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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-7, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341797

RESUMO

A atração pelos sonhos é algo que acompanha os seres humanos há milhares de anos e em diferentes culturas. Nos dias de hoje, a interpretação de sonhos é bastante valorizada pela psicanálise, em especial nos trabalhos clínicos, seja nos atendimentos individuais, nos grupos terapêuticos ou em psicoterapias de casal e família. Mas, em todos estes casos, além do enfoque majoritariamente clínico, trabalha-se, em geral, a partir das associações realizadas e pela interpretação do material sonhado, lembrado e compartilhado por um dos participantes. O presente artigo baseia-se em uma comunicação científica que apresentou um dispositivo desenvolvido para ser utilizado como recurso para intervenções em diferentes grupos, inclusive os com finalidades não psicoterapêuticas: a produção e interpretação, de forma lúdica, de um sonho criado pelo grupo. Tal recurso pode ser aplicado em grupos com as mais variadas finalidades. Será apresentada a fundamentação teórica do dispositivo e apresentadas as etapas de elaboração da atividade, com a discussão de alguns resultados. Espera-se que o referido dispositivo possa ser aproveitado por outros profissionais para a promoção de saúde nos diferentes tipos de grupos.


Humans have showed interest in dream interpretation for thousands of years and in different cultures. In the current time, dream interpretation is highly valued by psychoanalysis, especially in psychotherapy, whether in individual care, therapeutic groups or couple and family psychotherapies. But, in all these cases, in addition to the predominantly clinical approach, they generally work from the associations made and the interpretation of the content dreamed, remembered and shared by one of the participants. Thus, the present work brings a differential, as part of the principles of elaboration and analysis of dreams presented by psychoanalysis, to propose the creation of a collective dream made in a playful way as a resource to enable the reading of group phenomena. This feature can be applied in groups with the most varied purposes. The stages of elaboration of the activity will be presented and some results will be discussed, which can be used by other professionals for health promotion in different types of groups.


Los humanos han mostrado interés en la interpretación de los sueños durante miles de años y en diferentes culturas. En la actualidad, la interpretación de los sueños es muy valorada por el psicoanálisis, especialmente en psicoterapia, ya sea en atención individual, grupos terapéuticos o psicoterapias de pareja y familia. Pero, en todos estos casos, además del enfoque predominantemente clínico, generalmente trabajan a partir de las asociaciones realizadas y la interpretación del contenido soñado, recordado y compartido por uno de los participantes. Así, el presente trabajo trae una diferencia, como parte de los principios de elaboración y análisis de los sueños presentados por el psicoanálisis, para proponer la creación de un sueño colectivo hecho de manera lúdica como un recurso para permitir la lectura de fenómenos grupales. Esta característica se puede aplicar en grupos con los más variados propósitos, ya que, por un lado, evidencia contenidos latentes y, por otro, preserva a sus participantes. Se presentarán las etapas de elaboración de la actividad y se discutirán algunos resultados, que pueden ser utilizados por otros profesionales para la promoción de la salud en diferentes tipos de grupos.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Sono , Terapêutica , Sonhos , Processos Grupais
2.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-10, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341792

RESUMO

O trabalho é uma reflexão crítica sobre uma intervenção realizada no Centro Nocturno (Albergue) do Programa de Atención a Personas en Situación de Calle (PASC), do Ministerio de Desarrollo Social (MIDES, Uruguai) que visa à reinserção sociocultural/laboral dos usuários. Trabalhou-se com a equipe do albergue (coordenador, técnicos e educadores), a partir de uma demanda da Coordenação do Albergue ao Departamento de Fotolinguagem da Asociación de Psicopatología y Psiquiatría de la Infancia y la Adolescencia (APPIA). A metodologia combinou Fotolinguagem, Palavra e Psicodrama. O discurso dos participantes foi analisado salvaguardando a identidade dos participantes. Surgiram elementos que colocavam em risco a saúde ocupacional. Estes resultavam de uma tarefa altamente exigente, com insuficientes antecedentes e recursos disponíveis no sistema institucional. Trata-se de um trabalho pioneiro que exige a convivência com o erro em situações extremas. Foi observado um aumento da autoconfiança para desbravar um território desafiador. Foi valorizado o ato de fazer, de transcender e de criar saberes, assim como o conhecimento que surge da experiência para contribuir e trocar ideias com outras instituições e melhorar assim os programas de intervenção.


