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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1449, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have been one of the most critical public health problems in Thailand for decades. The objective of this study was to examine to what extent provincial economy was associated with RTIs, road traffic deaths and case fatality rate in Thailand. METHODS: A secondary data analysis on time-series data was applied. The unit of analysis was a panel of 77 provinces during 2012-2016. Data were obtained from relevant public authorities, including the Ministry of Public Health. Descriptive statistics and econometric models, using negative binomial (NB) regression, negative binomial regression with random-effects (RE) model, and spatial Durbin model (SDM) were employed. The main predictor variable was gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the outcome variables were incidence proportion of RTIs, traffic deaths and case fatality rate. The analysis was adjusted for key covariates. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of RTIs rose from 449.0 to 524.9 cases per 100,000 population from 2012 till 2016, whereas the incidence of traffic fatalities fluctuated between 29.7 and 33.2 deaths per 100,000 population. Case fatality rate steadily stood at 0.06-0.07 deaths per victim. RTIs and traffic deaths appeared to be positively correlated with provincial economy in the NB regression and the RE model. In the SDM, a log-Baht increase in GDP per capita (equivalent to a growth of GDP per capita by about 2.7 times) enlarged the incidence proportion of injuries and deaths by about a quarter (23.8-30.7%) with statistical significance. No statistical significance was found in case fatality rate by the SDM. The SDM also presented the best model fitness relative to other models. CONCLUSION: The incidence proportion of traffic injuries and deaths appeared to rise alongside provincial prosperity. This means that RTIs-preventive measures should be more intensified in economically well-off areas. Furthermore, entrepreneurs and business sectors that gain economic benefit in a particular province should share responsibility in RTIs prevention in the area where their businesses are running. Further studies that explore others determinants of road safety, such as patterns of vehicles used, attitudes and knowledge of motorists, investment in safety measures, and compliance with traffic laws, are recommended.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Análise Espacial , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597376

RESUMO

In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. Thissector plays an important role in boosting a nation's economy. An increase in tourism flow canbring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product (GDP) andemployment opportunities. In South Asian countries, the tourism industry is an engine ofeconomic development and GDP growth. This study investigates the impact of tourism onPakistan's economic growth and employment. The period under study was from 1990 to 2015. Tocheck whether the variables under study were stationary, augmented Dickey-Fuller andPhillips-Perron unit root tests were applied. A regression technique and Johansen cointegrationapproach were employed for the analysis of data. The key finding of this study shows that there isa positive and significant impact of tourism on Pakistan's economic growth as well as employmentsector and there is also a long-run relationship among the variables under study. This studysuggests that legislators should focus on the policies with special emphasis on the promotion oftourism due to its great potential throughout the country. Policy implications of this recent studyand future research suggestions are also mentioned.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/economia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Paquistão
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31856-31872, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489549

RESUMO

In recent decades, climate change and environmental pollution have been at the center of global environmental debates. Nowadays, researchers have turned their attention to the linkage between real output and environmental quality and test the environmental Kuznets curve. Majority of the studies focus on a single pollutant aspect and measure the deterioration of the environment through carbon emission (CO2) only. In contrary, the current study uses a comprehensive proxy, ecological footprint, to measure the environmental quality of the sixteen Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). The aim of this paper is to discover the impact of financial development, economic growth, and energy consumption (renewable and non-renewable) on the environment. In addition, for the first time, the current study includes biocapacity and human capital in the growth-energy-environment nexus in the case of CEECs. In doing so, we used annual data of sixteen CEE countries in perspective of the One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative and cover the period of 1991-2014. For reliable findings, this study focuses on second-generation econometric approaches to check stationarity, cross-sectional dependency, and co-integration among the model parameters. The long-run estimations of the "Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated-co-integration Regression" (DSUR) signify that the effect of economic growth on ecological footprint is not stable and validate N-shaped relationship for cubic functional form between per capita income and ecological footprint (environmental quality). Empirical evidence divulges that financial development and energy use significantly contribute to environmental degradation while renewable energy improves environmental quality by declining ecological footprint significantly. Moreover, the significant effects of biocapacity and human capital are positive and negative on the ecological footprint, respectively. In robustness check through the "Feasible Generalized Least Square" (FGLS) and "Generalized Method of Moment" (GMM) models, we found consistent result. Lastly, the "Dumitrescu-Hurlin (D-H) Panel Causality Test" demonstrates that two-way causal relationship exists between EF and GDP, EF and FD, EF and EU, EF and BC, and EF and HC, while one-way causality is running from RE to EF. This study puts the present scenario of CEE economies in front of the policymakers and suggests that they should consider the vital role of renewable energy and human capital to get sustainability.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda , Cooperação Internacional , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Econométricos , Energia Renovável/economia
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 29246-29256, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392620

