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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11542-11552, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538781

RESUMO

Two field trials were conducted to investigate the influence of fungicide and fertilization management on the potato tubers' metabolome (Solanum tuberosum L.). Thereby, fungicides and conventional fertilizers were varied in terms of quantities, number and date of applications, physical state, and product composition. Following a water-methanol-based extraction, samples were analyzed using an UPLC-IMS-QToF and multivariate data analysis. Fungicide application led to significant changes in the tubers' metabolome. Flavonoids were increasingly expressed as a natural response to impending fungal or viral infections in an untreated group, while the phytoalexin rishitinol was highly abundant in groups with fungicide application. In contrast to fungicides, the application of conventional fertilizers did not cause significant alterations in the tubers' compound composition. Consequently, the impact of fungicide application could be rated as more important than the fertilization-derived influence, which might be because of a gentler adaption to fertilization than to the acute stress of fungicide applications.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Tubérculos/química , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metaboloma , Tubérculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10813-10822, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490069

RESUMO

Traditional seed pretreatment methods cause secondary pollution for the application of various chemicals. This study investigated the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cold plasma on seedling growth. Effects of plasma-activated tap water (PATW) and plasma-activated seeds (PAS) were compared for germination rates, seedling height, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Results show that compared with controls these growth parameters were all increased by more than 50%. The yields and contributions of hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were quantified. Hydrogen peroxide and nitrate have an important role in seedling growth. By etching, the seed epidermis free radicals can reduce the apparent contact angle and increase the water absorption of the seeds. In addition to the low cost of PATW and PAS compared with commercial fertilizers, DBD does not involve any chemical addition. Thus, both PATW and PAS can be an alternative for improvement of agricultural production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109403, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276889

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) paddy is the hotspot of mercury (Hg) methylation. Given distinct influences of rotation systems on the physicochemical properties of paddy soils, we hypothesized different rotation systems in rice paddies inducing a large difference in Hg methylation. Here, we investigated Hg species distribution, dissolved organic matter (DOM) features, and Hg methylation in five rotation systems (Other farmland newly reclaim into paddy field, i.e., NR-R; Drain the water in winter, i.e., DW-R; Flooding in winter, i.e., FW-R; Rape-Rice rotation, i.e., Ra-R; Wheat-Rice rotation, i.e., Wh-R) of paddy fields to identify such hypothesis. Results shown that FW-R had the strongest Hg methylation, followed by Ra-R and Wh-R, then DW-R, and finally NR-R. We further found that much higher soil organic matter (SOM) and organo-chelated Hg (Hg-o) from straw residues and root exudates were the main cause for the greater Hg methylation in FW-R, Ra-R and Wh-R. This was because the protein-like fraction of SOM facilitated the net production of methyl Hg (MeHg), meanwhile the humin-like fraction had a strong affinity to MeHg in paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that paddy soil under DW-R was the optimum pattern in order to reduce the occurrence of Hg methylation. However, paddy soils under Ra-R and Wh-R were the recommendable patterns if the productivity of paddy fields was considered.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fazendas , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Metilação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109451, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352213

RESUMO

Potassium (K) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. However, in China, available K is relatively low in the soil, and with the extensive use of chemical fertilizer, K use efficiency is constantly reducing, and consequently increasing the potential risk of environmental pollution and economic loss. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the negative impact of over-fertilization on the environment to obtain optimal crop yield. Biochar as a soil amendment has been applied to improve soil fertility and increase crop yield. However, the effects of successive biochar application on cotton yield, agronomy efficiencies and potash fertilizer reduction are not well documented. Our results of a pot experiment showed that the application of 1% biochar to soil under different K levels significantly improved dry mass accumulation and K content of different plant parts, and increased the number of buds, bolls and effective branches of cotton. Particularly, plants treated with 150 mg/kg K2O and 1% biochar had the highest growth parameters. The most important characteristics including the harvest index, K fertilizer contribution index, partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency and apparent recovery efficiency of K under C1 (1% biochar) were generally greater than those under C0 (without biochar). The 75 mg/kg K2O application was optimal to produce the highest yield with 1% biochar, demonstrating that biochar can increase cotton yield and therefore, reduces chemical K fertilizer application and alleviates agricultural environment risks of chemical fertilizer.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potássio/análise , Solo/química , China , Minerais
6.
Planta ; 250(3): 971-977, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256257

