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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495144

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Assuntos
Secas , MicroRNAs , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495166

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Praguicidas/toxicidade
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495196

RESUMO

The Cerrado/Caatinga transition region in Piauí State has a high potential for production of food, fiber and energy, representing about 19% of the total area of the State. This work aimed to evaluate physical and hydraulic attributes under different crops in Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico (Oxisol) in cerrado/caatinga transition areas, in the Southwest of Piauí. In this study five areas with different crops were evaluated as follows: areas under pasture crop with Andropogon gayanus grass with three and six years of crop, area under intensive crop of Pennisetum purpureum grass, area under orchard of Annona squamosa L., area under intensive crop irrigated with central pivot and area under native vegetation of cerrado/caatinga ecotone representing a condition of equilibrium. Soil attributes evaluated were: soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, unsaturated pores, blocked pores, saturation humidity, effective saturation, water readily available, void index, mechanical resistance of soil and saturated field hydraulic conductivity. The intensive crop of napier grass for five consecutive years and the pivot irrigated area under intensive crop for four years presented the greatest negative impacts on soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, saturation humidity, effective saturation, water readily available and index of voids.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Solo , Brasil , Água
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126184, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492955

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are continuously introduced into the agroecosystem via reclaimed wastewater irrigation, a common agricultural practice in water-scarce regions. Although reclaimed wastewater irrigated crops are sold and consumed, only limited information is available on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other CECs in edible produce. Here, we report data on CECs in irrigation water, soils, and crops collected from 445 commercial fields irrigated with reclaimed wastewater in Israel. The following produce were analyzed: leafy greens, carrot, potato, tomato, orange, tangerine, avocado, and banana. Pharmaceuticals and CECs were found in quantifiable levels in all irrigation water, soils, and plants (>99.6%). Leafy greens exhibited the largest number and the highest concentration of pharmaceuticals. Within the same crop, contamination levels varied due to wastewater source and quality of treatment, and soil characteristics. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and gabapentin) were the most dominant therapeutic group found in the reclaimed wastewater-soil-plant continuum. Antimicrobials were detected in ~85% of the water and soil samples, however they exhibited low detection frequencies and concentrations in produce. Irrigation with reclaimed wastewater should be limited to crops where the risk for pharmaceutical transfer to the food chain is minimal.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Israel , Águas Residuárias/análise
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 415, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conservation of plant genetic resources, including the wild relatives of crops, plays an important and well recognised role in addressing some of the key challenges faced by humanity and the planet including ending hunger and biodiversity loss. However, the genetic diversity and representativeness of ex situ collections, especially that contained in seed collections, is often unknown. This limits meaningful assessments against conservation targets, impairs targeting of future collecting and limits their use. We assessed genetic representation of seed collections compared to source populations for three wild relatives of bananas and plantains. Focal species and sampling regions were M. acuminata subsp. banksii (Papua New Guinea), M. balbisiana (Viet Nam) and M. maclayi s.l. (Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). We sequenced 445 samples using suites of 16-20 existing and newly developed taxon-specific polymorphic microsatellite markers. Samples of each species were from five populations in a region; 15 leaf samples from different individuals and 16 seed samples from one infructescence ('bunch') were analysed for each population. RESULTS: Allelic richness of seeds compared to populations was 51, 81 and 93% (M. acuminata, M. balbisiana and M. maclayi respectively). Seed samples represented all common alleles in populations but omitted some rarer alleles. The number of collections required to achieve the 70% target of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation was species dependent, relating to mating systems. Musa acuminata populations had low heterozygosity and diversity, indicating self-fertilization; many bunches were needed (> 15) to represent regional alleles to 70%; over 90% of the alleles from a bunch are included in only two seeds. Musa maclayi was characteristically cross-fertilizing; only three bunches were needed to represent regional alleles; within a bunch, 16 seeds represent alleles. Musa balbisiana, considered cross-fertilized, had low genetic diversity; seeds of four bunches are needed to represent regional alleles; only two seeds represent alleles in a bunch. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate empirical measurement of representation of genetic material in seeds collections in ex situ conservation towards conservation targets. Species mating systems profoundly affected genetic representation in seed collections and therefore should be a primary consideration to maximize genetic representation. Results are applicable to sampling strategies for other wild species.