This work is a critical reflection on an intervention carried out at a night shelter of the Homeless Assistance Program (PASC), under the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES), aimed at the socio-cultural/labour reintegration of the users. The intervention was carried out with the work team (coordinator, technicians and educators) upon request of the Coordinator to the Photolanguage Department of the Uruguayan Association of Psychopathology and Psychiatry of Children and Adolescents (APPIA). The methodology articulated Photolanguage, words and Psychodrama. The discourse of the participants was analyzed without disclosing their identities. There were working conditions that jeopardized their occupational health; they involved a very demanding job combined with a lack of background and resources in the institutional system. It is a pioneering work that requires coping with error in extreme situations. Participants experienced an increase in their self-confidence which was necessary to open new pathways in a challenging territory. Participants placed value on hands-on experience, on going beyond what was already accomplished by creating new knowledge that can contribute to enhance the interaction with other professionals and institutions to improve future programs.


El trabajo es una reflexión crítica sobre una intervención en un Centro Nocturno (Refugio) del Programa de Atención a Personas en Situación de Calle (PASC) del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social (MIDES), cuyo objetivo es la reinserción socio-cultural/laboral de los usuarios. Se trabajó con el equipo del Centro (coordinador, técnicos y educadores) por demanda de la Coordinación del Centro al Departamento de Fotolenguaje de la Asociación de Psicopatología y Psiquiatría de la Infancia y la Adolescencia (APPIA). La metodología articuló Fotolenguaje, Palabra y Psicodrama. Se analizó el discurso de los participantes salvaguardando la identidad de los mismos. Surgieron elementos que ponen en riesgo la salud laboral, y que se generaron por tarea altamente exigente con escasos antecedentes y recursos disponibles en el sistema institucional. Es un trabajo pionero que exige la convivencia con el error en situaciones límites. Se observó un aumento de la auto-confianza para abrir caminos en un terreno desafiante. Se valora el hacer, trascender y crear saberes, así como el conocimiento que surge de la experiencia para intercambiar con otras instituciones para mejorar los programas de intervención.


Assuntos
Psicodrama , Mudança Social , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Campos de Refugiados , Abrigo , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Processos Grupais
3.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-6, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341790

RESUMO

Históricos de desamparo são observados com maior frequência em crianças que chegam à clínica com sintomas de angústia. Nos atendimentos clínicos são frequentes situações, em que o trabalho de orientação aos pais não obtém resultado satisfatório, o que indica que é requerido um investimento maior no atendimento das crianças. Este artigo alcança os aspectos transferenciais (transferências cruzadas) como fundamentais nos processos grupais com crianças e nas entrevistas com os pais. Nele, visamos um maior conhecimento sobre transferência e seu manejo nos processos grupais focando três direções: em primeiro lugar vertical criança-analista, em segundo lugar horizontal criança-criança e finalmente criança-grupo. Para compor a metodologia foram utilizadas revisão bibliográfica e método qualitativo clínico com recursos de vinhetas clínicas de grupo infantil e entrevistas com os pais. As teorias de Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, René Kaës, Pichon Revière e Arminda Aberastury são apresentadas em suas relações com as vinhetas clínicas. Dessa forma, acreditamos que o manejo da transferência em psicoterapia de grupo infantil auxiliará no tratamento do desamparo e, por conseguinte da angústia.


Abandonment historics are observed more often in children that presents anguish symptoms. In clinical cares, there are some frequent situations that the orientation to the parents is not satisfactory, which evince a higher necessity of children treatment investment. This article considers some transference aspects (crossed transfer) as fundamental in children group processes and parents' interview. This study is focused in higher knowledge of transference and its handling in group processes, aiming three directions: the vertical relation of transference between child-analyst, the horizontal relation of transference between children and the relation between child-group. Literature review and qualitative clinical method, with clinical vignette resources of children's group and parent's interview, were used to form the methodology. Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, René Kaës, Pichon Revière and Arminda Aberastury theories are shown in relation to the clinical vignette. We believe, therefore, that the psychotherapy transference handling of children's group would help in the abandon treatment and, thus, of anguishing.