RESUMO

To comprehend city-level driving mechanisms of carbon emissions, this paper utilizes spectral cluster and two-layer LMDI (logarithmic mean divisia index) method to systematically assess the contribution values of correlative factors from each cluster to Henan's carbon emissions increments, and accordingly comes up with more strategies about how to reduce carbon emissions for each cluster on the basis of driving forces of carbon emissions. The results of clustering and the decomposition are as follows: (1) the 18 prefecture-level cities in Henan were divided into five categories by spectral clustering, and there are similar development patterns within each category, so they can learn from each other to improve their own defects of development; (2) this paper utilizes the two-layer LMDI method to divide the factors affecting each cluster of carbon emissions into four types, which includes energy structure, energy intensity, per capita GDP, and population, and calculates the contribution value of each factor. It was concluded that the contribution value of per capita GDP dominantly drove up carbon emissions, while energy intensity played a significant role in offsetting them. Therefore, it is important for Henan's low-carbon development to control the expansion of economic activity and improve energy efficiency in the future.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , China , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1025, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) is a marker that reflects the clinical outcome of cancer treatment. MIR as a prognostic marker is more accessible when compared with long-term follow-up survival surveys. Theoretically, countries with good health care systems would have favorable outcomes for cancer; however, no report has yet demonstrated an association between gallbladder cancer MIR and the World's Health System ranking. METHODS: We used linear regression to analyze the correlation of MIRs with the World Health Organization (WHO) rankings and total expenditures on health/gross domestic product (e/GDP) in 57 countries selected according to the data quality. RESULTS: The results showed high crude rates of incidence/mortality but low MIR in more developed regions. Among continents, Europe had the highest crude rates of incidence/mortality, whereas the highest age-standardized rates (ASR) of incidence/mortality were in Asia. The MIR was lowest in North America and highest in Africa (0.40 and 1.00, respectively). Furthermore, favorable MIRs were correlated with good WHO rankings and high e/GDP (p = 0.01 and p = 0.030, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The MIR variation for gallbladder cancer is therefore associated with the ranking of the health system and the expenditure on health.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(5): 918-933, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In 2015, the United Nations proposed "The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" goals, which envision reducing premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by one third by 2030. Because >50% of patients with cancer require radiation therapy (RT), the existing gaps in RT infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and additional requirements by 2030 were examined. Cost-effective strategies to address this challenge were explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Public domain databases of the United Nation organizations were accessed. RT requirements for 2030 were estimated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations. To explore a feasible cost-effective solution, a teleradiotherapy network (TRTNet) was conceived with 4 to 8 primary RT centers (PRTCs) (each with 1 teletherapy unit, US$2.05 million) linked to a secondary RT center (SRTC; 2 teletherapy units and 1 brachytherapy unit, US$5.05 million). RESULTS: Of the 137 LMICs, 51 (37.3%) presently lack RT facilities. The remaining 86 LMICs have 5084 teletherapy units (gap: -7741) and thus a mean access to RT of 33%. By 2030, an additional 12,133 teletherapy units would be required for 14.2 million patients with cancer. A TRTNet linked 4 to 8 PRTCs with 1 SRTC could yield a return of investment (ROI) between -181.1% and 757.6% depending on the TRTNet configuration, 2-year survival, gross national income per capita, and employment-population ratio of the individual LMICs. Sixty-five (47.4%) of these could be expected to attain a positive ROI (7.1% to 757.6%) with a 2-year survival of 50% and a TRTNet configuration of 1 SRTC and 8 PRTCs. CONCLUSION: Optimized TRTNets through resource sharing could be a cost-effective and financially viable option to create RT infrastructure and facilitate capacity building toward realizing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development goals in most LMICs. Low-income countries and some LMICs not expected to gain positive ROI should be considered for external financial assistance.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Institutos de Câncer/economia , Institutos de Câncer/provisão & distribução , Fortalecimento Institucional , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Coalizão em Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Radioterapia/economia , Radioterapia/instrumentação , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Nações Unidas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163652

