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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMO

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Processos Grupais , Motivação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 139-153, jul.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1125737

RESUMO

Este trabalho objetiva relatar experiências grupais vividas durante a implantação de projeto extensionista de atenção à saúde de trabalhadores da Atenção Básica (AB) em um município mineiro. As ações foram desenvolvidas em três semestres letivos consecutivos, como resultado de parceria entre uma universidade pública federal e um Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador. Equipes executoras contaram com 86 estudantes de Psicologia, sob supervisão de três docentes; 340 trabalhadores foram atendidos. Por meio dos processos grupais foi possível acolher o sofrimento manifesto pelos trabalhadores e, em paralelo, estudantes e formadores puderam construir aprendizados acerca das situações vividas. Dificuldades na execução do projeto foram relatadas pelos estudantes e espelharam a realidade comum ao trabalho dos psicólogos que atuam na AB.


This work intends to report group experiences lived during the implementation of an extension project of health care for Primary Care workers (PC) in a city in Minas Gerais. The actions were developed in three consecutive semesters, as a result of a partnership between a federal public university and a Reference Center in Occupational Health. The executing teams had 86 Psychology students, under the supervision of three teachers; 340 workers were met. Through the group processes, it was possible to embrace the suffering manifested by the workers and, in parallel, students and trainers were able to build learning about the situations experienced. Difficulties in the execution of the project were reported by the students and reflected the reality common to the performance of psychologists working in PC.


Este trabajo tiene la intención de informar las experiencias grupales vividas durante la implementación de un proyecto de extensión de atención de salud para trabajadores de la Atención Primaria (AP) en un ayuntamiento de Minas Gerais. Las acciones se desarrollaron en tres semestres seguidos, como resultado de una asociación entre una universidad pública federal y un Centro de Referencia en Salud del Trabajador. Los equipos ejecutores tenían 86 estudiantes de Psicología, bajo la supervisión de tres profesores; 340 trabajadores fueron atendidos. Mediante los procesos grupales, se hizo posible acoger el sufrimiento manifestado por los trabajadores y, paralelamente, los estudiantes y los formadores pudieron desarrollar el aprendizaje sobre las situaciones vividas. Las dificultades en la ejecución del proyecto fueron informadas por los estudiantes y reflejaban la realidad común al trabajo de los psicólogos que actúan en la AP.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estresse Psicológico , Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Processos Grupais , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Categorias de Trabalhadores
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5161, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057001

RESUMO

Humans establish public goods to provide for shared needs like safety or healthcare. Yet, public goods rely on cooperation which can break down because of free-riding incentives. Previous research extensively investigated how groups solve this free-rider problem but ignored another challenge to public goods provision. Namely, some individuals do not need public goods to solve the problems they share with others. We investigate how such self-reliance influences cooperation by confronting groups in a laboratory experiment with a safety problem that could be solved either cooperatively or individually. We show that self-reliance leads to a decline in cooperation. Moreover, asymmetries in self-reliance undermine social welfare and increase wealth inequality between group members. Less dependent group members often choose to solve the shared problem individually, while more dependent members frequently fail to solve the problem, leaving them increasingly poor. While self-reliance circumvents the free-rider problem, it complicates the governing of the commons.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Processos Grupais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1767-1770, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969615

RESUMO

Since the creation of Balint groups in the 1950s, the concept of meeting among doctors to discuss difficult clinical situations has spread widely, whether or not in line with Michael Balint's initial model. While the latter had thought of these groups as training, their therapeutic role was quickly questioned in the medical literature. At a time when we are seeing and concerned about the poor mental health of primary care doctors, we wanted to show that the added value provided by participation in a practice exchange group is both formative and therapeutic. In this sense, the participation of GP in such a group is part of the recommendations to improve the quality of care, prevent caregivers from burnout, and improve their professional satisfaction.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Processos Grupais , Médicos de Atenção Primária/educação , Médicos de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego
5.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 48(3): 259-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996847

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently ravaging health systems across the world. Psychiatric trainees are at risk of exposure to patients with COVID-19 given their clinical roles in emergency and inpatient psychiatric settings. This article represents a case study of group dynamics in which we reflect on our own experience as psychiatric residents at a Boston-area hospital system in the era of COVID-19 and apply Wilfred Bion's concepts of the "work group" and the "basic assumption group" processes of group operation. We assess dynamics between trainees and administrative leadership both at baseline and in the current pandemic. Since navigation through crises is more effective if group leadership recognizes and responds to basic assumption behaviors, we propose suggestions to enable health system administration to successfully lead health care organizations through periods of societal turmoil. We posit that these principles apply across settings, specialties, and provider types. In addition, we use our observations to indicate future directions for expanding Bion's theories in the contemporary context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Internato e Residência , Liderança , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psiquiatria/educação , Betacoronavirus , Processos Grupais , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941442