Histórias del abandono son observadas con más frecuencia en niños que presentan síntomas de angustia. En las asistencias clínicas, hay situaciones frecuentes en que la orientación a los padres no es satisfactoria, que evidencian una mayor necesidad de inversión en tratamiento infantil. Este artículo considera algunos aspectos de la transferencia (transferencia cruzada) como fundamentales en procesos de grupos de niños y en las entrevistas con los padres. Este estudo es focado en conocimientos mayores de transferencia y su manejo en procesos de grupo, y tiene como objectivo tres direcciones: la relación vertical de transferencia entre el niño y el analista, la relación horizontal de transferencia entre los niños y la relación entre los grupos de niños. Revisión de literatura y el método clínico cualitativo, con recursos de enunciado clínico de grupos de niños y entrevistas con los padres, fueron utilizados para formar la metodología. Las teorías de Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, René Kaës, Pichon Revière y Arminda Aberastury se muestran en relación con el enunciado clínico. Creemos, por lo tanto, que el manejo de la transferencia en la psicoterapia grupal de niños podría ayudar en el tratamiento del abandono y, así, de la angustia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Psicoterapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Angústia Psicológica , Processos Grupais
4.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 6(1): 68, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727302

RESUMO

One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perceived similarity would impact the processing of same-race and other-race faces. Specifically, in two experiments, we varied the extent to which White participants were ostensibly similar to targets via bogus feedback on a personality test. With an eye tracker, we measured the effect of this manipulation on attention to the eyes, a critical region for person perception and face memory. In Experiment 1, we monitored the impact of perceived interpersonal similarity on White participants' attention to the eyes of same-race White targets. In Experiment 2, we replicated this procedure, but White participants were presented with either same-race White targets or other-race Black targets in a between-subjects design. The pattern of results in both experiments indicated a positive linear effect of similarity-greater perceived similarity between participants and targets predicted more attention to the eyes of White and Black faces. The implications of these findings related to top-down effects of perceived similarity for our understanding of basic processes in face perception, as well as intergroup relations, are discussed.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Racismo , Olho , Processos Grupais , Humanos
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 10114-10123, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628932

RESUMO

Multidisciplinary treatment, mainly chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy, is preferred in patients with advanced lung cancer who are negative for driver genes and have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score of 0-1; in contrast, patients with an ECOG PS score of 3-4 should be managed with supportive treatment and palliative care rather than chemotherapy or other antitumor treatments. In the real-world settings, however, in the Chinese population, a large proportion of patients and their families are willing to take risks to receive benefit from oncological treatments. We encountered a patient who had definite advanced lung adenocarcinoma with multiple metastases and fusion in abdominal lymph nodes. Intestinal obstruction and obstructive jaundice were also observed. Despite the application of gastrointestinal decompression, continuous parenteral nutrition support, common bile duct stenting, and pancreatic duct stenting, no effective antitumor therapy (except in the case of immunotherapy) was attempted due to the high tumor burden and poor ECOG PS score in this patient. After effective communication with the family members, toripalimab was attempted in this patient with great success (the patient did not receive chemotherapy and only received immunotherapy). In the spring of 2019, imported programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies (pabolizumab and navulizumab) listed in the Chinese market were expensive, and the people could not afford the cost. However, treprizumab was just on the market, with low price and high pharmacoeconomics. Therefore, the drug was selected for treatment.) The patient achieved almost complete remission, with a progression-free survival (PFS) of about 2.5 years. The expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was high in this patient. Toripalimab monotherapy may be applied in patients with high PD-L1 expression although any potential adverse effects should be closely monitored. To our knowledge, no other data from clinical trials and real-world cases have thus far been reported concerning the application of immunotherapy in ECOG PS 4 patients with advanced lung cancer. The innovation of this article is that although the patient has advanced cancer and ECOG PS 4 is an end-stage patient, immunotherapy is still given and achieved great success.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 521, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incentives for preparation and participation in case-based (CBL) and team-based learning (TBL) differ by virtue of differences in assessment, allowing us to evaluate the role these incentives play in preparation and participation in these activities as well as overall course performance. METHODS: Weekly TBL and CBL participation and performance as well as performance on the course final examination were recorded. Student participation was quantified and correlated with: (1) CBL preparation, participation, teamwork and completion of learning objectives scores, and (2) TBL individual readiness assurance test (iRAT) scores. RESULTS: Student final examination scores (n = 95) were more strongly correlated with TBL than CBL performance. No significant correlation was found between iRAT and CBL scores. Student participation was measured in 3 CBL groups (8 students/group) and 4 TBL teams (6 students/team). TBL participation was more strongly correlated with final examination scores than CBL participation. TBL participation was also correlated with iRAT scores. CBL scores for preparation, participation, teamwork and completion of learning objectives did not significantly correlate with iRAT scores or TBL participation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the assessment incentives and methods used in TBL result in student performance that better predicts performance on summative examinations.