Assuntos
Musa/genética , Banco de Sementes , Sementes/genética , Alelos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Papua Nova Guiné , Polinização , Vietnã
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 420, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyioprene, NR) is an indispensable industrial raw material obtained from the Pará rubber tree (H. brasiliensis). Natural rubber cannot be replaced by synthetic rubber compounds because of the superior resilience, elasticity, abrasion resistance, efficient heat dispersion, and impact resistance of NR. In NR production, latex is harvested by periodical tapping of the trunk bark. Ethylene enhances and prolongs latex flow and latex regeneration. Ethephon, which is an ethylene-releasing compound, applied to the trunk before tapping usually results in a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in latex yield. However, intense mechanical damage to bark tissues by excessive tapping and/or over-stimulation with ethephon induces severe oxidative stress in laticifer cells, which often causes tapping panel dryness (TPD) syndrome. To enhance NR production without causing TPD, an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of the ethylene response in the Pará rubber tree is required. Therefore, we investigated gene expression in response to ethephon treatment using Pará rubber tree seedlings as a model system. RESULTS: After ethephon treatment, 3270 genes showed significant differences in expression compared with the mock treatment. Genes associated with carotenoids, flavonoids, and abscisic acid biosynthesis were significantly upregulated by ethephon treatment, which might contribute to an increase in latex flow. Genes associated with secondary cell wall formation were downregulated, which might be because of the reduced sugar supply. Given that sucrose is an important molecule for NR production, a trade-off may arise between NR production and cell wall formation for plant growth and for wound healing at the tapping panel. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic changes in gene expression occur specifically in response to ethephon treatment. Certain genes identified may potentially contribute to latex production or TPD suppression. These data provide valuable information to understand the mechanism of ethylene stimulation, and will contribute to improved management practices and/or molecular breeding to attain higher yields of latex from Pará rubber trees.


Assuntos
Etilenos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hevea/genética , Hevea/metabolismo , Látex/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Indonésia
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 419, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key issue for implementation of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for plant trait improvement and gene function analysis is to efficiently deliver the components, including guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9, into plants. Plant virus-based gRNA delivery strategy has proven to be an important tool for genome editing. However, its application in soybean which is an important crop has not been reported yet. ALSV (apple latent spherical virus) is highly infectious virus and could be explored for delivering elements for genome editing. RESULTS: To develop a ALSV-based gRNA delivery system, the Cas9-based Csy4-processed ALSV Carry (CCAC) system was developed. In this system, we engineered the soybean-infecting ALSV to carry and deliver gRNA(s). The endoribonuclease Csy4 effectively releases gRNAs that function efficiently in Cas9-mediated genome editing. Genome editing of endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) loci and exogenous 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) sequence in Nicotiana. benthamiana (N. benthamiana) through CCAC was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, CCAC-induced mutagenesis in two soybean endogenous GW2 paralogs was detected. CONCLUSIONS: With the aid of the CCAC system, the target-specific gRNA(s) can be easily manipulated and efficiently delivered into soybean plant cells by viral infection. This is the first virus-based gRNA delivery system for soybean for genome editing and can be used for gene function study and trait improvement.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/virologia , Viroses/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Mutagênese , RNA Guia , RNA de Plantas , RNA Viral
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color variation is a common trait in plants and widely distributed in many plants. In this study, a leaf color mutation in Camellia japonica (cultivar named as Maguxianzi, M) was used as material, and the mechanism of leaf color variation was revealed by physiological, cytological, transcriptome and microbiome analyses. RESULTS: The yellowing C. japonica (M) exhibits lower pigment content than its parent (cultivar named as Huafurong, H), especially chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid, and leaves of M have weaker photosynthesis. Subsequently, the results of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) exhibited that M chloroplast was accompanied by broken thylakoid membrane, degraded thylakoid grana, and filled with many vesicles. Furthermore, comparative transcriptome sequencing identified 3,298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). KEGG annotation analysis results showed that 69 significantly enriched DEGs were involved in Chl biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. On this basis, we sequenced the microbial diversity of the H and M leaves. The sequencing results suggested that the abundance of Didymella in the M leaves was significantly higher than that in the H leaves, which meant that M leaves might be infected by Didymella. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we speculated that Didymella infected M leaves while reduced Chl and carotenoid content by damaging chloroplast structures, and altered the intensity of photosynthesis, thereby causing the leaf yellowing phenomenon of C. japonica (M). This research will provide new insights into the leaf color variation mechanism and lay a theoretical foundation for plant breeding and molecular markers.