RESUMO

Environmental pollution, rapid economic growth, and other social factors have adverse effects on public health, which have consequently increased the burden of health expenditures during the last two decades. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the environment index, as well as economic and non-economic factors such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, foreign direct investment, population aging, and secondary education impacts on per capita government and private health expenditures in 13 emerging economies for the time period of 1994-2017. We employ robust econometric techniques in this endeavor of panel data analysis to account for the issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. This study applies the Lagrange Multiplier (LM) bootstrap approach to investigate the presence of panel cointegration and empirical results underscore the existence of cointegration among variables. For the execution of long-run analysis, we incorporate the two latest estimators, i.e., continuously updated-fully modified (CUP-FM) and continuously updated- bias corrected (CUP-BC). Findings of long-run elasticities have documented that the air-pollution indicators, i.e., CO2 emissions and the environment index, have a positive and significant influence on government health expenditures, while in contrast, both factors negatively influence private health expenditures in emerging economies. We find that economic factors such as GDP growth consistently show a positive impact on both government and private health expenditures, whereas, foreign direct investment exhibits a significant negative and positive impact on government and private health expenditures respectively. Findings of non-economic factors can be used to argue that population aging increases health expenditures while secondary education lowers private health spending in emerging markets. Furthermore, empirical analysis of heterogeneous causality indicates that CO2 emissions, the environment index, GDP growth, foreign direct investment, and secondary education have a unidirectional causal relationship with government and private health expenditures. Population aging has a strong relationship of bidirectional causality with government health expenditures and unidirectional causal relationship with private health expenditures. Findings of this paper put forward key suggestions for policy makers which can be used as valuable instruments for better understanding and aiming to maximize public healthcare and environmental quality gains which are highly connected with sustainable GDP growth and developments in emerging economies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Público/economia , Envelhecimento , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Environ Int ; 129: 35-41, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108391

RESUMO

The first national-scale assessment of lead (Pb) contamination in agricultural soils across China was conducted based on >1900 articles published between 1979 and 2016. Pb concentrations, temporal and spatial variations, and influencing factors were analyzed. Children's blood lead levels (BLLs) were also estimated using the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. Pb concentrations in different areas of China varied greatly, which was closely associated with the distribution of Pb-related industries, especially Pb-zinc mine smelting, non-ferrous polymetallic mine smelting, e-waste recycling, and leaded gasoline consumption. The year 2000 was a significant transition year for Pb concentrations, with a rapid increase pre-2000 and a subsequent slow upward trend. Pb concentrations were found to be strongly associated with indicators of economic and social development including gross domestic product (GDP), population size, and vehicle ownership. Leaded gasoline, coal combustion, and non-ferrous smelting were the main sources of atmospheric Pb during the different periods. Predicted BLLs were higher in South China than those in the north. This study details the overall Pb contamination status of agricultural soils in China, and thus provides insights for policymakers with respect to pollution prevention measures.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Mudança Social , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Demográfica
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 435, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of the health effects of perceived discrimination based on ethnic and social traits has a long-standing and widespread tradition in epidemiological research, but less attention has been paid to the study of multiple discrimination, particularly its effects on mental health. The present work aims to analyse the association between multiple discrimination and depressive symptoms in Europe, and the impact of contextual socioeconomic circumstances on this relationship. METHODS: In this study, data from the 7th Round of the European Social Survey was used. Given that the outcome variable, CES-D8, is a depression scale from 0 to 24 possible values and the hierarchical organisation of individuals (level-1 units) clustered within countries (level-2 units), a linear multilevel model was carried out. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that multiple discrimination increases our risk of suffering depressive disorder, but in addition this work provides an important step forward to explain and understand how the relationship between multiple discrimination and depression might vary depending the socioeconomic context. In particular, we can observe that differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms along multiple discrimination levels decrease as GDP per capita increases among European countries. CONCLUSION: This study is relevant since provides new evidence on how the association between multiple discrimination and depression operates at the micro and macro-level context, which is fundamental to understand how macro-economic fluctuations of countries may determine depressive disorders through the effect of single and combined forms of discrimination.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Prevalência
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(15): 15390-15405, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937739