Assuntos
Motivação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Aprendizagem
9.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 933-935, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706023

RESUMO

Dmitri Shostakovich was one of the greatest composers of 20th century, famous for his piano and violin compositions. One of the compositions, the 5th symphony, is arguably his greatest work, which brought him back to the grace of the Soviet authorities in a moment of a political crisis in Russia. Among the experts, there is a theory which supports that Shostakovich's talent was due to a traumatic brain injury involving a shrapnel. Moreover, he might have suffered from a neurodegenerative process throughout his life. In this paper, we intend to discuss these viewpoints.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Pessoas Famosas , Música , Processos Grupais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Federação Russa
10.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 25(4): 385-394, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516941

RESUMO

Since the pioneering work of Herbert A. Simon, bounded rationality (BR) constitutes a viable alternative to utility maximization in settings characterized by uncertainty about the possible emergence of novel events, missing information, and limitations to human reasoning. Because of its realism, BR gained consensus in organization and management studies. However, BR is a theory of individual decision-making. Substantial extensions are required in order to turn it into a tool to analyze collective decision processes. Following an intuition by the late Simon himself, we submit that organizations channel information flows in ways that alleviate human BR. Thus, analysis and reconstruction of their structure as well as differential degrees and qualities of individual BR within organizations is key to extend this concept to collective decision-making. In this special issue we collected contributions where instances of BR couple with interaction structures to yield collective behavior. Tools range from mathematical models to experimental settings to computational models, testifying to the value of multiple approaches and perspectives.


Assuntos
Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Resolução de Problemas
11.
Med Care ; 59(11): 1031-1038, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illuminating heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE) within trials is important for identifying target populations for implementation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine HTE in a trial of group medical visits (GMVs) for patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated body mass index. RESEARCH DESIGN AND MEASURES: Participants (n=263) were randomized to GMV-based medication management plus low carbohydrate diet-focused weight management (WM/GMV; n=127) or GMV-based medication management alone (GMV; n=136) for diabetes control. We used QUalitative INteraction Trees, a tree-based clustering method, to identify subgroups with greater improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and weight from either WM/GMV or GMV. Subgroup predictors included 32 baseline demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Internal validation was conducted to estimate bias in the range of mean outcome differences between arms. RESULTS: QUalitative INteraction Trees analyses indicated that for patients who had not previously attempted weight loss, WM/GMV resulted in better glycemic control than GMV (mean difference in HbA1c improvement=1.48%). For patients who had previously attempted weight loss and had lower cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen, GMV was better than WM/GMV (mean difference in HbA1c improvement=1.51%). No treatment-subgroup effects were identified for weight. Internal validation resulted in moderate corrections in mean HbA1c differences between arms; however, differences remained in the clinically significant range. CONCLUSION: This work represents a novel step toward targeting care approaches for patients to maximize benefit based on individual patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Processos Grupais , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Visita a Consultório Médico , Perda de Peso , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257637, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543342

RESUMO

We study how social preferences and norms of reciprocity are related to generalized (outgroup) and particularized (ingroup) trust among members of youth business groups in northern Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government promotes youth employment among land-poor rural youth by allocating them rehabilitated communal lands for the formation of sustainable businesses. The typical sustainable production activities that the groups can invest in include apiculture, forestry, horticulture, and livestock production. Our study used incentivized experiments to elicit social preferences, trust, and trustworthiness. We use data from 2427 group members in 246 functioning business groups collected in 2019. Altruistic and egalitarian preferences were associated with stronger norms to reciprocate, higher outgroup and ingroup trustworthiness and trust while spiteful and selfish preferences had opposite effects. The social preferences had both direct and indirect effects (through the norm to reciprocate) on trustworthiness and trust. Ingroup trust was positively correlated with a number of group performance indicators.