RESUMO

A team contest entails both public good characteristics within the teams as well as a contest across teams. In an experimental study, we analyse behaviour in such a team contest when allowing to punish or to reward other team members. Moreover, we compare two types of contest environment: One in which two teams compete for a prize and another one in which we switch off the between-group element of the contest. We find that reward giving, as opposed to punishing, induces higher contributions to the team contest. Furthermore, expenditures on rewarding other co-players are significantly higher than those for punishing.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Modelos Psicológicos , Punição , Recompensa , Processos Grupais , Humanos
7.
J Interprof Care ; 34(5): 711-715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990108

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has instigated significant changes for health care systems. With clinician burnout rising, efforts to promote clinician resilience are essential. Within this quality improvement project, an interprofessional debriefing program (Brigham Resilience in COVID-19-pandemic Emergency Forum-BRIEF) was developed within two emergency departments (EDs). An interprofessional group of ED providers led optional, nightly debriefings using a web-based portal to connect with ED clinicians for six weeks. In total, 81 interprofessional staff participated in nightly debriefings with a 47% attendance rate. On average, three participants attended the BRIEF nightly (range = 2-8) to discuss the challenges of social distancing, scarce resources, high acuity, clinician burnout and mental health. Participation increased as rates of COVID-19 positive patients rose. Debriefing leaders provided ED leadership with summaries of clinician experiences and suggestions for improvements. Feedback supported quality improvement initiatives within the ED and greater mental health support for staff. Clinicians and administrators provided positive feedback regarding the program's impact on clinician morale, and clinical processes that promoted the safety and quality of patient care. Optional debriefing with receptive departmental leadership may be a successful tool to support clinicians and hospitals during critical events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Processos Grupais , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Resiliência Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Liderança , Resolução de Problemas
8.
Bull Cancer ; 107(10): 999-1005, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972762

RESUMO

In 2006, in response to DHOS Circular 2005/101, we have created a multidisciplinary supportive care meeting. As available literature covering this subject is rare, we report here our own experience. For this purpose, available files from the six initial months of 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 were analyzed, representing 405 situations corresponding to 352 patients. The majority of patients were women (55,7 %, n=196) and the median age was 66 years old [20-93]. Treatment was curative in 8 % (n=32) of the situations, palliative in 58 % (n=233), exclusively palliative in 31.3 % (n=128) and concerned post-cancer situations in 2.7 % (n=11). The median number of participants in multidisciplinary team meeting was 10, with a regular presence of oncologists, palliative care team members, social workers, dietician, physiotherapist and psychologist. The two most common reasons for case presentation were advice on follow-up and support on a precise palliative situation. Multidisciplinary support care meeting decisions were relatively well implemented, with a compliance rate of 81.8 %. Nevertheless, cases were presented late with a median time of 1.5 months from presentation to patient death. The creation of a cross-supportive care department has increased this meeting relevance and it would be important in the near future to evaluate whether this organization allows a better foresight of supportive care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , França , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Zika virus outbreak in Brazil (2015-2016) affected thousands of children who were born with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Families play an important role in their care of children with complex needs, yet their knowledge, experience and skills are rarely harnessed in existing interventions to best support these families. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the use of mothers as facilitators for a community-based group intervention for children with CZS and their caregivers in Brazil. METHODS: Four facilitators were trained to deliver the 10-week intervention called "Juntos". Two were mothers of a child with CZS ("expert mothers") and two were therapists (speech therapist and physiotherapist). The intervention was delivered to three groups, generally including 8-10 caregivers. Two researchers, who were psychologists, observed the groups and held focus group discussions at the end of each session. They undertook semi-structured interviews post intervention with a purposive sample of caregivers, and with the facilitators. Observation notes were collated and summarised. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analysed using five elements to assess feasibility: acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality and adaptation. RESULTS: The use of expert mothers as facilitators was considered to be acceptable and there was demand for their role. Their experiential knowledge was viewed as important for sharing and learning, and supporting and encouraging the group. The intervention was delivered with fidelity by the expert mothers. The practicality of the intervention was facilitated by holding the group sessions in the community, providing transport costs to facilitators and participants, paying expert mothers and therapist facilitators equally and supporting the expert mothers through a mentorship programme. Equal payment with the therapist enabled the expert mothers to better facilitate the groups, through increased confidence in the value of their role. Adaptation of the intervention included development of video resources and mentoring guidelines. CONCLUSION: The use of expert mothers as facilitators of caregiver groups provides a unique approach to harness the knowledge, experience, and skills of families to provide care, and is likely to be feasible in similar contexts.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/psicologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
10.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 36(2): 87-94, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194178

