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2.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
3.
Zootaxa ; 4658(2): zootaxa.4658.2.3, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716743

RESUMO

Accurate identification of Meloidogyne spp. is crucial and the first step to apply suitable management strategies to combat these nematode pests. Perineal-pattern morphology of female specimens is one of the most common characteristics used for identification. However, for some species various morphological characteristics are similar which makes it challenging to correctly identify species. In this study different morphological and morphometrical characteristics were used to identify 37 populations of Meloidogyne obtained during 2015 and 2016 from various crop production areas situated across different geographical regions in South Africa. A comprehensive study of females, males and second-stage juveniles (J2) of the 37 Meloidogyne populations isolated was conducted, revealing the presence of Meloidogyne enterolobii, M. hapla, M. incognita and M. javanica. Although three perineal-pattern characteristics proved to be useful in discriminating particularly between M. enterolobii and M. incognita females, most of the morphometric characters used to identify female, male and J2 individuals overlapped among the different species. Substantial intraspecies variation was also evident among different populations. The use of classical identification approaches alone could therefore not clearly distinguish among the 37 Meloidogyne populations studied. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques in combination with morphological and morphometrical analyses is suggested to be more accurate and reliable in discriminating between Meloidogyne spp.


Assuntos
Tylenchoidea , Animais , Produção Agrícola , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , África do Sul
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(669): 1974-1978, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663697

RESUMO

Tobacco has not only negative effects on health; it also has an environmental impact. Each year, tobacco production requires 22 000 billion liters of water, mainly for cultivation. Thousands hectares of forestland are cleared annually, largely for the desiccation of tobacco leaves. Cigarette production is responsible for 84 million tons of CO2 equivalent. This paper reviews the environmental impact of the production and consumption of cigarettes from tobacco growing and manufacturing to consumption and waste production, and compares it with current consumption data.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Humanos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/metabolismo , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11542-11552, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538781

RESUMO

Two field trials were conducted to investigate the influence of fungicide and fertilization management on the potato tubers' metabolome (Solanum tuberosum L.). Thereby, fungicides and conventional fertilizers were varied in terms of quantities, number and date of applications, physical state, and product composition. Following a water-methanol-based extraction, samples were analyzed using an UPLC-IMS-QToF and multivariate data analysis. Fungicide application led to significant changes in the tubers' metabolome. Flavonoids were increasingly expressed as a natural response to impending fungal or viral infections in an untreated group, while the phytoalexin rishitinol was highly abundant in groups with fungicide application. In contrast to fungicides, the application of conventional fertilizers did not cause significant alterations in the tubers' compound composition. Consequently, the impact of fungicide application could be rated as more important than the fertilization-derived influence, which might be because of a gentler adaption to fertilization than to the acute stress of fungicide applications.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Tubérculos/química , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metaboloma , Tubérculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 528-532, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483029

RESUMO

The nematicidal effect of different organic materials was evaluated in order to develop a non-chemical alternative soil treatment for control of the free-living stages of small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes. The selected organic materials were residues from the juice industry of acerola, cashew, grape, guava, papaya and pineapple, as well as castor residue from the biodiesel industry. LC90 results showed that pineapple residue was the most efficient inhibitor of larval development, followed by castor, grape, cashew, acerola, guava and papaya. Castor residue was also a good source of nitrogen and was used in a greenhouse experiment to prevent larval development in contaminated goat faeces that was deposited in pots containing the grasses Brachiaria brizantha (var. Paiaguás) or Megathyrsus maximus x M. infestum (var. Massai). Castor residue caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction (85.04%) in Paiaguás grass contamination (L3.dry mass-1) and a reduction of 17.35% in Massai grass contamination (P > 0.05), with an increase in the biomass production of Massai (251.43%, P < 0.05) and Paiaguás (109.19%, P > 0.05) grasses. This strategy, called Econemat®, with good results in vitro shows to be promising on pasture increasing phytomass production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/parasitologia , Eliminação de Resíduos , Ricinus/química , Animais , Ruminantes
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 631, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520222