Assuntos
Comércio , Confiança , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Percepção Social
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473784

RESUMO

Structured protocols offer a transparent and systematic way to elicit and combine/aggregate, probabilistic predictions from multiple experts. These judgements can be aggregated behaviourally or mathematically to derive a final group prediction. Mathematical rules (e.g., weighted linear combinations of judgments) provide an objective approach to aggregation. The quality of this aggregation can be defined in terms of accuracy, calibration and informativeness. These measures can be used to compare different aggregation approaches and help decide on which aggregation produces the "best" final prediction. When experts' performance can be scored on similar questions ahead of time, these scores can be translated into performance-based weights, and a performance-based weighted aggregation can then be used. When this is not possible though, several other aggregation methods, informed by measurable proxies for good performance, can be formulated and compared. Here, we develop a suite of aggregation methods, informed by previous experience and the available literature. We differentially weight our experts' estimates by measures of reasoning, engagement, openness to changing their mind, informativeness, prior knowledge, and extremity, asymmetry or granularity of estimates. Next, we investigate the relative performance of these aggregation methods using three datasets. The main goal of this research is to explore how measures of knowledge and behaviour of individuals can be leveraged to produce a better performing combined group judgment. Although the accuracy, calibration, and informativeness of the majority of methods are very similar, a couple of the aggregation methods consistently distinguish themselves as among the best or worst. Moreover, the majority of methods outperform the usual benchmarks provided by the simple average or the median of estimates.


Assuntos
Agregação de Dados , Prova Pericial , Processos Grupais , Julgamento , Modelos Estatísticos , Conscientização , Teorema de Bayes , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Psicologia/métodos , Opinião Pública , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0253571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543265

RESUMO

The current studies (N = 1,709) explore why demographic composition of place matters. First, this work demonstrates that relative level of group representation affects one's experience of place in the form of self-definition (self-categorization), perceptions of place being representative or characteristic of factors that distinguish the group from others (place-prototypicality), and sense of belonging (place-identification; Studies 1a-1e; Studies 2a & 2b). Second, the studies illustrate that group representation within place shapes the way group member's approach (i.e., expectations of group-based treatment and procedural justice; Studies 2a-2c), understand (i.e., attribution for group-based events, Study 2b; responsiveness to bias-reduction intervention, Study 4a; sense of solidarity, Study 4b), and behave (i.e., prejudice, Studies 3a & 3b; collective action, Study 4c). More broadly, I present a Social identity Paradigm for Contextualized Experience (SPACE) that provides an organizing framework for the study of the impact of characteristics of place on social identity-based contextualized experience and (in turn) collective behavior. Taken together, the findings provide evidence of distinct psychological experience and orientation as a function of minority versus majority-group status within place, as well as for a group-based approach to place. Implications for the study of collective and intergroup behavior are discussed.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Identificação Social , Percepção Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 24: 100156, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standing desks have been brought into the education environment to reduce sedentary behavior among students. The current study explored the effects of standing in tutorial group meetings on learning among undergraduate students. METHODS: Ninety-six participants were randomly allocated to a Sit or Stand group, with 2 h tutorial group meetings scheduled, once or twice per week, for nine weeks. Learning was analyzed using exam grades, concept maps, and tutorial interactions. RESULTS: Overall, the Sit and Stand groups did not differ from each other in terms of learning, measured through their exam, concept map, and the use of learning-oriented interactions. CONCLUSION: Standing in tutorial group meetings neither enhanced nor compromised learning. Considering the health risks associated with prolonged sedentary behavior, offering standing tutorial group meetings to undergraduate students is a recommended solution to break up prolonged sedentary behavior and encourage more physical activity, while maintaining the learning performance of students.


Assuntos
Posição Ortostática , Local de Trabalho , Exercício Físico , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário
16.
J Aging Stud ; 58: 100952, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425987

RESUMO

European local authorities increasingly use social media to present services and activities organized for citizens living in the particular area. Previous studies found that authority-managed social media visually depicted older adults as being active, sociable, happy, and physically capable, reflecting the normative "third age" representation. Yet few studies to date have examined how local authorities produce the photos of older adults for social media posting. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with communication officers in a Swedish municipality, the purpose of this study is to investigate the production process for social media photos of older adults within local authorities from an institutional logics perspective. The analysis illustrates that communication officers strive to create a good image of the municipality and its services, follow municipal policy and EU law on data protection, seek photos through particular sources, adjust to and develop photographic standards of good photos, and endeavor to promote social media engagement in the photos. These motives and work practices of communication officers contribute to the visual representations of older adults as engaging in municipal services, being socially active, and staying physically capable. The analysis also indicates that both social media and bureaucratic logics encourage officers to produce photos of older adults that highlight the bright side of later life. The findings contribute to previous studies on online representations of older adults generated by local authorities, by showing how the third age representation may come about in practice, and which logics may influence officers to generate such representation. Furthermore, the knowledge provided could be used as a basis for assessment and improvement on authorities' production for social media photos of older adults, which in turn contributes to more diverse and thoughtful representations of older adults and later life in authority-managed social media.


