Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.158
Filtrar
1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 112-124, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551505

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the economic cost of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in 31 provincial-level administrative regions and in total, in China. Methods: We used data from government reports, clinical guidelines and other publications to estimate the main cost components of COVID-19 during 1 January-31 March 2020. These components were: identification and diagnosis of close contacts; suspected cases and confirmed cases of COVID-19; treatment of COVID-19 cases; compulsory quarantine of close contacts and suspected cases; and productivity losses for all affected residents. Primary outcomes were total health-care and societal costs. Findings: The total estimated health-care and societal costs associated with COVID-19 were 4.26 billion Chinese yuan (¥; 0.62 billion United States dollars, US$) and ¥ 2646.70 billion (US$ 383.02 billion), respectively. Inpatient care accounted for 44.2% (¥ 0.95 billion/¥ 2.15 billion) of routine health-care costs followed by medicines, accounting for 32.5% (¥ 0.70 billion/¥ 2.15 billion). Productivity losses accounted for 99.8% (¥ 2641.61 billion/¥ 2646.70 billion) of societal costs, which were mostly attributable to the effect of movement-restriction policies on people who did not have COVID-19. Societal costs were most sensitive to salary costs and number of working days lost due to movement-restriction policies. Hubei province had the highest health-care cost while Guangdong province had the highest societal cost. Conclusion: Our results highlight the high economic burden of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. The control measures to prevent the spread of disease resulted in substantial costs from productivity losses amounting to 2.7% (US$ 382.29 billion/US$ 14.14 trillion) of China's annual gross domestic product.


Assuntos
/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias/economia , China , Eficiência , Produto Interno Bruto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos
3.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(1): 12-16, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths per million people differ widely across countries. Often, the causal effects of interventions taken by authorities are unjustifiably concluded based on the comparison of pure mortalities in countries where interventions consisting different strategies have been taken. Moreover, the possible effects of other factors are only rarely considered. METHODS: We used data from open databases (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, World Bank Open Data, The BCG World Atlas) and publications to develop a model that could largely explain the differences in cumulative mortality between countries using non-interventional (mostly socio-demographic) factors. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations with the logarithmic COVID-19 mortality were found with the following: proportion of people aged 80 years and above, population density, proportion of urban population, gross domestic product, number of hospital beds per population, average temperature in March and incidence of tuberculosis. The final model could explain 67% of the variability. This finding could also be interpreted as follows: less than a third of the variability in logarithmic mortality differences could be modified by diverse non-pharmaceutical interventions ranging from case isolation to comprehensive measures, constituting case isolation, social distancing of the entire population and closure of schools and borders. CONCLUSIONS: In particular countries, the number of people who will die from COVID-19 is largely given by factors that cannot be drastically changed as an immediate reaction to the pandemic and authorities should focus on modifiable variables, e.g. the number of hospital beds.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ocupação de Leitos , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Temperatura , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141157, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835960

RESUMO

When making infrastructure policies, decision makers insufficiently consider negative consequences for the environment or health. This lack of multi-sectorial awareness in policymaking triggers poor public health outcomes. To illustrate this issue, this interdisciplinary work presents evidence for the association of road infrastructure investment (as infrastructure policy) with the incidences of deaths due to transport accidents, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia using nationally aggregated data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for 27 countries over an 18-year period (1995-2012). We conduct an explorative analysis using descriptive statistics and fixed-effects panel-data regression models that include the interaction of the policy variable with the Environmental Policy Stringency Index, which proxies the awareness of negative consequences of policies. We show that countries which never achieved a score of 3 or higher for the Environmental Policy Stringency Index had higher levels of standardized death rates. This is supported by Pearson's correlation coefficients and by the results of t-tests for deaths due to transport accidents. Following the fixed-effects analysis, we find that an increase in road infrastructure investment of 1% of gross domestic product is associated, on average, with about three additional deaths per 100,000 population due to transport accidents and about 18 fewer deaths per 100,000 population due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using standardized death rates. A one unit increase in the Environmental Policy Stringency Index is related to about 7 fewer deaths per 100,000 population due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Marginal effects of the interaction of road infrastructure investment and the Environmental Policy Stringency Index are significant for standardized death rates due to transport accidents and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multi-sectorial awareness in infrastructure policy mediates health effects for deaths due to transport accidents and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Saúde Pública , Acidentes de Trânsito , Política Ambiental , Produto Interno Bruto
7.
Front Public Health ; 8: 615344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330348

