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1.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 449-464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017745

RESUMO

Proximal tibia fractures including intra-articular plateau fractures are complex injuries that benefit from an algorithmic approach in terms of treatment to optimize outcomes and minimize complications. Certainly, nonsurgical treatment will be an option for some injuries; however, this chapter will focus on those injuries best addressed with surgicalsurgical treatment. Indications for surgical treatment include joint incongruity, joint instability and limb malalignment. In regard to surgical treatment, important considerations include appropriate management of the soft-tissue envelope, staged provisional reduction and stabilization versus immediate definitive fixation, single versus multiple surgical approaches, unilateral versus bicondylar fixation, and treatment of concomitant fracture-dislocation. This chapter describes surgical approaches to the proximal tibia ranging from the standard anterolateral to complex dual approaches or posterior approaches. Soft-tissue management becomes important due to the high-energy nature of these injuries with trauma both at the time of injury and then the surgical insult. Learning to identify and minimize these risks as well as addressing the soft-tissue defects that may require treatment is highlighted. Implant selection and fixation options for bicondylar plateau fractures will be discussed. Finally, use of nails, especially suprapatellar nails for proximal extra-articular proximal tibia fractures is described.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Fraturas da Tíbia , Fixação de Fratura , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Tíbia
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(2): 205-211, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009424

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the donor site morbidity and tendon morphology after harvesting whole length, full-thickness peroneus longus tendon (PLT) proximal to the lateral malleolus for ligament reconstructions or tendon transfer. METHODS: A total of 21 eligible patients (mean age 34.0 years (standard deviation (SD) 11.2); mean follow-up period 31.8 months (SD 7.7), and 12 healthy controls (mean age, 26.8 years (SD 5.9) were included. For patients, clinical evaluation of the donor ankle was performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Square hop test, ankle strength assessment, and MRI of distal calf were assessed bilaterally in the final follow-up. The morphological symmetry of peroneal tendons bilaterally was evaluated by MRI in healthy controls. RESULTS: Among the patients, the mean pre- and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score and Karlsson-Peterson score were 98.7 (SD 2.5; p = 0.480) and 98.5 (SD 2.4; p = 0.480), and 98.3 (SD 2.4; p = 0.162) and 97.9 (SD 2.5; p = 0.162), respectively. There was no significant difference between square hop test bilaterally (p = 0.109) and plantar flexion peak force bilaterally (p = 0.371). The harvested limb had significantly less eversion peak force compared to the contralateral limb (p < 0.001). Evidence of probable tendon regeneration was observed in all the patients by MRI and the total bilateral peroneal tendon index (mean ratio of harvested side cross-sectional area of peroneal tendon compared with the contralateral side) was 82.9% (SD 17.4). In 12 healthy controls, peroneal tendons (mean 99.4% (SD 4.3) were found to be morphologically symmetrical between the two sides. CONCLUSION: The current study showed satisfactory clinical foot and ankle outcomes after full-thickness PLT harvesting and indicated the regenerative potential of PLT after its removal. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic retrospective case series. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):205-211.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Ligamentos Articulares/fisiopatologia , Tendões/transplante , Sítio Doador de Transplante/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ligamentos Articulares/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Regeneração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transferência Tendinosa , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/fisiologia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/reabilitação , Sítio Doador de Transplante/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(2): 155-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009440

RESUMO

AIMS: Complex displaced osteoporotic acetabular fractures in the elderly are associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Surgical options include either open reduction and internal fixation alone, or combined with total hip arthroplasty (THA). There remains a cohort of severely comorbid patients who are deemed unfit for extensive surgical reconstruction and are treated conservatively. We describe the results of a coned hemipelvis reconstruction and THA inserted via a posterior approach to the hip as the primary treatment for this severely high-risk cohort. METHODS: We have prospectively monitored a series of 22 cases (21 patients) with a mean follow-up of 32 months (13 to 59). RESULTS: The mean patient age was 79 years (67 to 87), and the mean ASA score was 3.3 (3 to 5). Three patients had high-energy injuries and 18 had low-energy injuries. All cases were associated fractures (Letournel classification: anterior column posterior hemitransverse, n = 13; associated both column, n = 6; transverse posterior wall, n = 3) with medialization of the femoral head. Mean operative time was 93 minutes (61 to 135). There have been no revisions to date. Of the 21 patients, 20 were full weight-bearing on day 1 postoperatively. Mean length of hospital stay was 12 days (5 to 27). Preoperative mobility status was maintained in 13 patients. At one year, mean Merle d'Aubigné score was 13.1 (10 to 18), mean Oxford Hip Score was 38.5 (24 to 44), mean EuroQol five-dimension five-level (EQ-5D-5L) health score was 68 (30 to 92), and mean EQ-5D-5L index score was 0.68 (0.335 to 0.837); data from 14 patients. Mortality was 9.5% (2/21) at one year. There have been no thromboembolic events, deep infections, or revisions. CONCLUSION: The coned hemipelvis reconstruction bypasses the fracture, creating an immediately stable construct that allows immediate full weight-bearing. The posterior approach minimizes the operative time and physiological insult in this vulnerable patient population. Early results suggest this to be a safe addition to current surgical options, targeted at the most medically frail elderly patient with a complex displaced acetabular fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):155-161.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Idoso Fragilizado , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Acetábulo/lesões , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Comores , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Suporte de Carga
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18810, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000381

