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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639472

RESUMO

Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic process which may be implicated in the onset and maintenance of non-suicidal self-injury. No study has evaluated whether reported differences in perfectionism between individuals with and without a history of self-injury represent genuine group differences or measurement artefacts. The present study reports an investigation of the measurement invariance of two common scales of perfectionism, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-Brief (FMPS-Brief) and the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ), among university students (Mage = 20.48, SDage = 2.22, 75.3% female, 22.8% male) with and without a history of self-injury (total n = 711). Results revealed full residual error invariance for the two-factor model of FMPS-Brief, while the bifactor model of the FMPS-Brief and the two-factor model of the CPQ demonstrated partial metric invariance. Accounting for partial metric invariance, the bifactor model of the FMPS-Brief also demonstrated partial residual error invariance. The current findings suggest that observed differences using the FMPS-Brief reflect genuine differences in perfectionism between individuals with and without a history of self-injury. Further, while researchers using the bi-factor model can have confidence that the general factor can adequately assess group differences, differential item functioning should be considered if using the strivings and concerns factors. Finally, in the current data, the CPQ did not perform as expected in baseline model fit and future research should replicate assessments of measurement invariance in this measure.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556578

RESUMO

Few questions in science are as controversial as human nature. At stake is whether our basic concepts and emotions are all learned from experience, or whether some are innate. Here, I demonstrate that reasoning about innateness is biased by the basic workings of the human mind. Psychological science suggests that newborns possess core concepts of "object" and "number." Laypeople, however, believe that newborns are devoid of such notions but that they can recognize emotions. Moreover, people presume that concepts are learned, whereas emotions (along with sensations and actions) are innate. I trace these beliefs to two tacit psychological principles: intuitive dualism and essentialism. Essentialism guides tacit reasoning about biological inheritance and suggests that innate traits reside in the body; per intuitive dualism, however, the mind seems ethereal, distinct from the body. It thus follows that, in our intuitive psychology, concepts (which people falsely consider as disembodied) must be learned, whereas emotions, sensations, and emotions (which are considered embodied) are likely innate; these predictions are in line with the experimental results. These conclusions do not speak to the question of whether concepts and emotions are innate, but they suggest caution in its scientific evaluation.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Características Humanas , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Humanos , Intuição , Aprendizagem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543312

RESUMO

Emotion dynamics is a framework for measuring how an individual's emotions change over time. It is a powerful tool for understanding how we behave and interact with the world. In this paper, we introduce a framework to track emotion dynamics through one's utterances. Specifically we introduce a number of utterance emotion dynamics (UED) metrics inspired by work in Psychology. We use this approach to trace emotional arcs of movie characters. We analyze thousands of such character arcs to test hypotheses that inform our broader understanding of stories. Notably, we show that there is a tendency for characters to use increasingly more negative words and become increasingly emotionally discordant with each other until about 90% of the narrative length. UED also has applications in behavior studies, social sciences, and public health.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Emoções/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Filmes Cinematográficos/instrumentação , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550983

RESUMO

One important feature of episodic memory is that it contains fine-grained and vividly recollected details. How to improve and maintain detailed information over time has been one of the central issues in memory research. Previous studies have inconsistent findings on whether detailed memory is forgotten more rapidly than gist memory. In this study, we investigated to what extent different encoding tasks modulated forgetting of gist and detailed information. In three experiments, participants were presented pictures of common objects and were asked to name them (Experiment 1), describe the details about them (Experiment 2) or imagine scenes associated with them (Experiment 3). After intervals of 10 minutes, one day, one week and one month, gist and detailed memories of the pictures were tested and assessed using a remember/know/guess judgement. The results showed that after the naming task, gist and detailed memories were forgotten at a similar rate, but after the description and the imagination tasks, detailed memory was forgotten at a slower rate than gist memory. The forgetting rate of gist memory was the slowest after the naming task, while that of detailed memory was the slowest after the description task. In addition, when three experiments were compared, the naming task enhanced the contributions of recollection and familiarity for gist memory, while the description task enhanced the contribution of familiarity for detailed memory. These results reveal the importance of the encoding task in the forgetting of gist and detailed information, and suggest a possible way to maintain perceptual details of objects at longer intervals.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Julgamento/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 168: 43-51, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358580