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various macroeconomic indicators. Given this backdrop, this research investigates the effects of the pandemics-related uncertainty on household consumption. For this purpose, we construct a simple theoretical model to study the effects of the pandemics-related uncertainty on household consumption. To estimate the theoretical model, we consider the panel dataset of 138 countries for the period from 1996 to 2017. We also use the Pandemic Uncertainty Index to measure the pandemics-related uncertainty. The theoretical model and the empirical findings from the Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) estimations indicate that the gross fixed capital formation, government consumption, balance of trade, and the Pandemic Uncertainty Index negatively affect household consumption. The results are also valid in the panel dataset of 42 high-income economies and the remaining 96 emerging economies.


Assuntos
/economia , Características da Família , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193946

RESUMO

Introduction: Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence and deaths in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 States in Nigeria. Methods: we analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors (prevalence of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors (age ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Results: our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 States, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases were concentrated in just 7 States: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9 per million population. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP (r=0.53) and to a lesser extent with TB (r=0.36) and population density (r=0.38). On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, States with higher HIV prevalence and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP States had a greater CMR. Conclusion: this study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain States in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death rates were mildly lower in States with higher HIV prevalence and BCG vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Vacina BCG , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e043560, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the COVID-19 case-fatality rate (CFR) globally. DESIGN: Publicly available register-based ecological study. SETTING: Two hundred and nine countries/territories in the world. PARTICIPANTS: Aggregated data including 10 445 656 confirmed COVID-19 cases. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 CFR and crude cause-specific death rate were calculated using country-level data from the Our World in Data website. RESULTS: The average of country/territory-specific COVID-19 CFR is about 2%-3% worldwide and higher than previously reported at 0.7%-1.3%. A doubling in size of a population is associated with a 0.48% (95% CI 0.25% to 0.70%) increase in COVID-19 CFR, and a doubling in the proportion of female smokers is associated with a 0.55% (95% CI 0.09% to 1.02%) increase in COVID-19 CFR. The open testing policies are associated with a 2.23% (95% CI 0.21% to 4.25%) decrease in CFR. The strictness of anti-COVID-19 measures was not statistically significantly associated with CFR overall, but the higher Stringency Index was associated with higher CFR in higher-income countries with active testing policies (regression coefficient beta=0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27). Inverse associations were found between cardiovascular disease death rate and diabetes prevalence and CFR. CONCLUSION: The association between population size and COVID-19 CFR may imply the healthcare strain and lower treatment efficiency in countries with large populations. The observed association between smoking in women and COVID-19 CFR might be due to the finding that the proportion of female smokers reflected broadly the income level of a country. When testing is warranted and healthcare resources are sufficient, strict quarantine and/or lockdown measures might result in excess deaths in underprivileged populations. Spatial dependence and temporal trends in the data should be taken into account in global joint strategy and/or policy making against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Densidade Demográfica , Regressão Espacial , Distribuição por Idade , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Política de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892590