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In spite of the limited investment in orphan crops, access to new technologies such as bioinformatics and low-cost genotyping opens new doors to modernise their breeding effectively. Innovation in plant breeding is imperative to meet the world's growing demand for staple food and feed crops, and orphan crops can play a significant role in increasing productivity and quality, especially in developing countries. The short breeding history of most orphan crops implies that genetic gain should be achievable through easy-to-implement approaches such as forward breeding for simple traits or introgression of elite alleles at key target trait loci. However, limited financial support and access to sufficient, relevant and reliable phenotypic data continue to pose major challenges in terms of resources and capabilities. Digitalisation of orphan-crop breeding programmes can help not only to improve data quality and management, but also to mitigate data scarcity by allowing data to be accumulated and analysed over time and across teams. Bioinformatics tools and access to technologies such as molecular markers, some of them provided as services via specific platforms, allow breeders to implement modern strategies to improve breeding efficiency. In orphan crops, more marker-trait associations relevant to breeding germplasm are generally needed, but implementing digitalization, marker-based quality control or simple trait screening and introgression will help modernising breeding. Finally, the development of local capacities-of both people and infrastructure-remains a necessity to ensure the sustainable adoption of modern breeding approaches.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética
7.
Planta ; 250(3): 803-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267230

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Vigna , Culinária/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/genética , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 172-182, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174034

RESUMO

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a cool season crop is severely affected by heat stress, predicted to increase due to warming climates. Research for identifying heat tolerance markers for potential chickpea genotype selection is imperative. The study assessed the response of four chickpea genotypes to a natural temperature gradient in the field using chlorophyll fluorescence, non-structural carbohydrate, chlorophyll concentrations, gas exchange and grain yield. Field experiments were carried out in two winter seasons at three locations with known differences in temperature in NE South Africa. Results showed two genotypes were tolerant to heat stress with an Fv/Fm of 0.83-0.85 at the warmer site, while the two sensitive genotypes showed lower Fv/Fm of 0.78-0.80. Both dark-adapted Fv/Fm and Fq'/Fm' (where Fq' = Fm' -F) measured at comparable high light levels correlated positively with grain yield. The two tolerant genotypes also showed higher photosynthetic rates, starch, sucrose and grain yield than the sensitive genotypes at the warmer site. However, these parameters were consistently higher at the cooler sites than at the warmer. These results were further validated by a climate chamber experiment, where higher Fv/Fm decline in the sensitive compared to tolerant genotypes was observed when they were exposed to short-term heat treatments of 30/25 °C and 35/30 °C. Tolerant genotypes had higher Fv/Fm (0.78-0.81) and grain yield plant-1(1.12-2.37g) compared to sensitive genotypes (0.74-0.75) and (0.32-0.89g plant-1) respectively in the 35/30 °C. It is concluded that chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf carbohydrates are suitable tools for selection of heat tolerant chickpea genotypes under field conditions, while the coolest site showed favourable conditions for chickpea production.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Clorofila/química , Cicer/genética , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fluorescência , Genótipo , Aclimatação , África ao Sul do Saara , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Cicer/química , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 174-188, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174115

RESUMO

Crop N use efficiency (NUE) and P use efficiency (PUE) might be expected to exhibit different patterns across agricultural regions due to their very different environmental dynamics and management strategies. Here, following our previous work on regional patterns of NUE, we review patterns of PUE and related variables, including major inputs of P to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Unlike N, P inputs to cropland only occur in the forms of P fertilizer, which has generally changed little over time relative to N fertilizer, and manure P, which has increased. Expressed as percentages of total P inputs, they necessarily have opposite impacts on PUE because of the stronger relationship of crop production to fertilizer compared to manure produced in a region. Across the US, PUE trends have varied significantly, increasing in some regions, in contrast to NUE which has generally remained constant or declined on decadal time scales. As with N, the Heartland region dominates national patterns due to the magnitude of crop production, showing a significant relationship with fertilizer P but none with manure P on a cropland area basis. Most other regions show similar responses, but the Northern Crescent, Eastern Uplands and Southern Seaboard regions shows a negative response to fertilizer on the same basis. The regional response of production to P inputs on a cropland area basis differs from that on a total area basis, suggesting that the type of scaling used is critical under changing cropland area. In the US, manure is still treated largely as a waste to be managed rather than a nutrient resource. Differences between P and N need to be considered in the context of management of environmental quality and food security.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Fósforo/análise , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fazendas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estados Unidos
11.
Mycorrhiza ; 29(4): 325-339, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203456