Assuntos
Camellia/anatomia & histologia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Cor , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , China , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
9.
Talanta ; 235: 122717, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517585

RESUMO

Groundnut bud necrosis orthotospovirus (GBNV) is one of the causative plant viruses responsible for the outbreak of many viral epidemics in food crops across India and other south-Asian countries. Its management is a major challenge due to fast vector transmission, and the non-availability of appropriate agrochemical treatment. The timely detection of GBNV becomes indispensable for the effective management of viral infection and the periodic monitoring of plant health. We report the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO) based electrochemical immunosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of GBNV. The immunoelectrode is prepared by depositing GO onto indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and functionalized by anti-GBNV antibodies using N-ethyl-N'-(3- dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS) conjugation chemistry. The response measurements of the immunoelectrodes revealed a sensitivity of 221 ± 1 µA µg-1 mL-1(n = 3) and limit of detection (LOD) of 5.7 ± 0.7 ng mL-1(n = 3) for the standard concentrations of GBNV antigen. Further, the GBNV detection was carried out in infected leaf extracts of three different host plants i.e., Tomato, Cowpea, and N. benthamiana, and the results have been compared with the conventionally used direct antigen coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) technique. The comparable results obtained for the detection of GBNV in infected plants using electrochemical immunosensing and DAC-ELISA techniques advocated the immense potential of GO based immunosensor as a point-of-care sensing device that is poised to overcome the limitations of the traditional methods of virus detection in field conditions and may transform the diagnostics in agriculture.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Grafite , Tospovirus , Produtos Agrícolas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Necrose , Doenças das Plantas
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524374

RESUMO

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Paquistão
11.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(9): 772-779, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526183

RESUMO

Today, the production of food accounts for roughly one quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Since the 1970s, thanks to substantial research and development, the overall yield output in farm fields has increased by ca. 60%, while the net use of crop protection agents per square meter of farm field has been reduced by more than 90%. The development of modern crop protection agents remains an important need as new pests, diseases and weeds continue to affect crops. The vast majority of these effective solutions are manufactured using raw materials that ultimately come from fossil resources. In this article, we are touring within the agrochemical landscape to provide the reader with an overview of concrete examples on how in this industrial field, renewable and sustainable raw materials have been used to produce active ingredients. We are also discussing the opportunities for future development as well as some of the challenges and needs that are emerging.


Assuntos
Proteção de Cultivos , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Agroquímicos
12.
Planta ; 254(3): 49, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383174

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus species represent the phyla of beneficial bacteria for application as agricultural inputs in form of effective phytostimulators, biofertilizers, and biocontrol agents. The members of the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus isolated from several ecological habitats are been thoroughly dissected for their effective application in the development of sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture. Numerous Bacillus and Paenibacillus species are reported as plant growth-promoting bacteria influencing the health and productivity of the food crops. This review narrates the mechanisms utilized by these species to enhance bioavailability and/or facilitate the acquisition of nutrients by the host plant, modulate plant hormones, stimulate host defense and stress resistance mechanisms, exert antagonistic action against soil and airborne pathogens, and alleviate the plant health. The mechanisms employed by Bacillus and Paenibacillus are seldom mutually exclusive. The comprehensive and systematic exploration of the aforementioned mechanisms in conjunction with the field investigations may assist in the exploration and selection of an effective biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent. This review aims to gather and discuss the literature citing the applications of Bacillus and Paenibacillus in the management of sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445464

RESUMO

The GLABROUS1 enhancer-binding protein (GeBP) gene family encodes a typical transcription factor containing a noncanonical Leucine (Leu-)-zipper motif that plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, as well as responding to various stresses. However, limited information on the GeBP gene family is available in the case of the Gramineae crops. Here, 125 GeBP genes from nine Gramineae crops species were phylogenetically classified into four clades using bioinformatics analysis. Evolutionary analyses showed that whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play important roles in the expansion of the GeBP gene family. The various gene structures and protein motifs revealed that the GeBP genes play diverse functions in plants. In addition, the expression profile analysis of the GeBP genes showed that 13 genes expressed in all tested organs and stages of development in rice, with especially high levels of expression in the leaf, palea, and lemma. Furthermore, the hormone- and metal-induced expression patterns showed that the expression levels of most genes were affected by various biotic stresses, implying that the GeBP genes had an important function in response to various biotic stresses. Furthermore, we confirmed that OsGeBP11 and OsGeBP12 were localized to the nucleus through transient expression in the rice protoplast, indicating that GeBPs function as transcription factors to regulate the expression of downstream genes. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of the GeBP genes family in Gramineae, and will be helpful in a further functional characterization of the GeBP genes.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Poaceae , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10358-10370, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428040