RESUMO

Objective: To analysis the distribution characteristics of coal worker's pneumoconiosis in Hubei Province during 2006-2010 (the 11th Five-Year Plan period) and 2011-2015 (the 12th Five-Year Plan period) , and its correlation with the gross domestic product (GDP) of Hubei Province from 1986 to 2015. Methods: In September 2019, the data of newly diagnosed coal worker's pneumoconiosis reported in Occupational Disease and Occupational Health Information Monitoring System from 2006 to 2015 and the GDP data from 1986 to 2015 in Hubei Province were collected. The distribution characteristics of time, region, enterprise size, industry and economic type of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis and its correlation with GDP were analyzed. Results: In 2006-2015, 3807 new cases of coal worker's pneumoconiosis were reported in Hubei Province. The time distribution generally ascended as a wave trend. The number of new cases reached its peak in 2013 (722 cases) . GDP growth continued between 1986-1995, 1996-2005 and 2006-2015, especially in 2006-2015. New cases of coal worker's pneumoconiosis were mainly distributed in Huangshi city, Yichang city and Enshi prefecture, accounting for 82.40% (3137/3807) of the total cases. The proportion of new cases in Huangshi city was higher than that in Yichang city and Enshi prefecture (χ(2)=272.66, 243.19, P<0.05) . New cases were mainly distributed in coal mining industry (3103 cases, 81.51%) , small-sized and medium (1675 cases, 44.00%) , and private enterprises (1621 cases, 42.58%) . The rank correlation (r(s)) of coal worker's pneumoconiosis in 2006-2015 with GDP in1986-1995, 1996-2005 and 2006-2015 were 0.157, 0.144, 0.200, respectively, and there were no significant differences (P>0.05) . Conclusion: The coalworker's pneumoconiosis in Hubei Province are mostly distributed in small and medium-sized private enterprises, and the regional distribution is concentrated in Huangshi city, Yichang city and Enshi prefecture. The concentration of cases is closely related to the number and energy production of local coal mines. There is no correlation between the growth of GDP and the distribution of cases.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Antracose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Indústria do Carvão Mineral , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986700

RESUMO

The green development of coastal urban agglomerations, which are strategic core areas of national economic growth in China, has become a major focus of both academics and government agencies. In this paper, China's coastal urban agglomeration is taken as the research area, aiming at the serious air pollution problem of coastal urban agglomeration, geographic information system (ArcGIS10.2) spatial analysis and the spatial Dubin model were applied to National Aeronautics and Space Administration atmospheric remote sensing image inversion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data from 2010-2016 to reveal the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and Influence mechanism of PM2.5 in China's coastal urban agglomerations, with a view to providing a reference value for coordinating air pollution in the coastal cities of the world. From 2010-2016, the PM2.5 concentration in China's coastal urban agglomerations decreased as a whole, and large spatial differences in PM2.5 concentration were observed in China's coastal urban agglomerations; the core high-pollution areas were the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, and Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations. Large spatial differences in PM2.5 concentration were also observed within individual urban agglomerations, with higher PM2.5 concentrations found in the northern parts of the urban agglomerations. Significant spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity were observed among PM2.5-polluted cities in China's coastal urban agglomerations. The northern coastal urban agglomerations formed a relatively stable and continuous high-pollution zone. The spatial Dubin model was used to analyze the driving factors of PM2.5 pollution in coastal urban agglomerations. Together, meteorological, socioeconomic, pollution source, and ecological factors affected the spatial characteristics of PM2.5 pollution during the study period, and the overall effect was a mixed effect with significant spatial variation. Among them, meteorological factors were the greatest driver of PM2.5 pollution. In the short term, the rapid increase in population density, industrial emissions, industrial energy consumption, and total traffic emissions were the important driving factors of PM2.5 pollution in the coastal urban agglomerations of China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Ecossistema , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Urbanização , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Algoritmos , China , Análise Fatorial , Produto Interno Bruto , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886689

RESUMO

We investigate socio-economic urban scaling behavior of municipalities in Denmark, the Netherlands, and in particular in Germany. Our interest is twofold. First we investigate whether, and to what extent, scaling occurs in various types of urban areas. The second important topic of research concerns the comparison of specific types of urban areas with regard to the values of the gross urban product. This is a new approach: two scaling systems are compared not only in terms of the scaling exponent, but also in terms of the differences in the gross urban product. We are specifically interested in the role of urban governance in terms of local urban government structures. Germany is our central case because it works as a natural experiment: a large number of urban areas is one-governance, but others are not. More specifically, we distinguish between cities of which the surrounding urban area belongs to the municipality of the city (kreisfreie cities), and those specific districts (Kreise) which are urban areas consisting of several municipalities. Our findings suggest that urban areas with one municipality perform better than urban areas with fragmented governance structures. We also investigate the relation between scaling of Kreise and simple measures of centrality, including the Zipf-distribution. A strong relation is found between the measured residuals of the scaling equations and the socio-economic position of cities assessed with a set of different socio-economic indicators. Given the debate on the effectiveness of municipal reform, our results may lead to challenging conclusions about the importance of one-municipality instead of multi-municipality governance in urban areas. These results are relevant for policy as they suggest that there is a benefit to unifying the governance structure of compact urban agglomerations.