RESUMO

Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as plant growth promoters has mostly been conducted using single-species inoculum. In this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of different native AMF species induced an improvement of plant growth in an ultramafic soil. We analyzed the effects of six species of AMF from a New Caledonian ultramafic soil on plant growth and nutrition, using mono-inoculations and mixtures comprising different numbers of AMF species, in a greenhouse experiment. The endemic Metrosideros laurifolia was used as a host plant. Our results suggest that, when the plant faced multiple abiotic stress factors (nutrient deficiencies and high concentrations of different heavy metals), co-inoculation of AMF belonging to different families was more efficient than mono-inoculation in improving biomass, mineral nutrition, Ca/Mg ratio, and tolerance to heavy metals of plants in ultramafic soil. This performance suggested functional complementarity between distantly related AMF. Our findings will have important implications for restoration ecology and mycorrhizal biotechnology applied to ultramafic soils.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Myrtaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glomeromycota/classificação , Micorrizas/classificação , Myrtaceae/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
12.
Planta ; 250(3): 677-694, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190115

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Due to significant contributions of orphan crops in the economy of the developing world, scientific studies need to be promoted on these little researched but vital crops of smallholder farmers and consumers. Food security is the main challenge in the developing world, particularly in the least developed countries. Orphan crops play a vital role in the food security and livelihood of resource-poor farmers and consumers in these countries. Like major crops, there are members of all food types-cereals, legumes, vegetables and root and tuber crops, that are considered to be orphan crops. Despite their huge importance for present and future agriculture, orphan crops have generally received little attention by the global scientific community. Due to this, they produce inferior yields in terms of both quantity and quality. The major bottlenecks affecting the productivity of these crops are little or no selection of improved genetic traits, extreme environmental conditions and unfavorable policy. However, some orphan crops have recently received the attention of the global and national scientific community where advanced research and development initiatives have been launched. These initiatives which implement a variety of genetic and genomic tools targeted major constraints affecting productivity and/or nutritional quality of orphan crops. In this paper, some of these initiatives are briefly described. Here, I provide key suggestions to relevant stakeholders regarding improvement of orphan crops. Concerted efforts are urgently needed to advance the research and development of both the major and orphan crops so that food security will be achieved and ultimately the livelihood of the population will be improved.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos
13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(6): 532-540, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168071

RESUMO

Various nano-enabled strategies are proposed to improve crop production and meet the growing global demands for food, feed and fuel while practising sustainable agriculture. After providing a brief overview of the challenges faced in the sector of crop nutrition and protection, this Review presents the possible applications of nanotechnology in this area. We also consider performance data from patents and unpublished sources so as to define the scope of what can be realistically achieved. In addition to being an industry with a narrow profit margin, agricultural businesses have inherent constraints that must be carefully considered and that include existing (or future) regulations, as well as public perception and acceptance. Directions are also identified to guide future research and establish objectives that promote the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology in the agri-business sector.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produção Agrícola , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Nanotecnologia , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Medição de Risco
14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(6): 517-522, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168073

RESUMO

Current agricultural practices, developed during the green revolution, are becoming unsustainable, especially in the face of climate change and growing populations. Nanotechnology will be an important driver for the impending agri-tech revolution that promises a more sustainable, efficient and resilient agricultural system, while promoting food security. Here, we present the most promising new opportunities and approaches for the application of nanotechnology to improve the use efficiency of necessary inputs (light, water, soil) for crop agriculture, and for better managing biotic and abiotic stress. Potential development and implementation barriers are discussed, emphasizing the need for a systems approach to designing proposed nanotechnologies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Nanotecnologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotecnologia/tendências
15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(6): 541-553, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168083

