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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 17-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is associated with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To report the outcomes of EVAR among patients older than 80 years of age. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed patients older than 80 years of age who underwent elective EVAR at our institution between 2007 and 2017. The demographics, perioperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term results are reported. RESULTS: During the study period, 444 patients underwent elective EVAR for AAAs. Among them 128 patients (29%) were > 80 years of age. Mean age was 84 ± 3.4 (range 80-96) years, and 110 patients (86%) were male. The EVAR was technically successful in 127 patients (99%) and there were intraoperative mortalities. Within 30 days of the surgery, nine patients (7%) died. Major and minor adverse events occurred in 26 (20%) and 59 (46%) patients, respectively. Factors associated with increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality included chronic kidney disease, peripheral artery disease, and the existence of three or more co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: EVAR in the elderly can be performed with a high rate of success; however, it is associated with a substantial rate of morbidity and mortality, particularly when patients present with multiple co-morbidities. When performing EVAR in this population group, the risk of rupture must be considered opposed to the life expectancy of these patients and the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 126-134, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709914

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Revascularization is the cornerstone of the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI), but the number of elderly frail patients increase. Revascularization is not always possible in these patients and conservative therapy seems to be an option. The goals of this study are to analyze the 1-year quality of life (QoL) results and mortality rates of elderly patients with CLI and to investigate if conservative treatment could be an acceptable treatment option. METHODS: Patients with CLI ≥70 years old were included in a prospective observational cohort study in 2 hospitals in the Netherlands between 2012 and 2016 and were divided over 3 treatment modalities: endovascular therapy, surgical revascularization, and conservative treatment. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL-Bref) instrument, a generic QoL assessment tool that includes components of physical, psychological, social relationships and environment, was used to evaluate QoL at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. RESULTS: In total, 195 patients (56% male, 33% Rutherford 4, mean age of 80) were included. Physical QoL significantly increased after surgical (10.4 vs 14.9, P < .001), endovascular (10.9 vs 13.7, P < .001), and conservative therapy (11.6 vs 13.2, P = .01) at 1 year. One-year mortality was relatively low after surgery (10%) compared to endovascular (40%) and conservative therapy (37%). CONCLUSION: The results of this study could not be used to designate the superior treatment used in elderly patients with CLI. Conservative treatment could be an acceptable treatment option in selected patients with CLI unfit for revascularization. Treatment of choice in elderly patients with CLI is based on multiple factors and should be individualized in a shared decision-making process.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Isquemia/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento Conservador/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Conservador/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Países Baixos , Seleção de Pacientes , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
3.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 22(4): 100634, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864529

RESUMO

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome or KTS is a complex vascular syndrome associated with overgrowth occurring as a result of somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene. Patients are diagnosed on the basis of physical findings, sometimes with supportive imaging, of commonly a segmental anomaly with a cutaneous port-wine stain, lymphatic and venous malformations and overgrowth. The severity of the component vascular malformations and the degree of overgrowth varies from patient to patient which demands care given by a multi-professional team with regular follow-up in a specialist clinic. Some patients may present with acute life-threatening problems, often as a result of veno-thromboembolic events (VTEs) especially following surgical and invasive radiological procedures. Awareness of such problems is vital and prophylactic measures to reduce such risks are paramount. The interventional radiologist is vital to the care team as he/she can undertake procedures including endovascular closure of significant venous anomalies which predispose to such VTEs. Although these procedures can be lengthy and complex, they can now provide a minimally invasive means to reduce the risk from life-threatening and sometimes fatal VTEs. The results however from such interventions will require long-term studies which to date are unavailable.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas/mortalidade , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Hemangioma/genética , Hemangioma/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/genética , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/mortalidade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Radiografia Intervencionista , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17173, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is related to vascular calcification and is known to have a prognostic impact in various cohorts. However, evidence in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is lacking. Thus, we hypothesized that preoperative serum ALP level could be used for predicting adverse events after TEVAR. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 167 patients who underwent TEVAR between February 2013 and December 2016. Patients were classified into tertiles according to preoperative ALP level (<69, 69-92, and >92 IU/L). The composite of morbidity and mortality (composite MM) was defined as the presence of one or more of the following: myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, dialysis requirement, pulmonary complication, infection, and mortality within 1 year after TEVAR. The incidence of composite MM was compared among the 3 tertiles, and stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictors for composite MM. RESULTS: The incidence of composite MM was 14.5% in the first tertile group, 17.9% in the second tertile group, and 35.7% in the third tertile group (P = .016). The third tertile of ALP level (odds ratio [OR] 1.766, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.074-2.904, P = .025) and emergency TEVAR (OR 2.369, 95% CI 1.050-5.346, P = .038) remained as independent predictors of composite MM. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed an independent relationship between high preoperative ALP levels and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing TEVAR. This finding might suggest a potential role of ALP level as a risk stratification marker.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Vasc Med ; 24(5): 431-438, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543030