RESUMO

Gross primary productivity (GPP) is a vital ecosystem variable that is used as a proxy to study the functional behaviour of a terrestrial ecosystem and its ability to regulate atmospheric CO2 by working as a carbon pool. India, having the potential terrestrial ecosystem dynamics to absorb the atmospheric carbon dioxide to some extent, is one of the least-explored regions in terms of carbon monitoring studies. The current study evaluates the applicability of a newly developed, quantum yield-based, remote sensing data-driven diagnostic model called the Southampton Carbon Flux (SCARF). This model was used to estimate the annual and seasonal variability of the terrestrial GPP over the Indian region with a spatial resolution of 1 km during 2008. This modified version of the conventional production efficiency model successfully predicted GPP using meteorological variables (PAR, air temperature and dew point temperature), the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation and quantum yield of C3 and C4 plants as the key input parameters. The annual GPP values were in the range from 0 to 4147.55 g C m-2 year-1, with a mean value of 1507.32 g C m-2 year-1. The maximum and minimum GPP were during the summer monsoon and pre-monsoon, respectively. The seasonal and annual distributions of GPP over the study area obtained using the SCARF model, and the MODIS GPP product (MOD17A2H) were similar. However, MODIS was found to underestimate the GPP in all regions and an overestimation in eastern Himalaya region. The study reveals that environmental scalars, specifically water stress, are the pivotal controlling variables responsible for the variation of GPP in India. The estimates of the GPP in different regions of the study area were made using SCARF, and an eddy covariance technique was similar. The SCARF model can be used to estimate GPP on a global scale. SCARF appears to be a better model in terms of the simplicity of the algorithm, performance and resolution. Thus, it may give higher accuracy in carbon monitoring studies.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Índia , Plantas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(19): 11302-11312, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479245

RESUMO

Harvested biomass is linked to final consumption by networks of processes and actors that convert and distribute food and nonfood goods. Achieving a sustainable resource metabolism of the economy is an overarching challenge which manifests itself in a number of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Modeling the physical dimensions of biomass conversion and distribution networks is essential to understanding the characteristics, drivers, and dynamics of the socio-economic biomass metabolism. In this paper, we present the Food and Agriculture Biomass Input-Output model (FABIO), a set of multiregional supply, use and input-output tables in physical units, that document the complex flows of agricultural and food products in the global economy. The model assembles FAOSTAT statistics reporting crop production, trade, and utilization in physical units, supplemented by data on technical and metabolic conversion efficiencies, into a consistent, balanced, input-output framework. FABIO covers 191 countries and 130 agriculture, food and forestry products from 1986 to 2013. The physical supply use tables offered by FABIO provide a comprehensive, transparent, and flexible structure for organizing data representing flows of materials within metabolic networks. They allow tracing of biomass flows and embodied environmental pressures along global supply chains at an unprecedented level of product and country detail and can help to answer a range of questions regarding environment, agriculture, and trade. Here we apply FABIO to the case of cropland footprints and show the evolution of consumption-based cropland demand in China, the E.U., and the U.S.A. for plant-based and livestock-based food and nonfood products.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Alimentos , Animais , Biomassa , China , Produção Agrícola , Abastecimento de Alimentos
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10823-10831, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487159

RESUMO

The development of technology to improve the mineralization of organic fertilizer and to enhance crop production is essential to achieve the transition from traditional farming to eco-friendly organic farming. Nanobubble oxygation (NB) was employed for comparison with traditional pump-aerated oxygation (AW) and a control group through both soil incubation and soil column experiments. Plant-available N and P contents in the NB treatment group were higher than those in the AW and control groups. Enzymatic activities including ß-1,4-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phosphatase, α-1,4-glucosidase, ß-1,4-xylosidase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase were significantly higher in both oxygation groups compared with the control. The soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity were also significantly improved due to the oxygation treatment. Additionally, the microbial metabolic functions were shifted in both oxygation treatments compared with the control group. The final tomato yield increase from the NB treatment group was 23%, and that from the AW treatment was 17%, compared with the control.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Oxigênio/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10813-10822, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490069

RESUMO

Traditional seed pretreatment methods cause secondary pollution for the application of various chemicals. This study investigated the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cold plasma on seedling growth. Effects of plasma-activated tap water (PATW) and plasma-activated seeds (PAS) were compared for germination rates, seedling height, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Results show that compared with controls these growth parameters were all increased by more than 50%. The yields and contributions of hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were quantified. Hydrogen peroxide and nitrate have an important role in seedling growth. By etching, the seed epidermis free radicals can reduce the apparent contact angle and increase the water absorption of the seeds. In addition to the low cost of PATW and PAS compared with commercial fertilizers, DBD does not involve any chemical addition. Thus, both PATW and PAS can be an alternative for improvement of agricultural production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a serious causal factor of reduced crop yields than any other abiotic stresses. As one of the most widely distributed crops, maize plants frequently suffer from drought stress, which causes great losses in the final kernel yield. Drought stress response in plants showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific characteristics. RESULTS: In this study, the ears at the V9 stage, kernels and ear leaf at the 5DAP (days after pollination) stage of maize were used for morphological, physiological and comparative transcriptomics analysis to understand the different features of "sink" or "source" organs and the effects on kernel yield under drought stress conditions. The ABA-, NAC-mediate signaling pathway, osmotic protective substance synthesis and protein folding response were identified as common drought stress response in the three organs. Tissue-specific drought stress responses and the regulators were identified, they were highly correlated with growth, physiological adaptation and yield loss under drought stress. For ears, drought stress inhibited ear elongation, led to the abnormal differentiation of the paired spikelet, and auxin signaling involved in the regulation of cell division and growth and primordium development changes. In the kernels, reduced kernel size caused by drought stress was observed, and the obvious differences of auxin, BR and cytokine signaling transduction appeared, which indicated the modification in carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation and growth retardation. For the ear leaf, dramatically and synergistically reduced the expression of photosynthesis genes were observed when suffered from drought stress, the ABA- and NAC- mediate signaling pathway played important roles in the regulation of photosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic changes caused by drought were highly correlated with developmental and physiological adaptation, which was closely related to the final yield of maize, and a sketch of tissue- and developmental stage-specific responses to drought stress in maize was drafted.