RESUMO

Nanobiotechnology has the potential to enable smart plant sensors that communicate with and actuate electronic devices for improving plant productivity, optimize and automate water and agrochemical allocation, and enable high-throughput plant chemical phenotyping. Reducing crop loss due to environmental and pathogen-related stresses, improving resource use efficiency and selecting optimal plant traits are major challenges in plant agriculture industries worldwide. New technologies are required to accurately monitor, in real time and with high spatial and temporal resolution, plant physiological and developmental responses to their microenvironment. Nanomaterials are allowing the translation of plant chemical signals into digital information that can be monitored by standoff electronic devices. Herein, we discuss the design and interfacing of smart nanobiotechnology-based sensors that report plant signalling molecules associated with health status to agricultural and phenotyping devices via optical, wireless or electrical signals. We describe how nanomaterial-mediated delivery of genetically encoded sensors can act as tools for research and development of smart plant sensors. We assess performance parameters of smart nanobiotechnology-based sensors in plants (for example, resolution, sensitivity, accuracy and durability) including in vivo optical nanosensors and wearable nanoelectronic sensors. To conclude, we present an integrated and prospective vision on how nanotechnology could enable smart plant sensors that communicate with and actuate electronic devices for monitoring and optimizing individual plant productivity and resource use.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Biotecnologia/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5842-5851, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current need to produce food for a growing population, from diminishing natural resources, such as water and energy, and with minimum environmental degradation, demands the optimization of production. We compare the economic feasibility of tomato production in an open system with a perlite substrate, a closed system with the nutrient film technique (NFT), and a hydroponic crop (deep flow technique, DFT) using three levels of salinity that are found within the normal range for irrigation water quality in southeastern Spain. RESULTS: Production with DFT resulted in an increase in the cost of phytosanitary treatments and the cost of maintenance. Production with perlite resulted in an increase in the cost of irrigation water and fertilization, and the use of NFT resulted in an increase in energy costs. The point of price equilibrium was exceeded in the three soilless systems when using low salinity water, and in perlite, with intermediate salinity water. CONCLUSION: Profitability was reduced in the following order: perlite > NFT > DFT. There were positive results when using irrigation water with low salinity, and in the case of perlite, with intermediate salinity. In every case, salinity reduced the profitability of the operation, and this was greater when NFT was employed. The analysis of these soilless systems should be continued to determine the possibility of reducing cultivation costs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/economia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Salinas/economia , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Águas Salinas/análise , Águas Salinas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5624-5630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of reclaimed dredged sediments as growing media may offer a profitable alternative to their disposal as a waste and at the same time meets the need of peat-substitute substrates in horticulture. When sediments are reused to cultivate food crops, issues related to human health rise due to potential accumulation of contaminants in the product. This pilot study aimed at verifying the suitability of a reclaimed dredged port sediment, used pure or mixed with peat, as a growing medium for lettuce cultivation. RESULTS: The pure sediment caused a reduction in crop yield, probably due to its unsuitable physical properties, whereas the mixture sediment-peat and pure peat resulted in the same yield. Although the sediment contained potentially phytotoxic heavy metals and some organic pollutants, no symptoms of plant toxicity were noted. Besides, no organic contaminants were detected in lettuce heads, and heavy metals amounts were not hazardous for consumers. Conversely, plants grown in the sediment were particularly rich in minerals like Ca, Mg and Fe, and showed higher concentrations of organic acids and antioxidants. CONCLUSION: The use of the sediment as a growing medium for lettuce was shown to be safe for both inorganic and organic contaminants. Nevertheless, considering crop yield results, the mixture of the sediment with other materials is recommended in order to produce a substrate with more suitable physicochemical properties for vegetable cultivation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19241-19249, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065989