RESUMO

Optimal management of patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis concurrent with severe cardiac disease remains undefined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the one-day, sequential approach by carotid artery stenting (CAS) immediately followed by cardiac surgery. The study included 70 consecutive patients with symptomatic > 50% or ⩾ 80% asymptomatic ICA stenosis coexisting with severe coronary/valve disease, who underwent one-day, sequential CAS + cardiac surgery. The majority of patients (85.7%) had CSS class III or IV angina and 10% had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. The EuroSCORE II risk was 2.4% (IQR 1.69-3.19%). All CAS procedures were performed according to the 'tailored' algorithm with a substantial use of proximal neuroprotection devices of 44.3%. Closed-cell (75.7%) and mesh-covered (18.6%) stents were implanted in most cases. The majority of patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (88.6%) or isolated valve replacement (7.1%). No major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurred at the CAS stage. There were three (4.3%) perioperative MACCE: one myocardial infarction and two deaths. All MACCE were related to cardiac surgery and were due to the high surgical risk profile of the patients. Up to 30 days, no further MACCE were observed. No perioperative or 30-day neurological complications occurred. In this patient series, one-day, sequential CAS and cardiac surgery was relatively safe and did not result in neurological complications. Thus, a strategy of preoperative CAS could be considered for patients with severe or symptomatic ICA stenosis who require urgent cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16809, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415395

RESUMO

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are a heterogeneous population and differ in risk of mortality and low extremity amputation (LEA), which complicates clinical decision-making. This study aimed to develop a simple risk scale using decision tree methodology to guide physicians in managing critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients who will benefit from endovascular therapy (EVT).A total of 736 patients with CLI, Rutherford classification (RC) stage ≥4, and prior successful EVT were included. Variables significantly associated with LEA by univariate analysis (P < .05) were selected and put into classification tree analysis using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model with a dependent variable, amputation, and depth of tree = 3. Four risk groups were generated according to the order of amputation rate. The amputation-free survival (AFS) times between groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier curve with the log-rank test.Patients were classified as high risk for amputation (G4) (WBC counts ≥10,000/µl, and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≥130.337); intermediate risk group 1 (G3) (WBC < 10,000/µl and RC stage before EVT > 5); intermediate risk group 2 (G2) (WBC count ≥ 10,000/µl, and PLR < 130.337) and low-risk group (G1) (WBC < 10,000/µl, RC before EVT ≤ 5). G2, G3, and G4 risk groups had shorter AFS time (range, 58.7 to 65.5 months) than the G1 risk group (100 months) (P < .05). Risk of LEA was significantly higher in the G4, G3, and G2 groups than in the G1 group (P ≤ .05). The G4 group had the highest risk of amputation (odds ratio = 6.84, P < .001).This simple risk scale model can help healthcare professionals more easily identify and appropriately treat patients with CLI who are at different levels of risk for LEA following endovascular revascularization.