RESUMO

In service work, emotional demands are important due to their effects on social interactions with customers, patients, pupils, etc. The purpose of this study is to examine how emotional demands and leadership are related to engagement of the team members. The sample consists of 1,079 employees nested in 124 work teams from four Spanish public organizations. Multilevel analyses showed: 1) a positive effect of emotional demands on work engagement, 2) a cross-level effect of leadership on work engagement, and 3) a cross-level moderation effect of leadership on the relationship between emotional demands and work engagement. Results suggest that shared perceptions of leadership by teams affect their work engagement levels directly and through an interaction effect on the emotional demands-engagement relationship. When employees feel emotionally overloaded, their leaders can relieve this negative impact on their levels of work engagement. Practical and theoretical implications are presented


En el trabajo de servicio, las demandas emocionales son importantes debido a sus efectos sobre las interacciones sociales con clientes, pacientes, alumnos, etc. El propósito de este estudio es examinar cómo se relacionan las demandas emocionales y el liderazgo con el engagement en el trabajo de los miembros del equipo. La muestra consiste en 1,079 empleados anidados en 124 equipos de trabajo de cuatro organizaciones públicas españolas. Los análisis multinivel mostraron: 1) un efecto positivo de las demandas emocionales sobre el engagement en el trabajo, 2) un efecto, a través de los niveles, del liderazgo sobre el engagement en el trabajo y 3) un efecto de moderación, a través de los niveles, del liderazgo sobre la relación entre las demandas emocionales y el engagement en el trabajo. Los resultados sugieren que las percepciones compartidas sobre el liderazgo que tiene el equipo afectan a sus niveles de engagement en el trabajo directamente y a través de un efecto de interacción sobre la relación demandas emocionales-engagement. Cuando los empleados se sienten emocionalmente sobrecargados, sus líderes pueden aliviar este impacto negativo en sus niveles de engagement en el trabajo. Se presentan implicaciones teóricas y prácticas


Assuntos
Humanos , Capacidade de Liderança e Governança/organização & administração , Codependência Psicológica , Engajamento no Trabalho , Ajustamento Emocional , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Condições de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Processos Grupais
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750096

RESUMO

The current study examined the effect of a group's potential for improvement and decline in morality and competence on applicants' willingness to join the group. We conducted four experiments with 399 Chinese participants who rated their willingness to join groups with potential for improvement, potential for decline, or stability in terms of morality or competence. The results showed that, compared with groups with stable competence, participants preferred groups with potential for competence improvement and were more averse to groups with potential for competence decline. However, the biases regarding the potential for moral improvement and decline were asymmetric. Specifically, compared with groups with stable morality, participants had no preference for groups with potential for moral improvement, but were more averse to groups with potential for moral decline. Possible explanations for the asymmetric biases regarding the potential for moral improvement and decline and future research directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Viés , Processos Grupais , Princípios Morais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cultura Organizacional , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(9): 403, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807265

RESUMO

The Drug Enforcement Administration has agreed to publish a proposed rule that, if approved, would give nurses the legal authority to contact the pharmacy on behalf of the prescriber concerning controlled substances.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Substâncias Controladas , Processos Grupais , Humanos
14.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 594-606, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602596

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, societies face the formidable challenge of developing sustainable forms of sociability-cumsocial-distancing - enduring social life while containing the virus and preventing new outbreaks. Accordant public policies often balance between retributive (punishment-based) and assistance (solidarity-based) measures to foster responsible behaviour. Yet, the uncontrolled spreading of the disease has divided public opinion about which measures are best suited, and it has made salient group disparities in behaviour, potentially straining intergroup relations, elevating heated emotions, and undercutting coordinated international responses. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, British citizens (N = 377) read about national in-group or outgroup members (categorical differentiation), who were either conforming to or deviating from the corona regulations (normative differentiation). Participants then reported moral emotions towards the target national group and indicated support for public policies. In general, support for assistance policies outweighed support for retributive measures. Second, however, norm deviation was associated with less positive and more negative moral emotions, the latter category further relating to more punitiveness and less assistance support. Finally, respondents who read about norm-violating outgroup members especially reported support for retributive measures, indicating that people might use norm deviation to justify outgroup derogation. We discuss implications for policymakers and formulate future research avenues.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Distância Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Reino Unido
17.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 24(3): 353-365, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687778