RESUMO

Although the role that renewable energy consumption plays on economic growth and emissions has been widely studied, there are relatively few papers focusing on the determinants of renewable energy consumption, and only one study focuses on the factors related to the share of renewables in the energy consumption in Africa. This paper contributes to the literature by filling the gap in knowledge by exploring the nexus between the share of renewables in energy consumption and social and economic variables, for a panel consisting of 21 African countries for the period between 1990 and 2013, extending the set of variables and the time span used by a previous study. Estimating a random-effects generalized least squares regression, we find that countries with a higher Human Development Index and a higher gross domestic product per capita have a lower share of renewable energy in the national grid. On the other hand, an increase in foreign direct investment has been found to be related to higher renewable energy integration. The level of democracy, measured by the Freedom House political rights and civil liberties ratings, does not directly affect the integration level of renewable energy sources. The negative relationship between gross domestic product per capita and the share of renewables contradicts previous findings for developed countries. This contradiction and policy implications are discussed in the light of the review of the energy mix of the selected countries.


Assuntos
Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos , África , Democracia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Econométricos , Energia Renovável/economia
11.
J Med Econ ; 22(9): 878-882, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012790

RESUMO

Background: IVF is now a wide spread procedure globally, and currently 65 countries report annually all or part of their IVF/ICSI cycles, from which the International Committee Monitoring progress in Assisted Reproduction Technology (ICMART) published its report. There is considerable variation in the utilization (number of cycles per population) globally. Aims: The objectives of this study were to assess whether utilization is related to national wealth, presented as gross domestic product (GDP), and whether the GDP has any effect on success in IVF treatment, mainly delivery and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between utilization and GDP (CC = 0.563, p = 0.00000194), and both utilization and GDP have strong negative correlations to successful outcome of the treatment-clinical pregnancy rate (CC: -0.460, p = 0.00015; CC: -0.399, p = 0.0012, respectively) and delivery rates (cc = -0.396, p = 0.00484; cc = -0.3, p = 0.0179, respectively). Conclusions: Poor nations have less utilization of IVF, probably due to the limited affordability of the treatment, but reassuringly do not seem to have less success in the treatment. Further research is required to fully understand the implications of these correlations and to better design national and international fertility policies.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16503-16518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980369

RESUMO

The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is far lag behind the sustainable targets that set out in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is highly needed to embark the priorities by their member countries to devise sustainable policies for accessing clean technologies, energy demand, finance, and food production to mitigate high-mass carbon emissions and conserve environmental agenda in the national policy agenda. The study evaluated United Nation's SDGs for environmental conservation and emission reduction in the panel of 35 selected SSA countries, during a period of 1995-2016. The study further analyzed the variable's relationship in inter-temporal forecasting framework for the next 10 years' time period, i.e., 2017-2026. The parameter estimates for the two models, i.e., CO2 model and PM2.5 models are analyzed by Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator that handle possible endogeneity issue from the given models. The results rejected the inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for CO2 emissions, while it supported for PM2.5 emissions with a turning point of US$5540 GDP per capita in constant 2010 US$. The results supported the "pollution haven hypothesis" for CO2 emissions, while this hypothesis is not verified for PM2.5 emissions. The major detrimental factors are technologies, FDI inflows, and food deficit that largely increase carbon emissions in a panel of SSA countries. The IPAT hypothesis is not verified in both the emissions; however, population density will largely influenced CO2 emissions in the next 10 years' time period. The PM2.5 emissions will largely be influenced by high per capita income, followed by trade openness, and technologies, over a time horizon. Thus, the United Nation's sustainable development agenda is highly influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors that need sound action plans by their member countries to coordinate and collaborate with each other and work for Africa's green growth agenda.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , África ao Sul do Saara , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Culinária , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/tendências , Renda , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/tendências , Material Particulado/análise , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia
13.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 58-73, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975614

RESUMO

The WHO views obesity as a significant risk to population health. Evidence suggests that obesity reduces labor-market attachment, worker productivity, and earnings. This link at the micro level may translate into adverse effects on economic growth at the macro level. Few studies have evaluated how body mass index impacts economic growth across and within countries. This sparse evidence base reflects the lack of consistent data across a broad spectrum of countries and timespan, as well as the empirical difficulties in bypassing endogeneity bias relating to unobserved selection and potential reverse causality between bodyweight and GDP. We address both of these challenges by first assembling a comprehensive panel of data spanning 116 countries over 25 years (1984-2008), and then presenting, to the best of our knowledge, the first empirical study of economic growth and obesiy correcting for endogeneity. Our GMM estimates indicate that, in developed countries, a higher level of BMI has direct negative effects on economic growth in a fully saturated model that controls for levels of human capital. In particular, we predict that the increase in BMI over the time period of analysis may have reduced potential economic growth over this period by between 3.5-5.8 percentage points.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Soc Stud Sci ; 49(2): 180-207, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880588

