in the risk of adverse events or mortality within 30 days, nor in length of hospital stay. Further, well-designed, adequately powered RCTs are required to estimate the impact of this combined treatment more precisely.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Hemoglobina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
9.
Int J Surg ; 81: 47-54, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738546

RESUMO

Globally, a staggering 310 million major surgeries are performed each year; around 40 to 50 million in USA and 20 million in Europe. It is estimated that 1-4% of these patients will die, up to 15% will have serious postoperative morbidity, and 5-15% will be readmitted within 30 days. An annual global mortality of around 8 million patients places major surgery comparable with the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and injury. If surgical complications were classified as a pandemic, like HIV/AIDS or coronavirus (COVID-19), developed countries would work together and devise an immediate action plan and allocate resources to address it. Seeking to reduce preventable deaths and post-surgical complications would save billions of dollars in healthcare costs. Part of the global problem resides in differences in institutional practice patterns in high- and low-income countries, and part from a lack of effective perioperative drug therapies to protect the patient from surgical stress. We briefly review the history of surgical stress and provide a path forward from a systems-based approach. Key to progress is recognizing that the anesthetized brain is still physiologically 'awake' and responsive to the sterile stressors of surgery. New intravenous drug therapies are urgently required after anesthesia and before the first incision to prevent the brain from switching to sympathetic overdrive and activating secondary injury progression such as hyperinflammation, coagulopathy, immune activation and metabolic dysfunction. A systems-based approach targeting central nervous system-mitochondrial coupling may help drive research to improve outcomes following major surgery in civilian and military medicine.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Glicocálix/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20983, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, many meta-analyses have reported the impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs on many surgical specialties. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the effects of ERAS pathways on multiple clinical outcomes in surgery. DESIGN: An umbrella review of meta-analyses. DATE SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. RESULTS: The umbrella review identified 23 meta-analyses of interventional study and observational study. Consistent and robust evidence shown that the ERAS programs can significantly reduce the length of hospital stay (MD: -2.349 days; 95%CI: -2.740 to -1.958) and costs (MD: -$639.064; 95%CI:: -933.850 to -344.278) in all the surgery patients included in the review compared with traditional perioperative care. The ERAS programs would not increase mortality in all surgeries and can even reduce 30-days mortality rate (OR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.23 to 0.67) in orthopedic surgery. Meanwhile, it also would not increase morbidity except laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery (RR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.04 to 2.13). Moreover, readmission rate was increased in open gastric cancer surgery (RR: 1.92; 95%CI: 1.00 to 3.67). CONCLUSION: The ERAS programs are considered to be safe and efficient in surgery patients. However, precaution is necessary for gastric cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Readmissão do Paciente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
11.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 736-740, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683948

RESUMO

The number of deaths and infected people by Corona-19 virusin 2020 around the world is alarming and numbing at the same time. It almostdifficult to remember when the world was normal, although it just started fewmonths ago. Our world and everything around have changed, our surgical practicehas changed, our life has changed, but Intensive Care Units (ICU)in WestchesterMedical center in Valhalla, NY, continue to care for the sickest of thesickest. But this time, different disease with different prognosis. Everycritical care specialist, every surgery resident and surgical critical carefellow, are COVID-19 doctors. As I round in the ICU, I imagine myself in one ofthose beds that I could have been few weeks ago. Now, fully recovered fromCOVID-19, and coming back to work is a real treat. Yet, I still have morequestions than answers.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , New York , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: That African American (AA) patients have poorer surgical outcomes compared with their white peers is established. The prevailing presumption is that these disparities operate within the context of a higher preoperative comorbidity burden among AA patients. Whether these racial differences in outcomes exist among apparently healthy children (traditionally expected to have low risk of postsurgical complications) has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study by analyzing the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database from 2012 through 2017 and identifying children who underwent inpatient operations and were assigned American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2. We used univariable and risk-adjusted logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of postsurgical outcomes comparing AA to white children. RESULTS: Among 172 549 apparently healthy children, the incidence of 30-day mortality, postoperative complications, and serious adverse events were 0.02%, 13.