RESUMO

This paper presents a case study which aims to establish a relationship between the homogeneity of passing distribution between players of a team and goal attempts in the team sport of association football. We observed data from 10 competitive football matches, involving 10 different professional football teams of different performance levels, competing in the Portuguese League during the 2010/2011 season. Performance data were analysed using the Match Analysis Software Amisco. Shannon's entropy measure was used to quantify the homogeneity of passing distribution within each team. Results suggested the existence of a pattern between an increase in the homogeneity of passing distributions and the attempts to scoring goals in the sample of competitive matches studied. A homogeneous distribution of passes can moderately predict (approximately 45% of accuracy) when a goal attempt will occur within the following minute of an entropy assessment.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Processos Grupais , Futebol , Entropia , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Estações do Ano , Software
18.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1524-1528, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675791

RESUMO

This initial, exploratory study on gender bias in collaborative medical decision making examined the degree to which physicians' reliance on a team member's patient care advice differs as a function of the gender of the advice giver. In 2018, 283 anesthesiologists read a brief, online clinical vignette and were randomly assigned to receive treatment advice from 1 of 8 possible sources (physician or nurse, man or woman, experienced or inexperienced). They then indicated their treatment decision, as well as the degree to which they relied upon the advice given.The results revealed 2 patterns consistent with gender bias in participants' advice taking. First, when treatment advice was delivered by an inexperienced physician, participants reported replying significantly more on the advice of a man versus a woman, F(1,61) = 4.24, P = .04. Second, participants' reliance on the advice of the woman physician was a function of her experience, F(1,62) = 6.96, P = .01, whereas reliance on the advice of the man physician was not, F(1,60) = 0.21, P = .65.These findings suggest women physicians, relative to men, may encounter additional hurdles to performing their jobs, especially at early stages in their careers. These hurdles are rooted in psychological biases of others, rather than objective features of cases or treatment settings. Cultural stereotypes may shape physicians' information use and decision-making processes (and hinder collaboration), even in contexts that appear to have little to do with social category membership. The authors recommend institutions adopt policies and practices encouraging equal attention to advice, regardless of the source, to help ensure advice taking is a function of information quality rather than the attributes of the advice giver. Such policies and practices may help surface and implement diverse expert perspectives in collaborative medical decision making, promoting better and more effective patient care.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Médicos/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Adulto , Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706771

RESUMO

Three studies have tested the hypothesis that intermediate-status groups are more oriented to ally with outgroups when their social position is under threat. In study 1, participants believed that their ingroup was intermediate in status and social stratification was manipulated as either stable or status-detrimental unstable. Results indicated that participants were more likely to seek alliances a) with a high-status group and b) when social stratification was status-detrimental unstable. Study 2 showed that participants were more likely to seek alliances with a lower status group when social stratification was status-detrimental unstable rather than stable, while they were supportive of policies helping disadvantaged groups regardless of the stability of social stratification. Study 3 showed that when social stratification was status-detrimental unstable, intermediate-status group members were more oriented to ally with a low-status group, equally supportive of policies helping disadvantaged groups, but less oriented to supplying direct help to a low-status group.


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Predomínio Social , Percepção Social
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730312

RESUMO

Environmental adversity is associated with a wide range of biological outcomes and behaviors that seem to fulfill a need to favor immediate over long-term benefits. Adversity is also associated with decreased investment in cooperation, which is defined as a long-term strategy. Beyond establishing the correlation between adversity and cooperation, the channel through which this relationship arises remains unclear. We propose that this relationship is mediated by a present bias at the psychological level, which is embodied in the reproduction-maintenance trade-off at the biological level. We report two pre-registered studies applying structural equation models to test this relationship on large-scale datasets (the European Values Study and the World Values Survey). The present study replicates existing research linking adverse environments (both in childhood and in adulthood) with decreased investment in adult cooperation and finds that this association is indeed mediated by variations in individuals' reproduction-maintenance trade-off.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicopatologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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