RESUMO

Recent research has demonstrated that psychopathic offenders exhibit dynamic cognitive and behavioral deficits on a variety of lab tasks that differentially activate left hemisphere resources. The Left Hemisphere Activation (LHA) hypothesis is a cognitive perspective that aims to address these deficits by conceptualizing psychopathy as a disorder in which behavior and cognitive processing change dynamically as a function of the differential taxation of left hemisphere resources. This study aimed to investigate whether psychopathic traits are associated with electrophysiological anomalies under conditions that place differential demands on left hemisphere language processing systems. We examined in a sample of 43 incarcerated indivdiuals the evocation of the N320, an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by nontarget stimuli during a phonological/phonetic decision task that has been shown to elicit greater activation and cognitive processing within the left hemisphere than the right hemisphere. Findings for a subsample of 18 offenders low in psychopathic traits were generally consistent with previous findings in healthy individuals, suggesting similar electrophysiological activity during phonological processing. However, psychopathic traits impacted the amplitude of the N320. Higher levels of psychopathic traits were associated with reduced left-lateralization in phonological processing as well as enhanced ERP differentiation between pronounceable and nonpronounceable stimuli. These findings provide physiological evidence of a relationship between psychopathic traits and anomalous language processing at the phonological level of word processing.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Processos Mentais
6.
Exp Brain Res ; 239(11): 3205-3220, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436662

RESUMO

Lightness contrast and assimilation are opposite phenomena: in contrast grey targets appear darker when bordering bright rather than dark surfaces; in assimilation grey targets appear lighter when bordering bright rather than dark surfaces. The underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of these phenomena are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between contrast and assimilation, and the timing and levels of perceptual and cognitive processing using combined behavioural and electrophysiological methods. Thirty undergraduate students (23 female, age range 18-48 years) participated in a forced-choice (grey target is lighter/darker than a comparison square) task, using stimuli designed such that the inducers were in two configurations (small and large) and two shades (white and black). The behavioural data (more consistent and faster responses) corroborated previous findings of stronger contrast effects with white inducers and stronger assimilation effects with black inducers. According to the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) results the mean amplitude was larger in conditions with less consistent and slower behavioural responses. Thus, with contrast responses P1 amplitude was larger with black than white inducers, and N1 amplitude was larger to assimilation than contrast when the configuration of the stimulus was held constant. These results suggest contrast may occur as early as P1 (~ 110 ms) and assimilation may occur later in N2 (~ 220 ms), whereas in some conditions, differences in ERPs associated with contrast vs assimilation may happen as early as in N1 (~ 170 m), in occipital and parietal cortical sites.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Processos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ann Sci ; 78(4): 401-417, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402408

RESUMO

This article is devoted to a thirteenth-century Latin text on how to construct, set up, and use a version of the so-called armillary instrument (instrumentum armillarum), which was first described in Ptolemy's Almagest as a tool for measuring ecliptic coordinates. Written in 1264 by Guillaume des Moustiers, bishop of Laon, this hitherto unstudied Tractatus super armillas survives in a single manuscript, where it is accompanied by a copious set of glosses. The text and its glosses jointly offer an unusually detailed account of the instrument's material aspects and methods of assembly. In addition, they reflect a keen awareness of the potential sources of error that may arise in the context of astronomical observation, while making suggestions on how these errors may be minimized or avoided. The Tractatus super armillas accordingly is a valuable source on the observational side of medieval European astronomy, which has often been minimized in modern historical accounts.


Assuntos
Astronomia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Europa (Continente) , Processos Mentais
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-08-24.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54718

RESUMO

Cada año, más de 700.000 personas pierden la vida por suicidio, la cuarta causa principal de mortalidad entre las personas de 15 a 29 años y la tercera entre las niñas de 15 a 19 años. La reducción de la tasa mundial de mortalidad por suicidio en un tercio para el 2030 es un indicador de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de las Naciones Unidas, pero el mundo no está bien encaminado para lograr las metas mundiales y muchas más personas perderán la vida por una causa evitable. La OMS ha elaborado esta guía a fin de apoyar a los países para que ejecuten intervenciones eficaces clave basadas en la evidencia usando como punto de partida el enfoque multisectorial VIVIR LA VIDA, que les permitirá establecer una respuesta nacional integral para prevenir el suicidio.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Depressão , Psicologia , Transtornos Mentais , Processos Mentais , Valor da Vida , Felicidade , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16267, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381123