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. Compared with their white peers, AA children had 3.43 times the odds of dying within 30 days after surgery (odds ratio: 3.43; 95% CI: 1.73-6.79). Compared with being white, AA had 18% relative greater odds of developing postoperative complications (odds ratio: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.13-1.23) and 7% relative higher odds of developing serious adverse events (odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14). CONCLUSIONS: Even among apparently healthy children, being AA is strongly associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications and mortality. Mechanisms underlying the established racial differences in postoperative outcomes may not be fully explained by the racial variation in preoperative comorbidity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Recidiva , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 605-613, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Handover of anaesthesia patient care during surgery is common; however, its association with patient outcome is unclear. This systematic review aimed to assess the impact of anaesthesia handover during surgery on patient outcome. METHODS: All prospective and retrospective clinical studies specifically investigating the association of intraoperative transfer of anaesthesia care between anaesthesia providers in the operating room with patient morbidity and mortality were included. Searches were conducted from inception to April 24, 2019 in Medline, Medline in Process, CINAHL, and Embase. Reference lists of included studies were searched. Studies were assessed for eligibility and data were extracted by independent reviewers in duplicate with disagreements resolved by consensus or a third reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed in duplicate using the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were summarised narratively given substantial heterogeneity. An exploratory meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model for a subset of comparable studies. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies focused on patients as the unit of analysis (npatients=605 678) and two focused on anaesthesia providers as the unit of analysis (nproviders=307). Seven studies identified a relationship between anaesthesia handovers and adverse patient outcomes, whereas one suggested that handover may be beneficial to error detection or rectification. Included studies were of fair or good quality. Meta-analysis of four studies found a 40% increased risk of patients experiencing an adverse event when an anaesthesia handover occurs during the procedure (pooled risk ratio=1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.65; P<0.001; I2=98%). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative anaesthesia handovers generally increase morbidity and mortality for surgical patients but could have the potential to improve safety in certain contexts. Future research should determine the specific handover characteristics that impact safety.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Morbidade , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009261, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are broad and include prophylaxis for surgical site infections (SSIs). Existing evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT on postoperative wounds healing by primary closure remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of NPWT for preventing SSI in wounds healing through primary closure, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPWT in wounds healing through primary closure. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries and references of included studies, systematic reviews and health technology reports. There were no restrictions on language, publication date or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials if they allocated participants to treatment randomly and compared NPWT with any other type of wound dressing, or compared one type of NPWT with another type of NPWT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed trials using predetermined inclusion criteria. We carried out data extraction, assessment using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and quality assessment according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations methodology. MAIN RESULTS: In this third update, we added 15 new randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and three new economic studies, resulting in a total of 44 RCTs (7447 included participants) and five economic studies. Studies evaluated NPWT in the context of a wide range of surgeries including orthopaedic, obstetric, vascular and general procedures. Economic studies assessed NPWT in orthopaedic, obstetric and general surgical settings. All studies compared NPWT with standard dressings. Most studies had unclear or high risk of bias for at least one key domain. Primary outcomes Four studies (2107 participants) reported mortality. There is low-certainty evidence (downgraded twice for imprecision) showing no clear difference in the risk of death after surgery for people treated with NPWT (2.3%) compared with standard dressings (2.7%) (risk ratio (RR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 1.47; I2 = 0%). Thirty-nine studies reported SSI; 31 of these (6204 participants), were included in meta-analysis. There is moderate-certainty evidence (downgraded once for risk of bias) that NPWT probably results in fewer SSI (8.8% of participants) than treatment with standard dressings (13.0% of participants) after surgery; RR 0.66 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.80 ; I2 = 23%). Eighteen studies reported dehiscence; 14 of these (3809 participants) were included in meta-analysis. There is low-certainty evidence (downgraded once for risk of bias and once for imprecision) showing no clear difference in the risk of dehiscence after surgery for NPWT (5.3% of participants) compared with standard dressings (6.2% of participants) (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.13; I2 = 0%). Secondary outcomes There is low-certainty evidence showing no clear difference between NPWT and standard treatment for the outcomes of reoperation and incidence of seroma. For reoperation, the RR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.41; I2 = 13%; 12 trials; 3523 participants); for