Assuntos
Zea mays/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola , Desidratação , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6931-6936, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on plants are well known and have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to the production of large quantities of secondary metabolites, which are very beneficial for human health. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of exploiting UV-B radiation to induce metabolic changes in fruit, vegetables, and herbs. The role of UV-B rays in inducing secondary plant metabolites is enhanced by new plastic films, which, as a result of their optical properties, permit the necessary dosage of UV-B to be transmitted into the greenhouse to stimulate such metabolites without altering the harvest. RESULTS: The main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate that, by using a greenhouse plastic film with appropriate transmittance of UV-B for rocket salad cultivation, it is possible to increase the nutraceutical elements in comparison with the same species grown in absence of such radiation. Tests compared nutritional elements extracted from rocket salad grown under greenhouses covered with several plastic films differing in UV-B transmittance. We found that rocket salad grown under plastic with 27% UV-B transmittance exhibited very high luteolin and quercetin content in comparison with rocket salad cultivated under film blocking UV-B radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental results confirm the possibility of exploiting UV-B radiation in the correct amounts by appropriate greenhouse plastic covers, to produce natural 'medicines' using the plants and to satisfy increasing consumer demand for natural health-promoting food products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Luteolina/análise , Luteolina/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Plásticos/análise , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109403, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276889

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) paddy is the hotspot of mercury (Hg) methylation. Given distinct influences of rotation systems on the physicochemical properties of paddy soils, we hypothesized different rotation systems in rice paddies inducing a large difference in Hg methylation. Here, we investigated Hg species distribution, dissolved organic matter (DOM) features, and Hg methylation in five rotation systems (Other farmland newly reclaim into paddy field, i.e., NR-R; Drain the water in winter, i.e., DW-R; Flooding in winter, i.e., FW-R; Rape-Rice rotation, i.e., Ra-R; Wheat-Rice rotation, i.e., Wh-R) of paddy fields to identify such hypothesis. Results shown that FW-R had the strongest Hg methylation, followed by Ra-R and Wh-R, then DW-R, and finally NR-R. We further found that much higher soil organic matter (SOM) and organo-chelated Hg (Hg-o) from straw residues and root exudates were the main cause for the greater Hg methylation in FW-R, Ra-R and Wh-R. This was because the protein-like fraction of SOM facilitated the net production of methyl Hg (MeHg), meanwhile the humin-like fraction had a strong affinity to MeHg in paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that paddy soil under DW-R was the optimum pattern in order to reduce the occurrence of Hg methylation. However, paddy soils under Ra-R and Wh-R were the recommendable patterns if the productivity of paddy fields was considered.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fazendas , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Metilação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Planta ; 250(3): 971-977, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256257

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In spite of the limited investment in orphan crops, access to new technologies such as bioinformatics and low-cost genotyping opens new doors to modernise their breeding effectively. Innovation in plant breeding is imperative to meet the world's growing demand for staple food and feed crops, and orphan crops can play a significant role in increasing productivity and quality, especially in developing countries. The short breeding history of most orphan crops implies that genetic gain should be achievable through easy-to-implement approaches such as forward breeding for simple traits or introgression of elite alleles at key target trait loci. However, limited financial support and access to sufficient, relevant and reliable phenotypic data continue to pose major challenges in terms of resources and capabilities. Digitalisation of orphan-crop breeding programmes can help not only to improve data quality and management, but also to mitigate data scarcity by allowing data to be accumulated and analysed over time and across teams. Bioinformatics tools and access to technologies such as molecular markers, some of them provided as services via specific platforms, allow breeders to implement modern strategies to improve breeding efficiency. In orphan crops, more marker-trait associations relevant to breeding germplasm are generally needed, but implementing digitalization, marker-based quality control or simple trait screening and introgression will help modernising breeding. Finally, the development of local capacities-of both people and infrastructure-remains a necessity to ensure the sustainable adoption of modern breeding approaches.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética
16.
Planta ; 250(3): 803-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267230