RESUMO

According to economists from the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, the introduction of performance pay for primary and secondary school teachers would lead to an increase in Dutch GDP of one-and-a-half percent in 2070. A new epistemic practice of microeconomic forecasting undergirded this attempt to make the distant future part of the political present. Taking the construction of the economic growth potential of performance pay as a starting point, this article analyzes how microeconomic forecasting emerged in one of the world's oldest forecasting bureaus - and to what consequences. First, it highlights the institutional preconditions for this 'turn to micro' in an institution that had pioneered in the field of macroeconomic forecasting. Second, the article analyzes microeconomic forecasting as a distinct epistemic practice that brings different forms of economic expertise together to make the future of educational reforms commensurable. Finally, it analyzes the political consequences of this new epistemic practice in the sense that it not only enables but simultaneously limits the provision of policy-relevant evidence. Beyond the specificities of the case, the article contributes to the sociological study of economic policy devices against the background of a predominant market bias in the STS research on economics.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Economia/tendências , Educação/organização & administração , Previsões , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação/economia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Baixos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 116, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological characteristics of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the autonomous region of Xinjiang Uygur have been largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and demographic risk factors of SCD in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed medical records from 11 regions in Xinjiang with different geography (north and south of the Tian Shan mountain range), gross domestic product, and ethnicity (Han, Uyghur, Kazakh, and Hui). SCD was defined as unexpected death due to cardiac reasons within 1 hour after the onset of acute symptoms, including sudden death, unexpected death, and nonviolent death. Monitoring was conducted throughout 2015. Demographic and mortality data were recorded and age-adjusted standardized risk ratio (SRR) was analyzed. RESULTS: Among 3,224,103 residents, there were 13,308 all-cause deaths and 1244 events of SCD (784 men and 460 women; overall incidence 38.6 per 100,000 residents). SCD was associated with age (χ2 = 2105.3), but not geography. Men had an increased risk of SCD compared with women (SRR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.10-2.79). The risk of SCD was highest in residents of the Uyghur (SRR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.05-2.42) and Kazakh (SRR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.29-2.87) compared with those of the Han. Poor economic development was associated with elevated risk of SCD (SRR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38). CONCLUSION: SCD is an important public health issue in China. Our understanding of the demographic differences on SCD in Xinjiang, China may improve the risk stratification and management to reduce the incidence and lethality of SCD.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Health Serv ; 49(2): 360-370, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616460

RESUMO

The income inequality hypothesis on the relationship between income inequality and population health has been debated for decades Disagreement exists on the hypothesis because empirical findings have reached inconsistent conclusions. At the cross-national level, the limited number of industrialized nations has created a chronic small-N problem for statistical analyses of the hypothesis. The OECD regional database containing statistics of hundreds of regional units can provide a breakthrough and is used for the first time for multiple regression in this article. It is found that income inequality is a statistically significant determinant of all the health indicators analysed. The findings support the income inequality hypothesis. In addition, the impact of income inequality seems to be stronger on infant mortality than on old-age mortality. GDP per capita also statistically significantly influences both life expectancy and old-age mortality but not infant mortality.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(1): e13966, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608434

RESUMO

The prevalence of low vision has increased in China especially among youth population, which is an important public health issue. The trend on the prevalence of subnormal visual acuity and updated information is essential to quantify health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritize action and assess the effectiveness of measures. Therefore, the study aimed to analyze the prevalence and geographical distribution of visual acuity level among young men in China based on 3 national cross-sectional surveys from 1974 to 2012.The data on visual acuity of young men were collected from 3 national surveys among military recruit youth conducted in 1974, 2001, and 2012 by using a stratified cluster sampling method in China. The prevalence of visual acuity among military recruit youth during this period was analyzed by region, year, age, and economic level.A total of 139,929, 72,894, and 58,106 young men were included, covering all 31 provinces of mainland of China, from the 3 national surveys respectively. The prevalence of subnormal visual acuity had geographic diversity and increased significantly from 1974 to 2012 (P < .05). The visual acuity level was negatively correlated with the age (17-23 years) in 2012 (P < .05). Furthermore, the prevalence of subnormal visual acuity was positively correlated with the gross domestic product in 31 provinces of China (P ≤ .001).The prevalence of subnormal visual acuity increased with economic development among young men from 1974 to 2012, with distinct variation among geographic areas in China. Furthermore, subnormal visual acuity was increasingly prevalent with age and warrant public health attention.