seroma, the RR was 0.72 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.05; I2 = 0%; seven trials; 729 participants). The effect of NPWT on occurrence of haematoma or skin blisters is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence); for haematoma, the RR was 0.67 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.59; I2 = 0%; nine trials; 1202 participants) and for blisters the RR was 2.64 (95% CI 0.65 to 10.68; I2 = 69%; seven trials; 796 participants). The overall effect of NPWT on pain is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence from seven trials (2218 participants) which reported disparate measures of pain); but moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is probably little difference between the groups in pain after three or six months following surgery for lower limb fracture (one trial, 1549 participants). There is also moderate-certainty evidence for women undergoing caesarean sections (one trial, 876 participants) and people having surgery for lower limb fractures (one trial, 1549 participants) that there is probably little difference in quality of life scores at 30 days or 3 or 6 months, respectively. Cost-effectiveness Five economic studies, based wholly or partially on trials included in our review, assessed the cost-effectiveness of NPWT compared with standard care. They considered NPWT in four indications: caesarean sections in obese women; surgery for lower limb fracture; knee/hip arthroplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They calculated quality-adjusted life-years for treatment groups and produced estimates of the treatments' relative cost-effectiveness. The reporting quality was good but the grade of the evidence varied from moderate to very low. There is moderate-certainty evidence that NPWT in surgery for lower limb fracture was not cost-effective at any threshold of willingness-to-pay and that NPWT is probably cost-effective in obese women undergoing caesarean section. Other studies found low or very low-certainty evidence indicating that NPWT may be cost-effective for the indications assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: People experiencing primary wound closure of their surgical wound and treated prophylactically with NPWT following surgery probably experience fewer SSI than people treated with standard dressings (moderate-certainty evidence). There is no clear difference in number of deaths or wound dehiscence between people treated with NPWT and standard dressings (low-certainty evidence). There are also no clear differences in secondary outcomes where all evidence was low or very low-certainty. In caesarean section in obese women and surgery for lower limb fracture, there is probably little difference in quality of life scores (moderate-certainty evidence). Most evidence on pain is very low-certainty, but there is probably no difference in pain between NPWT and standard dressings after surgery for lower limb fracture (moderate-certainty evidence). Assessments of cost-effectiveness of NPWT produced differing results in different indications. There is a large number of ongoing studies, the results of which may change the findings of this review. Decisions about use of NPWT should take into account surgical indication and setting and consider evidence for all outcomes.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Transplante de Pele , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cicatrização , Bandagens , Vesícula/epidemiologia , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/economia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/instrumentação , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/mortalidade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Seroma/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
16.
Lancet ; 396(10243): 27-38, 2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. FINDINGS: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28-2·40], p<0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65-3·22], p<0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3-5 versus grades 1-2 (2·35 [1·57-3·53], p<0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01-2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06-2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01-2·31], p=0·047). INTERPRETATION: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 230, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk prediction in patients at elevated cardiovascular risk shows limited accuracy. Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) indicate systemic inflammation. Both have been investigated for outcome prediction in the field of oncology and cardiovascular medicine, as well as risk prediction of adverse cardiovascular events in non-surgical patients at increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS: For this post-hoc analysis, we included all 38 coronary heart disease patients from the Leukocytes and Cardiovascular Perioperative Events cohort-1 study scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery. We evaluated preoperative differential blood counts for association with major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as the composite endpoint of death, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery, or embolic or thrombotic stroke within 30 days after surgery. We used Youden's index to calculate cut-off values for PLR and NLR. Additive risk-predictive values were assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification (NRI) improvement analyses. RESULTS: Patients with the composite endpoint MACCE had higher PLR and NLR (309 [206; 380] vs. 160 [132; 203], p = 0.001; 4.9 [3.5; 8.1] vs. 2.6 [2.2; 3.4]), p = 0.001). Calculated cut-offs for PLR > 204.4 and NLR > 3.1 were associated with increased risk of 30-day MACCE (OR 7, 95% CI [1.2; 44.7], p = 0.034; OR 36, 95% CI [1.8; 686.6], p = 0.001). Furthermore, NLR improved risk prediction in coronary heart disease patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery when combined with hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP (NRI total = 0.23, p = 0.008, NRI total = 0.26, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Both PLR and NLR were associated with perioperative cardiovascular adverse events in coronary heart disease patients. NLR proved to be of additional value for preoperative risk stratification. Both PLR and NLR could be used as inexpensive and broadly available tools for perioperative risk assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02874508, August 22, 2016.