RESUMO

Nitrate excess is common in greenhouse soils, imposing environmental risks and degrading vegetable quality. In this study, the effectiveness of adding sucrose as available carbon through irrigation to cut nitrate excess in lettuce-planted soil was investigated under impacts of soil texture and irrigation type. In the pot experiment using two loam soils of same origin with different clay to sand ratios (50.2% and 39.8%) and nitrate excess (116.1 and 417.7 mg/kg N), three-time sucrose addition through flood irrigation was more effective in lowering net formation of nitrate-based inorganic N and increasing lettuce yield in the soil with the higher clay to sand ratio, and sucrose addition at 150-450 mg/kg reduced nitrate accumulation and leaching, and nitrate content of lettuce at harvest by 62.5-89.6%, 19.3-36.1%, and 11.4-76.0%, respectively. In the micro-plot field experiment with two-time sucrose addition at 0.6-1.2 g/L through furrow irrigation (42 mm) into two other soils of same origin with different clay to sand ratios (56.9%, 48.4%), nitrate accumulation at 0-30-cm depth at the prone-leaching furrow location at harvest decreased by 30.9-36.0% under the higher clay to sand ratio but increased by about 35% under the lower clay to sand ratio. The nitrate content and yield of ridge-planted lettuce was less affected in either soil. Hence, carbon addition rate, irrigation type, and clay to sand ratio all affected the effect of available carbon addition on nitrate accumulation in vegetable-planted soil, and their joint impacts need better quantification for cutting nitrate excess in soil and improving vegetable quality and even yield.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Alface/química , Nitratos/análise , Solo/química , Sacarose/análise , Biomassa , Alface/normas
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19250-19260, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069652

RESUMO

Production capacity evaluation and environmental sustainability assessment allow defining both the most appropriate fertilization strategies and the agricultural systems management. The aims of this study were to investigate the following, in a cauliflower-lettuce rotation: (i) agricultural system agronomic performance, (ii) fertilization treatments environmental sustainability through the energy inputs/outputs analysis, and (iii) carbon footprint through the GHG emissions and carbon sequestration analyses. Three fertilization strategies were compared: (i) CM, compost from municipal solid waste; ii) MIN, mineral fertilizers; iii) MIX, the CM compost plus a mineral fertilizer. Cauliflower and lettuce responses to fertilization were influenced by climatic conditions from year to year, and among the fertilizer treatments, the CM demonstrated a better resilience to the extreme weather events. It also showed the highest renewable energy (44.3%), suggesting that the substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic ones may help to reduce the non-renewable energy depletion, thus promoting the sustainability in horticultural systems. The CM was the most efficient treatment, since the energy stocked as C in the soil (145,889 MJ ha-1) and the net energy and the energy efficiency for cauliflower and lettuce (113,106 MJ ha-1 and 3.1, respectively) were the highest. Our results suggest that the application of the tested sustainable practices makes the farm a "sink" for the atmospheric CO2.


Assuntos
Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono/análise , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Pegada de Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , Região do Mediterrâneo
20.
Plant Sci ; 283: 278-289, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128698

RESUMO

Boreal soils tend to be podzols characterized by acidic pH, which can further limit forage crop growth and production. It is unclear, how forage soybeans adopt to produce forage with high nutritional quality when cultivated on podzols in boreal climate. To answer this question, we cultivated forage soybeans on agricultural podzols at 3 farm sites with varied soil pH (6.8, 6.0 or 5.1), and assessed the root membrane lipidome remodeling response to such climatic conditions. Contrary to our expectations, significantly lower biomass was observed at pH 6.8 compared to 6.0 and 5.1. However, surprisingly the plants produced similar forage quality at 6.8 and 5.1 pH. Three major lipid classes including phospholipids, glycolipids and phytosterols were observed in roots irrespective of soil pH. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidic acid (PA), and acylated glucosyl betasitosterol ester (AGlcSiE) accounted for 95% of the root lipidome, and expressed significant changes in response to cultivation across the three soil pH levels. These lipids were also observed to have strong correlations with forage production, and forage quality. Therefore, soybean genotypes with higher abilities to remodel PC, PE, PA, and AGlcSiE could be better suited for producing higher quality forage in acid podzolic soils characteristics of boreal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ração Animal , Clima , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Terra Nova e Labrador , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Soja/metabolismo
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