RESUMO

The overt or covert ability to follow commands in patients with disorders of consciousness is considered a sign of awareness and has recently been defined as cortically mediated behaviour. Despite its clinical relevance, the brain signatures of the perceptual processing supporting command following have been elusive. This multimodal study investigates the temporal spectral pattern of electrical brain activity to identify features that differentiated healthy controls from patients both able and unable to follow commands. We combined evidence from behavioural assessment, functional neuroimaging during mental imagery and high-density electroencephalography collected during auditory prediction, from 21 patients and 10 controls. We used a penalised regression model to identify command following using features from electroencephalography. We identified seven well-defined spatiotemporal signatures in the delta, theta and alpha bands that together contribute to identify DoC subjects with and without the ability to follow command, and further distinguished these groups of patients from controls. A fine-grained analysis of these seven signatures enabled us to determine that increased delta modulation at the frontal sensors was the main feature in command following patients. In contrast, higher frequency theta and alpha modulations differentiated controls from both groups of patients. Our findings highlight a key role of spatiotemporally specific delta modulation in supporting cortically mediated behaviour including the ability to follow command. However, patients able to follow commands nevertheless have marked differences in brain activity in comparison with healthy volunteers.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Cognição , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Consciência/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
10.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(8): 3047-3055, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427903

RESUMO

Viewing static images depicting movement can result in a motion aftereffect: people tend to categorise direction signals as moving in the opposite direction relative to the implied motion in still photographs. This finding could indicate that inferred motion direction can penetrate sensory processing and change perception. Equally possible, however, is that inferred motion changes decision processes, but not perception. Here we test these two possibilities. Since both categorical decisions and subjective confidence are informed by sensory information, confidence can be informative about whether an aftereffect probably results from changes to perceptual or decision processes. We therefore used subjective confidence as an additional measure of the implied motion aftereffect. In Experiment 1 (implied motion), we find support for decision-level changes only, with no change in subjective confidence. In Experiment 2 (real motion), we find equal changes to decisions and confidence. Our results suggest the implied motion aftereffect produces a bias in decision-making, but leaves perceptual processing unchanged.


Assuntos
Pós-Efeito de Figura , Percepção de Movimento , Humanos , Processos Mentais , Movimento (Física) , Movimento
11.
Exp Psychol ; 68(3): 113-129, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435511

RESUMO

Studies of unconscious mental processes often compare a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with a measure of awareness (e.g., a verbal report or forced-choice response) of the critical cue or contingency taken either concurrently or separately. The resulting patterns of bivariate data across participants lend themselves to several analytic approaches for inferring the existence of unconscious mental processes, but it is rare for researchers to consider the underlying generative processes that might cause these patterns. We show that bivariate data are generally insufficient to discriminate single-process models, with a unitary latent process determining both performance and awareness, from dual-process models, comprising distinct latent processes for performance and awareness. Future research attempting to isolate and investigate unconscious processes will need to employ richer types of data and analyses.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Inconsciente Psicológico , Humanos , Processos Mentais
12.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 744-751, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291961

RESUMO

Subjective age discordance (SAD) captures the difference between how old one feels and how old one would ideally like to be. We investigated the presence, strength, and fluctuation of this discordance in daily life as well as its relationship to various indicators of physical and psychological well-being with an 8-day diary study. Participants were 116 older and 107 younger adults who completed daily measures of felt age, ideal age, positive and negative affect, physical symptoms, and stressors. We operationalized SAD as felt age minus ideal age divided by chronological age and compared the utility of this discordance to the more established proportional discrepancy of felt age from chronological age. Daily SAD was present in both age groups, such that individuals idealized younger ages than they felt. This discordance was larger in older than younger adults, although younger adults exhibited more daily fluctuations in SAD. Within-person increases in SAD were associated with lower positive affect, whereas larger SAD at the between-person level was associated with more physical symptoms and stressors. These relationships were over and above the associations of felt and chronological age with the outcomes suggesting the utility of daily SAD for understanding daily physical and psychological well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções , Nível de Saúde , Processos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Diários como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuroimage ; 239: 118313, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175425