Assuntos
Baixa Visão/diagnóstico , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 34(2): 693-700, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609128

RESUMO

Approximately 1.8 million children under age 15 were living with HIV. This study is the first to empirically examine the impact of sanctions on children's new HIV infection and AIDS-related death rates. Using sanction and HIV/AIDS data that are available for 71 developing countries from 1990 to 2012, this study reveals that sanctions increase children's new HIV infection and their AIDS-related death rates. This study increases understanding about the consequences of sanctions, especially their effect on a marginalized population and is in line with previous literature. The significant impacts of sanctions on children's HIV/AIDS suggest that the leader in a country targeted by sanctions needs to consider extending programs to respond to children's HIV/AIDS both during sanctioning and after it is lifted.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , Criança , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562951

RESUMO

The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) is associated with the clinical outcome of cancer treatment. For several cancers, countries with relatively good health care systems have favorable MIRs. However, the association between lung cancer MIR and health care expenditures or rankings has not been evaluated. We used linear regression to analyze the correlation between lung cancer MIRs and the total expenditures on health/gross domestic product (e/GDP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) rankings. We included 57 countries, for which data of adequate quality were available, and we found high rates of incidence and mortality but low MIRs in more developed regions. Among the continents, North America had the highest rates of incidence and mortality, whereas the highest MIRs were in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Globally, favorable MIRs correlated with high e/GDP and good WHO ranking (regression coefficient, -0.014 and 0.001; p = 0.004, and p = 0.014, respectively). In conclusion, the MIR for lung cancer in different countries varies with the expenditure on health care and health system rankings.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 11(4): 192-198, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176752

RESUMO

Introducción: El suicidio es un problema de salud pública, ya que representa una de las principales causas de muerte no natural. Hay múltiples factores que influyen en el riesgo de la conducta suicida. Este trabajo analiza la distribución geográfica del suicidio en España, el patrón temporal y la relación entre la tasa de suicidios y el producto interior bruto (PIB) per cápita en el país. Material y métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo en el que se han analizado las muertes por suicidio, por sexo y por grupos de edad, en las 50 provincias españolas entre 2000 y 2012. La tendencia anual de los suicidios se calculó mediante el coeficiente de correlación Tau b de Kendall, y se empleó el análisis de varianza (ANOVA) y el test de Bonferroni para evaluar las diferencias en la mortalidad a escala estacional, mensual y semanal. Finalmente, se evaluó la asociación entre el PIB per cápita y las muertes autoinflingidas en las provincias. Resultados: Entre 2000 y 2012 fallecieron 42.905individuos de 15años de edad en adelante por suicidio en España. La tasa media anual de incidencia durante el periodo de estudio fue de 95suicidios/millón de habitantes. El sur y el noroeste de España acumularon las mayores tasas de mortalidad por esta causa. A escala global, en el país existió una tendencia descendente en las muertes por suicidio en personas de más de 64años (CC=-0,744; p=0,0004), y los suicidios siguieron un patrón estacional con máximos en verano y mínimos en otoño (f=0,504; p<0,0001); asimismo, se encontró una relación inversa entre el PIB per cápita y la tasa de suicidios de cada provincia (r=-0,645; p<0,0001), que se intensificó en los grupos poblacionales de mayor edad. Conclusiones: Los suicidios no siguen una distribución geográfica homogénea en el país y la tasa de suicidios en varones es muy superior a la tasa en mujeres. Existió un descenso en la tasa de suicidios en las personas de más de 64años, por lo que parece que las medidas de actuación tomadas en España estuvieran siendo efectivas. El patrón espacio-temporal encontrado, así como la relación con el PIB, sirven de base para en futuros estudios poder profundizar en los factores de riesgo asociados


Introduction: Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Material and methods: A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. Results: Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups. Conclusions: Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Estações do Ano , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Geografia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Causalidade , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
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