Assuntos
Amputação/mortalidade , Isquemia/mortalidade , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(3): 941-953.e13, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair has transformed the management of blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injuries (BTTAI). Recent studies have suggested that the nonoperative management (NOM) of BTTAI may be a viable alternative. We investigated the NOM of BTTAI by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the mortality proportions and incidence of complications. METHODS: We searched PubMed through June 22, 2017, and referenced lists of included studies without language restriction, with the assistance of a trained librarian. We included studies that reported the NOM of BTTAI (≥5 participants). Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, and performed data extraction. Pooled prevalence of mortality (aortic related, in hospital) were obtained based on binomial distribution with Freeman-Tukey double-arcsine transformation and continuity correction. The random-effects model was used for all analyses to account for variation between studies. Meta-regression was performed to explore sources of heterogeneity, including Injury Severity Score, age, and gender. RESULTS: We included 35 studies comprising 2897 participants. The pooled prevalence of all-cause in-patient mortality in the overall, grade I, grade II, grade III, and grade IV populations are as follows: 29.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.3%-39.6%; I2 = 95%; P < .01), 6.8% (95% CI, 0.6%-19.3%; I2 = 52%; P = .03), 0% (95% CI, 0%-2.0%; I2 = 0%; P = .81), 29.2% (95% CI, 17%-42.5%; I2 = 3%; P = .41), and 87.4% (95% CI, 16.4%-100%; I2 = 48%; P = .14), respectively. The combined incidence of aortic-related in-patient mortality in the overall, grade I, grade II, and grade III populations are: 2.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%; I2 = 60%; P < .01), 0.93% (95% CI, 0%-14.2%; I2 = 65%; P < .01), 0% (95% CI, 0%-1.8%; I2 = 0%; P = .99), and 0.13% (95% CI, 0%-6.4%; I2 = 14%; P = .33), respectively. The total proportion of postdischarge aortic-related mortality is 0% (95% CI, 0%-0.5%; I2 = 0%; P = .91). Meta-regression showed a decreased risk of in-hospital mortality as age increases (ß = .99; 95% CI, 0.98-1.00), an increased risk of in-hospital mortality with a higher Injury Severity Score (ß = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), and a decreased risk of in-hospital mortality among male patients (ß = .54; 95% CI, 0.3-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides, to our knowledge, the most up-to-date pooled estimate of mortality rates after the NOM of BTTAI. However, its interpretation is limited by the paucity of data and substantial quantitative heterogeneity. If patients are to be managed nonoperatively, we would recommend the judicious use of active surveillance in a select group of patients in the short, mid, and long term.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/lesões , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Torácicos/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/mortalidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362417

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) occurs at an advanced stage of atherosclerosis and its comorbidities are associated with poor prognoses. Malnutrition is related to the severity of atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular disease and it predicts mortality. The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is calculated from serum albumin concentration, peripheral lymphocyte count and total cholesterol concentration, and it robustly represents the nutritional status of hospitalized patients. This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of the CONUT score in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who were undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 628 PAD patients who underwent EVT between 2013 and 2017 and were assigned to low (CONUT score 0: n = 81), mild (CONUT score 1-2: n = 250), moderate (CONUT score 3-4: n = 169), and high (CONUT score ≥ 5: n = 128) risk groups. The study's primary endpoint was any death. Patients in the groups with higher CONUT scores were more likely to have chronic kidney disease (p < 0.001), impaired left ventricular ejection fractions (p < 0.001), and critical limb ischemia (p < 0.001) on admission. During follow-up, 95 patients (15%) died. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the patients with higher CONUT scores had lower survival rates (p < 0.001; log-rank trend test). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that following adjustments for the confounding factors, a higher CONUT score was significantly associated with any death (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.30). CONCLUSION: The simple index CONUT score at the time of EVT may predict long-term mortality in PAD patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Estado Nutricional , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Surg Res ; 243: 539-552, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty predicts poor outcome after vascular surgery. We determined the predictive utility of the modified frailty index (mFI) after first-time revascularization and identified biomarkers of frailty predictive of outcome in veterans with peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of first-time revascularizations (open surgery [OS] and endovascular surgery [ES]) in male veterans (2003-2016). Preoperative mFI scores were calculated, and serum and nonserum biomarkers of frailty were recorded. The primary endpoint was 2-y incidence of reintervention, amputation, and mortality. Secondary endpoints included 30-day morbidity and readmissions. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty one patients (OS, n = 188; ES, n = 243), mean age of 66 ± 9 y, and 16 mo of median follow-up were studied. Mean mFI was 0.39 ± 0.16 for OS and 0.38 ± 0.15 for ES (P = 0.43). 30-day complications (adjusted odds ratio, 4.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-14.33) and readmissions (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.32; 95% CI: 1.16-9.55) were increased in the OS versus ES group when stratified by mFI. Survival analysis showed a correlation between risk of amputation, death, and composite outcome with increasing mFI (P < 0.005) in both groups. Frailty independently predicted major amputation (aHR 2.16; 1.06-4.39), mortality (aHR 2.62; 95% CI: 1.17-5.88), and composite outcome (aHR 1.97; 95% CI: 1.06-3.68) when the groups are combined. Except for absolute neutrophil count, all preoperative lab values correlated with mFI (P < 0.5). Higher albumin was independently associated with lower risk of amputation (aHR: 0.58 [0.36-0.94]) and mortality (aHR: 0.45 [0.25-0.83]); higher hemoglobin predicted limb salvage (aHR 0.7 [0.62-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty predicts short- and long-term outcomes after first-time revascularization in veterans. Hypoalbuminemia and anemia are associated with higher mFI and independently predict poor outcome, suggesting albumin and hemoglobin are viable biomarkers of frailty in veterans.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Fragilidade/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fragilidade/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(3): 279-284, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the operative mortality rate and outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) between young and geriatric people in a single center. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms who underwent EVAR between January 2012 and September 2016 were included. Outcomes were compared between two groups: the young (aged < 65 years) and the geriatric (aged ≥ 65 years). The primary study outcome was technical success; the secondary endpoints were mortality and secondary interventions. The mean follow-up time was 36 months (3-60 months). RESULTS: The study included 72 males and 13 females with a mean age of 71.08±8.6 years (range 49-85 years). Of the 85 patients analyzed, 18 (21.2%) were under 65 years old and 67 patients (78.8%) were over 65 years old. There was no statistically significant correlation between chronic disease and age. We found no statistically significant difference between aneurysm diameter, neck angle, neck length, or right and left iliac angles. The secondary intervention rate was 7% (six patients). The conversion to open surgery was necessary for only one patient and only three deaths were reported (3.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in the mortality and reintervention rates between the age groups. The three deaths occurred only in the geriatric group and two died secondary to rupture. Kidney failure was observed in three patients in the geriatric group (4.5%). CONCLUSION: Our single-center experience shows that EVAR can be used safely in both young and geriatric patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/cirurgia , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 31(4): 679-685, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279912