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows that theta-band (4-7 Hz) activity in the auditory cortex phase-locks to rhythms of overt speech. Does theta activity also encode the rhythmic dynamics of inner speech? Previous research established that silent reading of direct speech quotes (e.g., Mary said: "This dress is lovely!") elicits more vivid inner speech than indirect speech quotes (e.g., Mary said that the dress was lovely). As we cannot directly track the phase alignment between theta activity and inner speech over time, we used EEG to measure the brain's phase-locked responses to the onset of speech quote reading. We found that direct (vs. indirect) quote reading was associated with increased theta phase synchrony over trials at 250-500 ms post-reading onset, with sources of the evoked activity estimated in the speech processing network. An eye-tracking control experiment confirmed that increased theta phase synchrony in direct quote reading was not driven by eye movement patterns, and more likely reflects synchronous phase resetting at the onset of inner speech. These findings suggest a functional role of theta phase modulation in reading-induced inner speech.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletroculografia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(2): 737-748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) have increased dementia risk, but signs of dementia are difficult to detect in the context of pre-existing deficits inherent to BD. OBJECTIVE: To identify the emergence of indicators of early dementia in BD. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-nine non-demented adults with BD from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) data repository underwent annual neuropsychological assessment up to 14 years (54.0 months average follow-up). Cognitive performance was examined longitudinally with linear mixed-effects models, and yearly differences between incident dementia cases and controls were examined in the six years prior to diagnosis. RESULTS: Forty participants (25.2%) developed dementia over the follow-up period ('incident dementia cases'). Alzheimer's disease was the most common presumed etiology, though this was likely a result of sampling biases within NACC. Incident dementia cases showed declining trajectories in memory, language, and speeded attention two years prior to dementia onset. CONCLUSION: In a sample of BD patients enriched for Alzheimer's type dementia, prodromal dementia in BD can be detected up to two years before onset using the same cognitive tests used in psychiatrically-healthy older adults (i.e., measures of verbal recall and fluency). Cognition in the natural course of BD is generally stable, and impairment or marked decline on measures of verbal episodic memory or semantic retrieval may indicate an early neurodegenerative process.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtorno Bipolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Demência , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/etiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974676

RESUMO

Over the last decade, hypotheses ranging from linguistic symbol processing to embodiment have been formulated to account for the content and mechanisms responsible for the representation of abstract concepts. Results of recent studies have suggested that abstract concepts, just like concrete ones, can benefit from knowledge of real-world situational context, but that they can also be processed based on abstract pictures devoid of such situational features. This paper presents two semantic priming experiments to explore such mechanisms further. The first experiment replicates Kuipers, Jones, and Thierry (2018) in a cross-linguistic setting which shows that abstract concepts can be processed from abstract pictures devoid of tangible features. In the second experiment, we studied extraction mechanisms that come into play when participants are presented with abstract and concrete pictures that provide situational information to illustrate target abstract concepts. We expected this facilitatory effect to be limited to concrete picture primes. Our data analysed with both Bayesian and Frequentist tests showed however that even when presented with tangible situational information, the extraction of features still occurred for abstract pictures. We discuss the implications of this with respect to future avenues for studying the processing of abstract concepts.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Semântica , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Imaginação , Idioma , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Modelos Psicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(2): 689-699, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. The relationship between blood pressure and cognition in a racially and ethnically diverse population remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To study association of blood pressure with cognition cross-sectionally and longitudinally in the elderly. METHODS: Participants are stroke-free individuals from the racially and ethnically diverse Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) (n = 1215). General linear models are constructed to examine blood pressure in relation to cognition cross-sectionally and longitudinally at a five-year follow-up. RESULTS: We found a cross-sectional association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) with word fluency/semantic memory, executive function, and processing speed/visual motor integration (VMI) function. This association was independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). The cross-sectional association of SBP with processing speed/VMI and executive function was attenuated after adjusting anti-hypertension medications in the models. Baseline SBP was associated with the change of processing speed/VMI function after adjusting vascular risk factors, WMHV, and cIMT at a 5-year follow-up. This longitudinal association was not found after adjusting anti-hypertension medications in the models. Further analyses revealed that individuals with category SBP from < 120 mmHg to≥140 mmHg had a linear decline in processing speed/VMI function at a 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: We show that SBP is negatively associated with cognition cross-sectionally and longitudinally in the elderly. Anti-hypertension treatment eliminates the negative association of SBP with processing speed/VMI function longitudinally. Our findings support the treatment of stage 1 systolic hypertension in the elderly.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Hipertensão , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Psychiatr Rehabil J ; 44(3): 266-274, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043406