Assuntos
Produto Interno Bruto/tendências , Governo Local , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cidades/economia , Dinamarca , Geografia , Alemanha , Humanos , Países Baixos , Densidade Demográfica , População Urbana
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824606

RESUMO

The IPAT/Kaya identity is the most popular index used to analyze the driving forces of individual factors on CO2 emissions. It represents the CO2 emissions as a product of factors, such as the population, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, energy intensity of the GDP, and carbon footprint of energy. In this study, we evaluated the mutual relationship of the factors of the IPAT/Kaya identity and their decomposed variables with the fossil-fuel CO2 flux, as measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). We built two regression models to explain this flux; one using the IPAT/Kaya identity factors as the explanatory variables and the other one using their decomposed factors. The factors of the IPAT/Kaya identity have less explanatory power than their decomposed variables and comparably low correlation with the fossil-fuel CO2 flux. However, the model using the decomposed variables shows significant multicollinearity. We performed a multivariate cluster analysis for further investigating the benefits of using the decomposed variables instead of the original factors. The results of the cluster analysis showed that except for the M factor, the IPAT/Kaya identity factors are inadequate for explaining the variations in the fossil-fuel CO2 flux, whereas the decomposed variables produce reasonable clusters that can help identify the relevant drivers of this flux.


Assuntos
Combustíveis Fósseis , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Produto Interno Bruto , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
14.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111027, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778307

RESUMO

This study analyses the dynamics of carbon emissions for N-11 countries from 1990 to 2017. We introduce some innovative factors such as financial development, human capital, renewable energy consumption, and gross domestic product as determinants of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The empirical estimations are based on Pesaran (2007) unit root test, common correlated effect mean group, and augmented mean group. The findings reveal a positive relationship between carbon emissions and financial development as well as a gross domestic product. In contrast, technological innovation and renewable energy consumption are adversely related to carbon emissions. These findings have important implications, and we recommend the promotion of technological innovation and the use of renewable energy consumption. This will help in achieving the goals set by COP21.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Invenções
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236299, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692765

RESUMO

This study investigates the environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on Annex I parties through an impact assessment by combining the propensity score matching and the difference-in-difference methods. We establish a country-level panel data set including CO2 emissions, gross domestic product (GDP), and other socioeconomic data for 1997-2008 and 2005-2008. Based on the impact evaluation, we conduct the simulation predicting the impacts of the Protocol to capture the differences of marginal damage cost of carbon emissions between the actual and counterfactual situations. The results suggest that participating as an Annex I party has a significant positive impact on CO2 emission reductions, but a negative impact on the GDP of the participants in the long run. The predicted marginal benefit of the Protocol based on the marginal damage cost of carbon emissions shows that the marginal benefit of emission reductions mitigates a limited portion of the GDP loss. Future global climate change frameworks should focus on balancing the impact on economic and environmental performance in order to ensure sustainable development, especially for developing countries that have low capacity to mitigate emissions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Meio Ambiente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Produto Interno Bruto , Estatística como Assunto
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41787-41802, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696408

RESUMO

The study develops slack-based environmental performance index (SBEPI) to conduct the environmental performance of Pakistan's major sectors of the economy, which include agriculture, manufacturing, transport, power, construction, and mining and quarrying (M&Q) sectors. The index computes environmental efficiency scores based on three critical indicators, total primary energy consumption (input indicator), gross domestic product (desirable output), and CO2 emission (undesirable output). The study undertakes analysis for a period of 10 years from 2008 to 2017. SBEPI score of 1 is set to indicate efficient performance, while score of 0 translates inefficient performance. The results of the studied period reveal that all the sectors underperform for considered indicators. For instance, the top-performing agriculture sector could only achieve an SBEPI score of 0.00008275. The analysis also does not reflect any signs of performance improvement for the studied sectors. To validate the results of this study and highlight the advantages of SBEPI, the study compared SBEPI results with conventional environmental index (EI). The comparison results reveal that SEBPI results are more realistic and the index holds higher discriminatory power than conventional EI. Based on this study's results, some policy recommendations for the government and other sectoral leaders to improve sectoral environmental performance are provided.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Governo , Produto Interno Bruto , Mineração , Paquistão
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730366