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Surgery ; 168(2): 280-286, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transferred emergency general surgery (EGS) patients are a vulnerable, high acuity population. The outcomes of and health care utilization among transferred (TRAN) as compared to directly admitted (DA) patients have been studied primarily using single institution or hospital system data which limits generalizability. We evaluated these outcomes among EGS patients using a national database. METHODS: We identified encounters of patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of EGS as defined by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma in the 2008-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Multivariable regression analyses determined if transfer status independently predicted in-hospital mortality (logistic regression) and morbidity (presence of any complication among those who survived to discharge; logistic regression), cost (log-linear regression), and duration of stay (among those who survived to discharge; log-linear regression) accounting for the NIS sampling design. RESULTS: We identified 274,145 TRAN (57,885 unweighted) and 10,456,100 DA (2,187,132 unweighted) encounters. On univariate analysis, TRAN patients were more likely to have greater comorbidity scores, have Medicare insurance, and reside in an area with a lesser median household income compared to DA patients (p<0.0001). Mortality was greater in the TRAN vs DA groups (4.4% vs 1.6%; p<0.0001). Morbidity (presence of any complication) was also greater among TRAN patients (38.8% vs 26.1%; p<0.0001). Morbidity among TRAN patients was primarily due to urinary- (13.7%), gastrointestinal- (12.9%), and pulmonary-related (13.3%) complications. Median duration of hospital stay was 4.3 days for TRAN vs 3.0 days for DA (p<0.0001) patients. Median cost was greater for TRAN patients ($8,935 vs $7,167; p<0.0001). Regression analyses determined that after adjustment, TRAN patients had statistically significantly greater mortality, morbidity, and cost as well as longer durations of stay. CONCLUSIONS: EGS patients who are transferred experience increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality as well as increased durations of stay and cost. As the population and age of patients diagnosed with EGS conditions increase while the EGS workforce decreases, the need for inter-hospital transfers will increase. Identifying risk factors associated with worse outcomes among transferred patients can inform the design of initiatives in performance improvement and direct the finite resources available to this vulnerable patient population.


Assuntos
Emergências , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD009261, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are broad and include prophylaxis for surgical site infections (SSIs). Existing evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT on postoperative wounds healing by primary closure remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of NPWT for preventing SSI in wounds healing through primary closure, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPWT in wounds healing through primary closure. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries and references of included studies, systematic reviews and health technology reports. There were no restrictions on language, publication date or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials if they allocated participants to treatment randomly and compared NPWT with any other type of wound dressing, or compared one type of NPWT with another type of NPWT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed trials using predetermined inclusion criteria. We carried out data extraction, assessment using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and quality assessment according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations methodology. MAIN RESULTS: In this third update, we added 15 new randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and three new economic studies, resulting in a total of 44 RCTs (7447 included participants) and five economic studies. Studies evaluated NPWT in the context of a wide range of surgeries including orthopaedic, obstetric, vascular and general procedures. Economic studies assessed NPWT in orthopaedic, obstetric and general surgical settings. All studies compared NPWT with standard dressings. Most studies had unclear or high risk of bias for at least one key domain. Primary outcomes Four studies (2107 participants) reported mortality. There is low-certainty evidence (downgraded twice for imprecision) showing no clear difference in the risk of death after surgery for people treated with NPWT (2.3%) compared with standard dressings (2.7%) (risk ratio (RR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 1.47; I2 = 0%). Thirty-nine studies reported SSI; 31 of these (6204 participants), were included in meta-analysis. There is moderate-certainty evidence (downgraded once for risk of bias) that NPWT probably results in fewer SSI (8.8% of participants) than treatment with standard dressings (13.0% of participants) after surgery; RR 0.66 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.80 ; I2 = 23%). Eighteen studies reported dehiscence; 14 of these (3809 participants) were included in meta-analysis. There is low-certainty evidence (downgraded once for risk of bias and once for imprecision) showing no clear difference in the risk of dehiscence after surgery for NPWT (5.3% of participants) compared with standard dressings (6.2% of participants) (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.13; I2 = 0%). Secondary outcomes There is low-certainty evidence showing no clear difference between NPWT and standard