RESUMO

Objective: This study sought to identify key ingredients of motivational interviewing (MI) associated with taking a step in the direction of competitive employment (CE) for unemployed veterans with serious mental illness (SMI). Method: Data were analyzed from 195 audiotaped MI sessions targeted to employment conducted with 39 veterans with SMI. Sessions were coded and analyzed to identify components of MI practice predictive of taking any step in the direction of CE (e.g., asking for a referral to supported employment or conducting a job search). Predictor variables were (a) counselor MI talk behaviors and adherence to MI technical and relational principles and (b) client intensity and frequency of change talk and sustain talk. Covariates were age, gender, race, duration of unemployment, receipt of disability income, health status, work importance, work confidence, mental health diagnosis, and session number. Generalized estimating equations were used to create multivariate models. Results: After controlling for session number, work importance, work confidence and duration of unemployment, variables significant in the adjusted multivariate model were intensity of client change talk and sustain talk and counselor adherence to MI technical principles of cultivating change talk and softening sustain talk. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Findings suggest that change talk and sustain talk during counseling sessions are associated with taking a step toward employment and that counseling focused on cultivating change talk and softening sustain talk increases the likelihood that unemployed veterans with SMI will take steps toward becoming competitively employed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Veteranos , Emprego , Humanos , Processos Mentais
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(2): 463-484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057081

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease, which seriously affects the behavior, cognition, and memory of patients. Studies have shown that sensory stimulation can effectively improve the cognition and memory of AD patients, and its role in brain plasticity and neural regulation is initially revealed. This paper aims to review the effect of various sensory stimulation and multisensory stimulation for AD, and to explain the possible mechanism, so as to provide some new ideas for further research in this field. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases (from 2000 to October 27, 2020) for literature on the treatment of AD with sensory and multisensory stimulation, including music therapy, aromatherapy, rhythmic (e.g., visual or acoustic) stimulation, light therapy, multisensory stimulation, and virtual reality assisted therapy, then conducted a systematic analysis. Results show these sensory and multisensory stimulations can effectively ameliorate the pathology of AD, arouse memory, and improve cognition and behaviors. What's more, it can cause brain nerve oscillation, enhance brain plasticity, and regulate regional cerebral blood flow. Sensory and multisensory stimulation are very promising therapeutic methods, and they play an important role in the improvement and treatment of AD, but their potential mechanism and stimulation parameters need to be explored and improved.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Doença de Alzheimer , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia
19.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 22(7): 407-422, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050339

RESUMO

In the brain, most synapses are formed on minute protrusions known as dendritic spines. Unlike their artificial intelligence counterparts, spines are not merely tuneable memory elements: they also embody algorithms that implement the brain's ability to learn from experience and cope with new challenges. Importantly, they exhibit structural dynamics that depend on activity, excitatory input and inhibitory input (synaptic plasticity or 'extrinsic' dynamics) and dynamics independent of activity ('intrinsic' dynamics), both of which are subject to neuromodulatory influences and reinforcers such as dopamine. Here we succinctly review extrinsic and intrinsic dynamics, compare these with parallels in machine learning where they exist, describe the importance of intrinsic dynamics for memory management and adaptation, and speculate on how disruption of extrinsic and intrinsic dynamics may give rise to mental disorders. Throughout, we also highlight algorithmic features of spine dynamics that may be relevant to future artificial intelligence developments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo/citologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Dopamina/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Optogenética , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Recompensa , Especificidade da Espécie , Sinapses/fisiologia
20.
Behav Ther ; 52(3): 656-672, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990240

RESUMO

Fidelity monitoring is a critical indicator of psychotherapy quality and is central to successful implementation. A major barrier to fidelity in routine care is the lack of feasible, scalable, and valid measurement strategies. A reliable, low-burden fidelity assessment would promote sustained implementation of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs). The current study examined fidelity measurement for cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using clinical worksheets. External raters evaluated patient worksheets done as a part of treatment, both guided by the therapist and completed independently as homework. Results demonstrated that fidelity ratings from CPT session worksheets were feasible and efficient. Notably, they were strongly correlated with observer ratings of the fidelity of CPT strategies that were present on the worksheets. Agreement among ratings conducted by individuals with a range of experience with CPT was acceptable to high. There was not a main effect of therapist-guided, in-session worksheet ratings on PTSD symptom change. However, patient competence in completing worksheets independently was associated with greater PTSD symptom decline and in-session, therapist-guided worksheet completion was associated with larger symptom decreases among patients with high levels of competence. With further research and refinement, rating of worksheets may be an efficient way to examine therapist and patient skill in key CPT elements, and their interactions, compared to the gold standard of observer ratings of therapy video-recordings. Additional research is needed to determine if worksheets are an accurate and scalable alternative to gold standard observer ratings in settings in which time and resources are limited.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Processos Mentais , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
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