RESUMO

Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) combines the advantages of open and endovascular surgery for the treatment of complex aortic arch pathologies extending into the descending aorta. At University Hospital Essen, operative skills were developed to make FET surgery safer including guidance and control of FET deployment into the descending aorta by angioscopy and facilitation of arch repair by moving the distal anastomosis to Zone 2 and more proximally. Selective whole body perfusion during the arch repair was used to improve organ protection under moderate hypothermia. Our results demonstrate acceptable mortality in this high risk patient population and reduction of postoperative morbidity in the last years. With regard to the rate of exclusion of aneurysms in the distal arch and the false lumen in acute aortic dissection, FET should be the treatment of choice in both. In chronic aortic dissection and extensive descending aortic aneurysms, FET represents a safe first stage procedure and provides an ideal docking place in the mid-descending aorta for a second endovascular or open thoracoabdominal aortic repair, if required.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Stents , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/mortalidade , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 654-662, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267908

RESUMO

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) represents an innovative method by which noncompressible bleeding in the torso can be mitigated until definitive treatment can be obtained. To perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of the REBOA in trauma patients. An English and Spanish literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus, from 1948 to 2018. Keywords used were aortic balloon occlusion, resuscitative endovascular balloon, REBOA, hemorrhage, and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta. The eligilibility criteria included only original and human subject articles. Nontrauma patients, nonbleeding pathology, letters, single case reports, reviews, and pediatric patients were excluded. Two hundred forty-six articles were identified, of which 17 articles were included in this review. The total number of patients was 1340; 69 per cent were men and 31 per cent women. In 465 patients, the aortic zone location was described: 83 per cent the balloon was placed in aortic zone I and 16 per cent in zone III. Systolic blood pressure increased at an average of 52 mmHg before and after aortic occlusion. Although 32 patients (2.4%) presented clinical complications derived from the procedure, no mortality was reported. The trauma-related mortality rate was 58 per cent (776/1340). REBOA is a useful resource for the management of noncompressive torso hemorrhage with promising results in systolic blood pressure and morbidity. Indications for its use include injuries in zones 1 and 3, whereas it is not clear for zone 2 injuries. Additional studies are needed to define the benefits of this procedure.