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has expanded rapidly throughout the world. Thus, it is important to understand how global factors linked with the functioning of the Anthropocene are responsible for the COVID-19 outbreak. We tested hypotheses that the number of COVID-19 cases, number of deaths and growth rate of recorded infections: (1) are positively associated with population density as well as (2) proportion of the human population living in urban areas as a proxies of interpersonal contact rate, (3) age of the population in a given country as an indication of that population's susceptibility to COVID-19; (4) net migration rate and (5) number of tourists as proxies of infection pressure, and negatively associated with (5) gross domestic product which is a proxy of health care quality. Data at the country level were compiled from publicly available databases and analysed with gradient boosting regression trees after controlling for confounding factors (e.g. geographic location). We found a positive association between the number of COVID-19 cases in a given country and gross domestic product, number of tourists, and geographic longitude. The number of deaths was positively associated with gross domestic product, number of tourists in a country, and geographic longitude. The effects of gross domestic product and number of tourists were non-linear, with clear thresholds above which the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths increased rapidly. The growth rate of COVID-19 cases was positively linked to the number of tourists and gross domestic product. The growth rate of COVID-19 cases was negatively associated with the mean age of the population and geographic longitude. Growth was slower in less urbanised countries. This study demonstrates that the characteristics of the human population and high mobility, but not population density, may help explain the global spread of the virus. In addition, geography, possibly via climate, may play a role in the pandemic. The unexpected positive and strong association between gross domestic product and number of cases, deaths, and growth rate suggests that COVID-19 may be a new civilisation disease affecting rich economies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores Etários , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Emigração e Imigração , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Tempo , Viagem , Urbanização
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 40795-40810, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677008

RESUMO

The main objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of foreign research and development (R&D) spillovers on pollution and renewable energy consumption (RE). We choose as proxies for R&D and for foreign R&D spillovers, resident patents (RP) and non-resident patents (NRP), respectively. We use annual data for the USA spanning the period 1980-2016. We show the presence of a long-run relationship between NRP, RP, RE, fossil energy consumption (FE), net energy imports (NEI), gross domestic product (GDP), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. There are long-run unidirectional Granger causalities running from all considered variables to economic growth. There are short-run unidirectional causalities running from NEI to all considered variables except RP and GDP, from GDP to RP and RE, from FE to RE, and from carbon emissions to RE. By using the autoregressive distributed lag approach, several long-run elasticities are evaluated. In particular, RP increases carbon emissions, whereas NRP reduces it. Both RP and NRP have a positive impact on RE and GDP. RP and NRP seem to be complementary activities, and RE reduces NEI. Therefore, the US authorities should encourage the use of NRP because of their beneficial effect on pollution, home innovation, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fósseis , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Produto Interno Bruto , Energia Renovável , Estados Unidos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41299-41313, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681325

RESUMO

Fixed-asset investment directly affects energy consumption through purchasing and upgrading energy-saving equipment on the one hand, and indirectly affects energy consumption by expanding output scale on the other hand. This paper analyzes the multiple effects of fixed-asset investment on energy consumption by three strata of industry in China during 1991-2017. The econometric methods based on VAR model such as Johansen co-integration test and Granger causality test (linear Granger causality test and non-linear Granger causality test) are utilized to explore the long-run stable equilibrium relationships and causal interactions between fixed-asset investment and energy consumption. And the mediation test is performed by employing the bias-corrected non-parametric percentile bootstrap method combined with causal steps approach to obtain the direct and indirect effects of fixed-asset investment on energy consumption. Our study indicates that there are long-run stable equilibrium relationships between fixed-asset investment and energy consumption by three strata of industry. Bidirectional causalities exist in secondary and tertiary industries between fixed-asset investment and their respective energy consumption, and a unidirectional causality exists in primary industry from fixed-asset investment to energy consumption. The fixed-asset investment in primary industry directly suppresses its energy consumption, while indirectly promotes its energy consumption through its value added. And the fixed-asset investment in secondary industry not only directly promotes its energy consumption but also indirectly promotes its energy consumption through its value added.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Produto Interno Bruto , Investimentos em Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...