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Vigna , Culinária/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/genética , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Planta ; 250(3): 769-781, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270598

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Despite the relatively little attention given to tef, the value chain is quickly transforming and is expected to further do so in the near future. Tef is called an "orphan" crop in Ethiopia as it receives relatively little attention from the Ethiopian government and from international donors. Given the low yields of tef compared to other crops, it is often viewed as a low-priority crop and relatively little is known about the value chain of tef. We fill some of this knowledge gap in this paper. We illustrate tef's importance in Ethiopia's food systems and the rapid changes upstream, midstream, and downstream in its value chain. We show that tef production and productivity is rapidly increasing and that tef markets are improving over time. More specifically, using a growth decomposition analysis, we find that while the expansion of land and labor use have been important sources of growth in tef production, the relative contributions of modern input use and agricultural extension have been increasing over time. We also show that tef has greater economic potential, with comparatively more of it consumed by the better-off segments of the population, indicating that its importance is likely to grow over time as income grows in the country. Using reasonable assumptions on income growth, urbanization, and commercialization, we estimate that national tef consumption and marketed output will increase by about 250 and 300%, respectively, over a 20-year period.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Eragrostis , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
18.
Planta ; 250(3): 1005-1010, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290030

RESUMO

In her 1929 essay A Room of One's Own, Virginia Wolf famously wrote, "One cannot think well, love well, sleep well, if one has not dined well." While this popular quote is perhaps not the most inspiring, it is an elegant reminder that food and the cultural practices surrounding food are paramount for our wellbeing. However, in our quest to feed a growing global population, we have become focused on increasing the production of a few staple crops and overlooked hundreds or thousands of locally and regionally important crops that may represent the future of agriculture. The growing interest in identifying and developing promising new crops and novel food sources prompted the 1st Cologne Conference on Food for Future, which took place between the 5 and 7th of September 2018 at the Rautenstrauch-Joest museum in Cologne, Germany. It offered a unique platform for researchers, journalists, politicians, and entrepreneurs to present and discuss their views, visions, and concerns on the topics of Food Security. This interdisciplinary meeting acted as a stage to cover diverse aspects of crop science, food research, and food production in the context of global food and nutrition security. Three sessions accommodated scientific contributions on the topics of "Orphan Crops", "Functional food", and "Innovative food sources and production systems", and two public events (a public lecture and a plenary discussion) engaged the citizens with informative discussions on relevant and mediatic topics. With delegates from Africa, Europe, and the United States of America, the conference aimed at building bridges between different communities through scientific exchange.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Congressos como Assunto , Produção Agrícola , Alimentos , Previsões
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 520, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359147

RESUMO

This study assesses the climate boundary shifts from the historical time to near/mid future by using a slightly modified Köppen-Geiger (KG) classification scheme and presents comprehensive pictures of historical (1960-1990) and projected near/mid future (1950s: 2040-2060/1970s: 2060-2080) climate classes across Nepal. Ensembles of three selected general circulation models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used for projected future analysis. During the 1950s, annual average temperature is expected to increase by 2.5 °C under RCP 8.5. Similarly, during the 1970s, it is even anticipated to rise by 3.6 °C under RCP 8.5. The rate of temperature rise is higher in the non-monsoon period than in monsoon period. During the 1970s, annual precipitation is projected to increase by 8.1% under RCP 8.5. Even though the precipitation is anticipated to increase in the future in annual scale, winter seasons are estimated to be drier by more than 15%. This study shows significant increments of tropical (Am and Aw) and arid (BSk) climate types and reductions of temperate (Cwa and Cwb) and polar (ET and EF). Noticeably, the reduction of the areal coverage of polar frost (EF) is considerably high. In general, about 50% of the country's area is covered by the temperate climate (Cwa and Cwb) in baseline scenario and it is expected to reduce to 45% under RCP 4.5 and 42.5% under RCP 8.5 during the 1950s, and 42% under RCP 4.5 and 39% under RCP 8.5 during the 1970s. Importantly, the degree of climate boundary shifts is quite higher under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5, and likewise, the degree is higher during the 1970s than the 1950s. We believe this study to facilitate the identification of regions in which impacts of climate change are notable for crop production, soil management, and disaster risk reduction, requiring a more detailed assessment of adaptation measures. The assessment of climate boundary shifting can serve as valuable information for stakeholders of many disciplines like water, climate, transport, energy, environment, disaster, development, agriculture, and tourism.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Agricultura/tendências , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Nepal , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Temperatura Ambiente
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