Assuntos
Ruptura Aórtica/terapia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Aorta Torácica/lesões , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Ressuscitação/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
14.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 31(3): 444-450, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150826

RESUMO

To introduce complete thoracic aorta remodeling as a new therapeutic target of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic DeBakey IIIb aneurysms, and analyze the predictors for complete thoracic aorta remodeling. From 2012 to 2017, 75 patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic DeBakey IIIb aneurysms. Complete thoracic aorta remodeling was defined as thoracic false lumen thrombosis with false lumen diameter <5 mm down to T-10 level. Major adverse aortic events were defined as aortic-related mortality, open conversion, and false lumen recanalization after thoracic false lumen thrombosis. Of the 75 patients included in this study, 60 (80.0%) demonstrated thoracic false lumen thrombosis; among them, overall mortality, open conversion, or false lumen recanalization after thoracic false lumen thrombosis occurred in two (3.3%), one (1.7%), and five (8.3%) patients, respectively. Nineteen (25.3%) of 75 patients who demonstrated complete thoracic aorta remodeling had no major adverse aortic events during follow-up. The number of visceral branches from the false lumen and residual intima tears were significant risk factors for complete thoracic aorta remodeling (HR 0.627, p = 0.041 and HR 0.754, p = 0.042). In chronic DeBakey IIIb aneurysms, complete thoracic aorta remodeling may be the ideal target for endovascular treatment rather than false lumen thrombosis. Additional procedures to eliminate the obstacles to complete thoracic aorta remodeling (number of visceral branches from the false lumen and residual intimal tears) and close follow-up after thoracic false lumen thrombosis may be needed to achieve the optimal outcome.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Remodelação Vascular , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(3): 954-969.e30, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study synthesized the literature comparing the long-term (5-9 years) and very long-term (≥10 years) all-cause mortality, reintervention, and secondary rupture rates between endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to May 2018 for studies comparing EVAR to OSR with a minimum follow-up period of 5 years. Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers, with a third author resolving discrepancies. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane and Newcastle-Ottawa scales. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. RESULTS: Our search yielded 3431 unique articles. Three randomized controlled trials and 68 observational studies comparing 151,092 EVAR to 148,692 OSR patients were included. Inter-rater agreement was excellent at the screening (κ = 0.78) and full-text review (κ = 0.89) stages. Overall, the risk of bias was low to moderate. For long-term outcomes, 54 studies reported all-cause mortality (n = 203,246), 23 reported reintervention (n = 157,151), and 4 reported secondary rupture (n = 150,135). EVAR was associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.33; P = .003, I2 = 91%), reintervention (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.67-2.69; P < .00001, I2 = 96%), and secondary rupture rates (OR, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.63-8.89; P < .00001, I2 = 92%). For very long-term outcomes, 15 studies reported all-cause mortality (n = 48,721), 9 reported reintervention (n = 7511), and 1 reported secondary rupture (n = 1116). There was no mortality difference between groups, but EVAR was associated with higher reintervention (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.71-3.57; P < .00001, I2 = 84%) and secondary rupture rates (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 1.01-64.99; P = .05). Subanalysis of more recent studies, with last year of patient recruitment 2010 or after, demonstrated no long-term mortality differences between EVAR and OSR. CONCLUSIONS: EVAR is associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality, reintervention, and secondary rupture rates compared with OSR. In the very long-term, EVAR is also associated with higher reintervention and secondary rupture rates. Notably, EVAR mortality has improved over time. Vigilant long-term surveillance of EVAR patients is recommended.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Retratamento , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6S): 126S-136S, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for revascularization in infrainguinal chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) remains debatable. Comparative trials are scarce, and daily decisions are often made using anecdotal or low-quality evidence. METHODS: We searched multiple databases through May 7, 2017, for prospective studies with at least 1-year follow-up that evaluated patient-relevant outcomes of infrainguinal revascularization procedures in adults with CLTI. Independent pairs of reviewers selected articles and extracted data. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies. RESULTS: We included 44 studies that enrolled 8602 patients. Periprocedural outcomes (mortality, amputation, major adverse cardiac events) were similar across treatment modalities. Overall, patients with infrapopliteal disease had higher patency rates of great saphenous vein graft at 1 and 2 years (primary: 87%, 78%; secondary: 94%, 87%, respectively) compared with all other interventions. Prosthetic bypass outcomes were notably inferior to vein bypass in terms of amputation and patency outcomes, especially for below knee targets at 2 years and beyond. Drug-eluting stents demonstrated improved patency over bare-metal stents in infrapopliteal arteries (primary patency: 73% vs 50% at 1 year), and was at least comparable to balloon angioplasty (66% primary patency). Survival, major amputation, and amputation-free survival at 2 years were broadly similar between endovascular interventions and vein bypass, with prosthetic bypass having higher rates of limb loss. Overall, the included studies were at moderate to high risk of bias and the quality of evidence was low. CONCLUSIONS: There are major limitations in the current state of evidence guiding treatment decisions in CLTI, particularly for severe anatomic patterns of disease treated via endovascular means. Periprocedural (30-day) mortality, amputation, and major adverse cardiac events are broadly similar across modalities. Patency rates are highest for saphenous vein bypass, whereas both patency and limb salvage are markedly inferior for prosthetic grafting to below the knee targets. Among endovascular interventions, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and drug-eluting stents appear comparable for focal infrapopliteal disease, although no studies included long segment tibial lesions. Heterogeneity in patient risk, severity of limb threat, and anatomy treated renders direct comparison of outcomes from the current literature challenging. Future studies should incorporate both limb severity and anatomic staging to best guide clinical decision making in CLTI.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Isquemia/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Veia Safena/transplante , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Veia Safena/fisiopatologia , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
17.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6): 1719-1725, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic strategy for extended aortic arch aneurysms remains controversial and has changed substantially since thoracic endovascular aortic repair was introduced. We applied single-stage hybrid (s-hybrid) total arch replacement (TAR), which involved ascending aorta replacement and debranching of arch vessels, consecutively performed with thoracic endovascular aortic repair for extended arch aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term results of s-hybrid TAR and to clarify the benefit of this method. METHODS: We reviewed the operative results of 62 patients who underwent elective s-hybrid TAR or conventional TAR (c-TAR) through the median approach from 2008 to 2017. We used the s-hybrid approach in 15 patients and the c-TAR approach in 47 patients. In both groups, axillary arterial perfusion and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion under moderate hypothermia were applied for brain protection. We compared the perioperative outcomes of the two groups. RESULTS: We completed s-hybrid TAR in all 15 patients with extended aneurysms. The s-hybrid group required shorter times for myocardial ischemia, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and circulatory arrest of the lower body compared with the c-TAR group. The patients with complicated recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and long ventilation support times were fewer in the s-hybrid group. No patient had substantial endoleaks or permanent paraplegia. The in-hospital mortality rates were 6.7% in the s-hybrid group and 0% in the c-TAR group. CONCLUSIONS: The s-hybrid TAR has the same or better perioperative outcomes compared with the c-TAR approach. For extended aneurysms, this technique could resolve the problem of respiratory failure induced by left thoracotomy and also resolve the problem of rupture during the waiting period in staged surgery.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6): 1952-1961.e1, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Procedural characteristics, including stent design, may influence the outcome of carotid artery stenting (CAS). A thorough comparison of the effect of stent design on outcome of CAS is thus warranted to allow for optimal evidence-based clinical decision making. This study sought to evaluate the effect of stent design on clinical and radiologic outcomes of CAS. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases in May 2018. Included were articles reporting on the occurrence of clinical short- and intermediate-term major adverse events (MAEs; any stroke or death) or radiologic adverse events (new ischemic lesions on postprocedural magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging [MR-DWI], restenosis, or stent fracture) in different stent designs used to treat carotid artery stenosis. Random effects models were used to calculate combined overall effect sizes. Metaregression was performed to identify the effect of specific stents on MAE rates. RESULTS: From 2654 unique identified articles, two randomized, controlled trials and 66 cohort studies were eligible for analysis (including 46,728 procedures). Short-term clinical MAE rates were similar for patients treated with open cell vs closed cell or hybrid stents. Use of an Acculink stent was associated with a higher risk of short-term MAE compared with a Wallstent (risk ratio [RR], 1.51; P = .03), as was true for use of Precise stent vs Xact stent (RR, 1.55; P < .001). Intermediate-term clinical MAE rates were similar for open vs closed cell stents. Use of open cell stents predisposed to a 25% higher chance (RR, 