treatment for the outcomes of reoperation and incidence of seroma. For reoperation, the RR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.41; I2 = 13%; 12 trials; 3523 participants); for seroma, the RR was 0.72 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.05; I2 = 0%; seven trials; 729 participants). The effect of NPWT on occurrence of haematoma or skin blisters is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence); for haematoma, the RR was 0.67 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.59; I2 = 0%; nine trials; 1202 participants) and for blisters the RR was 2.64 (95% CI 0.65 to 10.68; I2 = 69%; seven trials; 796 participants). The overall effect of NPWT on pain is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence from seven trials (2218 participants) which reported disparate measures of pain); but moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is probably little difference between the groups in pain after three or six months following surgery for lower limb fracture (one trial, 1549 participants). There is also moderate-certainty evidence for women undergoing caesarean sections (one trial, 876 participants) and people having surgery for lower limb fractures (one trial, 1549 participants) that there is probably little difference in quality of life scores at 30 days or 3 or 6 months, respectively. Cost-effectiveness Five economic studies, based wholly or partially on trials included in our review, assessed the cost-effectiveness of NPWT compared with standard care. They considered NPWT in four indications: caesarean sections in obese women; surgery for lower limb fracture; knee/hip arthroplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They calculated quality-adjusted life-years for treatment groups and produced estimates of the treatments' relative cost-effectiveness. The reporting quality was good but the grade of the evidence varied from moderate to very low. There is moderate-certainty evidence that NPWT in surgery for lower limb fracture was not cost-effective at any threshold of willingness-to-pay and that NPWT is probably cost-effective in obese women undergoing caesarean section. Other studies found low or very low-certainty evidence indicating that NPWT may be cost-effective for the indications assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: People experiencing primary wound closure of their surgical wound and treated prophylactically with NPWT following surgery probably experience fewer SSI than people treated with standard dressings (moderate-certainty evidence). There is no clear difference in number of deaths or wound dehiscence between people treated with NPWT and standard dressings (low-certainty evidence). There are also no clear differences in secondary outcomes where all evidence was low or very low-certainty. In caesarean section in obese women and surgery for lower limb fracture, there is probably little difference in quality of life scores (moderate-certainty evidence). Most evidence on pain is very low-certainty, but there is probably no difference in pain between NPWT and standard dressings after surgery for lower limb fracture (moderate-certainty evidence). Assessments of cost-effectiveness of NPWT produced differing results in different indications. There is a large number of ongoing studies, the results of which may change the findings of this review. Decisions about use of NPWT should take into account surgical indication and setting and consider evidence for all outcomes.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Transplante de Pele , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Cicatrização , Bandagens , Vesícula/epidemiologia , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/economia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/instrumentação , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/mortalidade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Seroma/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(7): e28343, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) is rare in children; therefore, reaching a consensus on its management is challenging and radiotherapy is limited by concerns about long-term toxicity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness and safety of surgery plus postoperative 125 I interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) for children and adolescents with AciCC of the parotid gland (PG) treated at a single institution. PROCEDURE: Sixteen patients ≤ 18 years old with AciCC of the PG treated with surgery plus 125 I IBT from 2007 to 2018 were included. Surgery was the primary treatment; ten patients underwent total gross excision and six subtotal gross excision. The matched peripheral dose was 60-120 Gy. Overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), local control rate, distant metastasis, and radiation-associated toxicities were analyzed, and factors influencing outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: During follow-up (1.8-12.6 years; mean, 6.3 years), lymph node metastasis was observed in one case, 2.6 years after 125 I IBT treatment. The five-year overall and DFS rates were 100% and 91.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor size ≥ 3 cm (100% vs 50%; P = 0.025) and extraglandular extension (100% vs 50%; P = 0.025) were significant prognostic indicators for DFS. No severe radiation-associated complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with AciCC of the PG with high-risk features can be managed using surgery plus postoperative 125 I IBT with excellent local control. Radiation-related complications were minor. Patients with facial nerve involvement can have their facial nerves preserved. Residual tumors can be safely managed using adjuvant 125 I IBT.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/mortalidade , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Parotídeas/mortalidade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adolescente , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Parotídeas/patologia , Neoplasias Parotídeas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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