RESUMO

Complex reconstruction skills in advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) could resolve the key problem of large defects after tumor resection. We combined the anterolateral thigh free flap, fascia lata flap, and greater saphenous vein graft in the reconstruction process of salvage surgery. Seven patients suffering from advanced HNC who experienced the failure of multiple therapeutic methods were enrolled in our study between June 2017 and January 2018. They all agreed to voluntarily undergo the tumor excision and complex reconstruction procedure we developed. The total flap size ranged from 20 × 13 cm to 30 × 15 cm. The length of the greater saphenous vein graft ranged from 4 to 11 cm. The hospitalization period ranged from 7 to 33 days. All of the flaps were viable, but in 1 patient, oral flap edge infection and necrosis necessitated partial debridement on day 7 postoperatively. All donor sites were closed primarily. We report our experience with this surgical method for complex reconstruction in advanced HNC patients.


Assuntos
Fascia Lata/transplante , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Veia Safena/transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(2): 162-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009427

RESUMO

AIMS: Osseointegrated prosthetic limbs allow better mobility than socket-mounted prosthetics for lower limb amputees. Fractures, however, can occur in the residual limb, but they have rarely been reported. Approximately 2% to 3% of amputees with socket-mounted prostheses may fracture within five years. This is the first study which directly addresses the risks and management of periprosthetic osseointegration fractures in amputees. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 518 osseointegration procedures which were undertaken in 458 patients between 2010 and 2018 for whom complete medical records were available. Potential risk factors including time since amputation, age at osseointegration, bone density, weight, uni/bilateral implantation and sex were evaluated with multiple logistic regression. The mechanism of injury, technique and implant that was used for fixation of the fracture, pre-osseointegration and post fracture mobility (assessed using the K-level) and the time that the prosthesis was worn for in hours/day were also assessed. RESULTS: There were 22 periprosthetic fractures; they occurred exclusively in the femur: two in the femoral neck, 14 intertrochanteric and six subtrochanteric, representing 4.2% of 518 osseointegration operations and 6.3% of 347 femoral implants. The vast majority (19/22, 86.4%) occurred within 2 cm of the proximal tip of the implant and after a fall. No fractures occurred spontaneously. Fixation most commonly involved dynamic hip screws (10) and reconstruction plates (9). No osseointegration implants required removal, the K-level was not reduced after fixation of the fracture in any patient, and all retained a K-level of ≥ 2. All fractures united, 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) wear their osseointegration-mounted prosthetic limb longer daily than when using a socket, with 18 out of 22 (81.8%) reporting using it for ≥ 16 hours daily. Regression analysis identified a 3.89-fold increased risk of fracture for females (p = 0.007) and a 1.02-fold increased risk of fracture per kg above a mean of 80.4 kg (p = 0.046). No increased risk was identified for bilateral implants (p = 0.083), time from amputation to osseointegration (p = 0.974), age at osseointegration (p = 0.331), or bone density (g/cm2, p = 0.560; T-score, p = 0.247; Z-score, p = 0.312). CONCLUSION: The risks and sequelae of periprosthetic fracture after press-fit osseointegration for amputation should not deter patients or clinicians from considering this procedure. Females and heavier patients are likely to have an increased risk of fracture. Age, years since amputation, and bone density do not appear influential. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):162-169.