1.25; P = .03) of developing postprocedural new ischemic lesions on MR-DWI. No differences were observed in the incidence of restenosis, stent fracture, or intraprocedural hemodynamic depression with respect to different stent design. CONCLUSIONS: Stent design is not associated with short- or intermediate-term clinical MAE rates in patients undergoing CAS. Furthermore, the division in open and closed cell stent design might conceal true differences in single stent efficacy. Nevertheless, open cell stenting resulted in a significantly higher number of subclinical postprocedural new ischemic lesions detected on MR-DWI compared with closed cell stenting. An individualized patient data meta-analysis, including future studies with prospective homogenous study design, is required to adequately correct for known risk factors and to provide definite conclusions with respect to carotid stent design for specific subgroups.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Desenho de Prótese , Stents , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 53(6): 458-463, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few long-time follow-up studies describe all complications, treatment outcome of complications, and mortality in relation to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and treatment outcome including mortality of radiological visible complications related to the EVAR procedure at a single center with up to 10 years' surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with EVAR from March 2006 to March 2016 at a Danish university hospital, 421 in total, were included. Patient and aneurysm characteristics, follow-up, and secondary intervention data were collected from a national database and medical records. Follow-up computed tomography angiography and plain abdominal X-ray reports were reviewed for complications. Scans and X-rays with suspected complications were evaluated by an interventional radiologist. RESULTS: A total of 172 complications in 147 patients, mainly in the beginning of the follow-up period, were found; 35% had a least one complication. The main part of complications (62%) was type II endoleaks, followed by stent graft stenosis (11%), type I endoleaks (9%), and stent graft occlusion (7%). A total of 66 (38%) complications, observed in 55 patients, were treated with reintervention, of which 77% were treated with endovascular procedures and 23% with surgical treatment, that is, 13% of all studied patients had a complication that required a reintervention. The remaining 2 of the 3 complications were treated conservatively. We found no increased all-cause mortality in connection with having a complication including those requiring reintervention. CONCLUSION: We presented a 10-year single-center study of EVAR. Many patients treated with EVAR had a radiological visible complication, mainly in the beginning of the follow-up period. Only a smaller fraction required reintervention and having a reintervention-requiring complication was not connected to increased mortality.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma/epidemiologia , Aneurisma/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 60: 171-177, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative mortality after open and endovascular repair of thoracic aortic dissection (AD) has been the focus of previous research. However, a little has been published on the far less common isolated abdominal aortic dissection (IAAD). The aim of our study was to identify risk factors associated with 30-day postoperative mortality in patients with IAAD. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) was queried for patients who underwent open or endovascular AD repair from January 2010 to December 2015. Information regarding patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, procedure details, and postoperative complications were analyzed, and predictors of 30-day mortality were identified. Risk stratification by the type of aortic repair and surgery setting was performed, and patient characteristics associated with mortality in each setting were determined. We employed chi-squared test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test for the univariate analysis, while the multivariate analysis was performed using a stepwise binary logistic regression test. RESULTS: There were 229 patients who met the specified criteria, 15 died within 30 days postoperatively, and 214 survived beyond the same period (mortality rate was 6.5%). Among preoperative factors, a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), preoperative ventilator dependence, preoperative transfusion of ≥1 unit packed RBCs, emergent operation, and advanced American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class were associated with increased risk of mortality. Postoperative complications associated with a higher risk of mortality were acute kidney injury, mechanical ventilation ≥48 hours, unplanned intubation, myocardial infarction, septic shock, and blood transfusion. On multivariate analysis, risk factors independently associated with increased risk of mortality were a history of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 10.5; P = 0.013), postoperative acute renal failure (AOR, 12.8; P = 0.003) and septic shock (AOR, 15.3; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple preoperative and postoperative factors are associated with a high risk of death after IAAD repair. A better control of COPD and prevention of postoperative acute renal failure and septic shock may result in better outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
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