Assuntos
Governo , Mídias Sociais , Idoso , Comunicação , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Motivação , Fotografação , Políticas , Suécia
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 829, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is well acknowledged that India's community health workers known as Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) are the bedrock of its health system. Many ASHAs are currently working in fragile and conflict-affected settings. No efforts have yet been made to understand the challenges and vulnerabilities of these female workers. This paper seeks to address this gap by bringing attention to the situation of ASHAs working in the fragile and conflict settings and how conflict impacts them and their work. METHODS: Qualitative fieldwork was undertaken in four conflict-affected villages in two conflict-affected districts -Kokrajhar and Karbi Anglong of Assam state situated in the North-East region of India. Detailed account of four ASHAs serving roughly 4000 people is presented. Data transliterated into English were analysed by authors by developing a codebook using grounded theory and thematic organisation of codes. RESULTS: ASHAs reported facing challenges in ensuring access to health services during and immediately after outbreaks of conflict. They experienced difficulty in arranging transport and breakdown of services at remote health facilities. Their physical safety and security were at risk during episodes of conflict. ASHAs reported hostile attitudes of the communities they served due to the breakdown of social relations, trauma due to displacement, and loss of family members, particularly their husbands. CONCLUSIONS: Conflict must be recognised as an important context within which community health workers operate, with greater policy focus and research devoted to understanding and addressing the barriers they face as workers and as persons affected by conflict.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371862

RESUMO

Cooperative Extension is a community outreach program. Despite its large reach, there is a need for the evaluation of changes in health-related outcomes for individuals engaged with Cooperative Extension. A team-based challenge was developed using community-engaged participatory research integrated with Cooperative Extension to encourage healthy eating and physical activity behaviors through Cooperative Extension programming. Thus, the primary purpose of this secondary analysis was to (1) evaluate changes in anthropometric outcomes and (2) evaluate changes in health behavior outcomes. Associations of anthropometric changes and health behavior changes with engagement in the three-month team-based challenge were explored. Anthropometrics were measured using standard procedures, and intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity were self-reported. Of the 145 participants in the community-engaged participatory research portion of the study, 52.4% (n = 76) had complete anthropometrics before and after the team-based challenge and were included in this study. At 3 months, there was a significant reduction in body mass index (-0.3 kg/m2, p = 0.024) and no significant change in waist circumference (p = 0.781). Fruit and vegetable intake significantly increased (+0.44 servings/day, p = 0.018). Physical activity did not significantly change based on (1) the number of days 30 or more minutes of physical activity was conducted (p = 0.765) and (2) Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores (p = 0.612). Changes in anthropometrics and health behaviors were not associated with engagement in the team-based challenge. Using community-engaged participatory research with community outreach programs, such as Cooperative Extension, can improve health-related outcomes in underserved populations. However, despite a participatory approach, changes in anthropometrics and health behaviors were not associated with engagement in the developed team-based challenge.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Participação Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Delaware , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Cognition ; 216: 104865, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358774

RESUMO

Psychological models can only help improve intergroup relations if they accurately characterise the mechanisms underlying social biases. The claim that outgroups suffer dehumanization is near ubiquitous in the social sciences. We challenge the most prominent psychological model of dehumanization - infrahumanization theory - which holds outgroup members are subtly dehumanized by being denied human emotions. We examine the theory across seven intergroup contexts in thirteen pre-registered and highly powered experiments (N = 1690). We find outgroup members are not denied uniquely human emotions relative to ingroup members. Rather, they are ascribed prosocial emotions to a lesser extent but antisocial emotions to a greater extent. Apparent evidence for infrahumanization is better explained by ingroup preference, outgroup derogation and stereotyping. Infrahumanization theory may obscure more than it reveals about intergroup bias.


Assuntos
Desumanização , Emoções , Viés , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Identificação Social , Percepção Social
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