Assuntos
Amputação , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Osseointegração , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Amputação/reabilitação , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Fêmur/lesões , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas Periprotéticas/etiologia , Falha de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Unfallchirurg ; 123(2): 104-113, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016494

RESUMO

Normal function of the fingers and thumb depends on properly gliding flexor tendons and a free range of motion of the involved joints. This normal gliding function may be inhibited by adhesions due to damage of the tendon, tendon sheath and adjacent tissue. When digital function is still limited despite a long-term course of hand therapy and there are no signs of further improvement, surgical intervention should be considered. There are no absolute indications for tenoathrolysis of the flexor tendons. With respect to complications, such as secondary tendon rupture, loss of annular pulleys and scar formation, it is part of a stepwise reconstructive concept including further procedures, such as staged flexor tendon reconstruction. Important preconditions for tenoathrolysis are motivation of the patient, the possibility of readily available and frequent postoperative follow-up hand therapy, healed fractures and osteotomy, mature soft tissue, intact tendons and gliding tissue. Preoperatively, a maximum passive range of motion of the involved joints should be achieved. During the operative procedure all adhesive tissue surrounding the tendon within and outside the tendon sheath is consistently resected preserving the annular pulleys as far as possible. Therefore, extensive approaches, arthrolysis, dissolution of unfavorable scar tissue, resection of scarred lumbrical muscles and annular pulley reconstruction are frequently necessary. Salvage procedures, such as arthrodesis, amputation, ray resection or multistage flexor tendon reconstruction are recommended in failed cases and should be considered even preoperatively. In order to retain the intraoperative functional improvement hand therapy for at least 3-6 months should follow.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Polegar/lesões , Polegar/cirurgia
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 368e-381e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acellular nerve allografts are a viable treatment modality for bridging nerve gaps. Several small studies have demonstrated results equal to those of autologous grafts; however, there is information lacking with regard to outcomes for wider indications. The authors evaluated the outcomes of patients treated with a nerve allograft in a variety of clinical situations. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis was completed between April of 2009 and October of 2017. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years or older at the time of surgery and treatment with a nerve allograft. Patients were excluded if they had not been followed up for a minimum of 6 months. The modified Medical Research Council Classification was used to monitor motor and sensory changes in the postoperative period. RESULTS: Two hundred seven nerve allografts were used in 156 patients; of these, 129 patients with 171 nerve allografts fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventy-seven percent of patients achieved a sensory outcome score of S3 or above and 36 percent achieved a motor score of M3 or above. All patients with chronic pain had improvement of their symptoms. Graft length and diameter were negatively correlated with reported outcomes. One patient elected to undergo revision surgery, and the original graft was shown histologically to have extensive central necrosis. Anatomically, allografts used for lower limb reconstruction yielded the poorest results. All chronic patients had a significantly lower postoperative requirement for analgesia, and allografts were effective in not only reducing pain but also restoring a functional level of sensation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the wider application of allografts in managing nerve problems. However, caution must be applied to the use of long grafts with larger diameters. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Nervos Periféricos/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Neuralgia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 382e-390e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine what craniometric changes occur to both orbits of unicoronal craniosynostosis patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling, and which of these changes are associated with new onset of postoperative strabismus. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the preoperative and postoperative orbits of 24 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients and the orbits of 24 control subjects, totaling 144 orbits. Eight parameters were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. One of the parameters was modified orbital index, an indicator of severity of harlequin deformity. RESULTS: Significant differences in orbital dimensions and angles were present bilaterally in unicoronal craniosynostosis orbits when compared to controls. Fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling increased the ipsilateral unicoronal craniosynostosis orbital volume from 13,184 ± 2003 mm to 16,220 ± 2323 mm (p < 0.001). Ipsilateral horizontal cone angles were increased from 48 ± 5 degrees to 54 ± 7 degrees (p = 0.004). Ipsilateral vertical cone angles were decreased from 73 ± 8 degrees to 66 ± 10 degrees (p = 0.003). Ipsilateral modified orbital index improved from 0.83 ± 0.06 to 0.88 ± 0.06 (p = 0.003). Three of the 19 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients developed transient postoperative strabismus. Logistic regression analysis displayed a strong significant association between new-onset strabismus and a change in modified orbital index with a coefficient of 30.84 ± 14.51 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The orbital dysmorphology in unicoronal craniosynostosis is bilateral in nature, and it is not wholly treated with conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. The severity of ipsilateral orbital dysmorphology is correlated with the incidence of postoperative strabismus following conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. Future research is needed to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of development of strabismus in this group of patients. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Osso Frontal/cirurgia , Órbita/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estrabismo/etiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Órbita/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/patologia
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 407e-411e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985656

RESUMO

The utility of nitroglycerin is well established in coronary angiography but less so in other surgical fields. In this study, the authors investigated the utility of preoperative computed tomographic angiography after sublingual nitroglycerin followed by three-dimensional visualization for selecting suitable perforators in planning the free anterolateral thigh flap. The authors performed preoperative computed tomographic angiography following sublingual nitroglycerin (after screening for contraindications) in patients for whom reconstructive surgery with the free anterolateral thigh flap was planned. Data were reconstructed three-dimensionally, mapping location and course of source arteries and perforators. Suitable perforators were selected, and flap design was planned. The characteristics of perforators were analyzed statistically. Of 14 patients for whom surgery was planned, two had contraindications to nitroglycerin and underwent computed tomographic angiography alone. Nitroglycerin allowed for the visualization of more peripheral branches. The Hounsfield units at the deep fascia of perforators selected for surgery were significantly higher than for those not selected (p = 0.003). The distance from the intermuscular septum to the selected perforators was significantly shorter than the distance to nonselected perforators (p = 0.017). There were no adverse events, and all flaps survived. Sublingual nitroglycerin before computed tomographic angiography was safe and increased the visibility of perforators, enabling preoperative planning of flap design based on the three-dimensionally-reconstructed image. The authors highly recommend this procedure. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Diagnostic, IV.


Assuntos
Angiografia/instrumentação , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Nitroglicerina/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Coxa da Perna/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Angiografia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 412e-420e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The muscle-sparing descending branch latissimus dorsi muscle (MSLD) flap is a versatile flap with numerous benefits. It is an often overlooked but useful option when considering free flap donors. In this article, the authors present the largest experience with the MSLD flap, with focus on its use in lower extremity reconstruction. METHODS: Patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction with the MSLD flap at a single institution from 2012 to 2017 were identified. Patient and wound characteristics, surgical details, complications, and outcomes were examined. Outcomes were compared to a cohort who underwent lower extremity reconstruction with other free muscle flaps during the same period. RESULTS: Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent MSLD flap surgery were identified. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months. Mean body mass index was 29.2 kg/m and 56 percent were smokers. The most common wound causes were motor vehicle collision (46 percent) and fall (22 percent). The most common anatomical location was the distal third of the tibia (33 percent). Mean operative time was 380 minutes. Complications included three total losses (8 percent) and one partial loss (3 percent). No donor-site seromas were reported. Four patients required subsequent amputation for orthopedic issues (nonunion/pain). Patients receiving MSLD and other flaps had similar rates of amputation, donor- and recipient-site complications, and ambulation status (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The MSLD flap is a useful and reliable option for free flap reconstruction of the lower extremity. Advantages include an easily contourable flap, low revision rate, low complication rate, and the ability to harvest in supine position. In addition, the MSLD flap preserves donor function useful for rehabilitation and minimizes seroma risk. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Músculo Esquelético/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(3): 570-577, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joint-preserving intercalary tumor resection can result in better proprioception and a more normal joint function after reconstruction. However, most reported reconstruction techniques are usually associated with frequent complications. Therefore, the approach of reconstruction following joint-preserving tumor resection warrants further study. METHODS: Between September 2016 and October 2018, 12 patients with metaphyseal malignant bone tumors around the knee joint were treated by joint-preserving intercalary resections with the aid of three-dimensional (3D)-printed osteotomy guide plates and reconstructions using 3D-printed intercalary prostheses. We assessed the accuracy of the resection by comparing the cross sections at the resection plane with 3D-printed matching surface of the prostheses. The functional outcomes, complications and oncological status were also evaluated. RESULTS: All patients were observed for 7 to 32 months with an average follow-up of 22.5 months. The achieved resection was accurate, with accurate matching between the residual bone and prosthesis. The mean MSTS score was 28 (range, 26-30). Superficial infection occurred in two patients. Local recurrence was observed in one patient, while pulmonary metastasis was identified in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The personalized osteotomy guide plate and prosthesis based on 3D printing technique facilitate joint-preserving tumor resection and functional reconstruction. However, longer follow-up and larger sample size are required to clarify its long-term outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Implantação de Prótese , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia , Prognóstico , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Urology ; 135: 144-145, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895678
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