RESUMO

The advancement of mass spectrometry provides advantages for transgenic protein characterization in support of safety assessments of genetically modified crops. Here, we describe how matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization in-source decay (ISD) mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with intact mass and bottom-up analyses can be applied to achieve high confidence in the sequences of transgenic proteins expressed in plants and establish the biochemical equivalence of microbially produced protein surrogates. ISD confirmed 40-60 near terminal residues regardless of the protein size, including the improvement of the coverage of cysteine-rich proteins by the reduction/alkylation of disulfide bonds. Negative ISD significantly improved spectral quality and sequence coverage of acidic proteins. Various post-translational modifications, such as terminal truncations and N-terminal methionine excision and acetylation, were identified in plant-produced proteins by top-down MS. Finally, we demonstrated that a combination of top-down and bottom-up analyses provides high confidence in sequence equivalence of plant and microbially produced proteins.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451006

RESUMO

Garlic is one of the main economic crops in China. Accurate and timely extraction of the garlic planting area is critical for adjusting the agricultural planting structure and implementing rural policy actions. Crop extraction methods based on remote sensing usually use spectral-temporal features. Still, for garlic extraction, most methods simply combine all multi-temporal images. There has been a lack of research on each band's function in each multi-temporal image and optimal bands combination. To systematically explore the potential of the multi-temporal method for garlic extraction, we obtained a series of Sentinel-2 images in the whole garlic growth cycle. The importance of each band in all these images was ranked by the random forest (RF) method. According to the importance score of each band, eight different multi-temporal combination schemes were designed. The RF classifier was employed to extract garlic planting area, and the accuracy of the eight schemes was compared. The results show that (1) the Scheme VI (the top 39 bands in importance score) achieved the best accuracy of 98.65%, which is 6% higher than the optimal mono-temporal (February, wintering period) result, and (2) the red-edge band and the shortwave-infrared band played an essential role in accurate garlic extraction. This study gives inspiration in selecting the remotely sensed data source, the band, and phenology for accurately extracting garlic planting area, which could be transferred to other sites with larger areas and similar agriculture structures.


Assuntos
Alho , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Estações do Ano
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451045

RESUMO

Soil compaction management relies on costly annual deep tillage. Variable-depth tillage or site-specific tillage modifies the physical properties of the soil at the required zones for the growth of crops. In this study, a depth control system was designed for the subsoiler of the tillage at various depths. For this purpose, an algorithm was written to investigate the subsoiler location and soil compaction. A program was also developed to implement this algorithm using Kinco Builder Software to control the subsoiler depth, which was evaluated on the experimental platform. In this study, four compression sensors were used at a distance of 10 cm up to a depth of 40 cm on the blade mounted at the front of the tractor. The data of these sensors were used as the input and compared with the pressure baseline limit (2.07 MPa), and with the priority to select the greater depth, the depth of subsoiler was determined. At all three modes of sensor activation (single, collective, and combined), this system was able to operate the hydraulic system of the tractor and place the subsoiler at the desired depth through the use of the position sensors.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Laboratórios , Algoritmos , Produtos Agrícolas , Solo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112557, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343899

RESUMO

The impact of transgenic crops on non-target organisms is a key aspect of environmental safety assessment to transgenic crops. In the present study, we fed two snail species, Bradybaena (Acusta) ravida (B. ravida) and Bradybaena similaris (Ferussac)(B. similaris), with the leaves of transgenic Bt cotton Zhong 30 (Z30) and control cotton, its parent line zhong 16 (Z16), to assess the environmental safety of Bt cotton to common non-target organisms in the field. Survival, body weight, shell diameter, helix number, reproduction rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Bt protein concentration in snails were monitored in 15 days and 180 days experiments. We also monitored the population dynamics of B. ravida and B. similaris in Z30 and Z16 cotton fields for two successive years. Compared to the snails fed on the control cotton Z16, there was no significant difference in survival, growth, reproduction, and SOD activity on Bt cotton Z30. Bt protein concentrations were significantly between different treatments, and Bt protein residues were only detected in the feces of the Z30 treatment. According to the field data, the number of B. ravida and B. similaris fluctuated considerably across seasons over the entire cotton-growing season; however, there were no significant differences between the Bt and control cotton fields at similar time. As the results showed, in our experiments, Bt cotton Z30 had no adverse effects on the two snail species, both in the laboratory and in the fields.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Caramujos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reprodução , Caramujos/genética
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148254, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412387

RESUMO

Multifunctional crops can simultaneously contribute to multiple societal objectives. As a result, they represent an attractive means for improving rural livelihoods. Moringa oleifera is an example of a multifunctional crop that produces nutritious leaves with uses as food, fodder, and a biostimulant to enhance crop growth. It yields seeds containing a water purifying coagulant and oil with cosmetic uses and possible biofuel feedstock. Despite Moringa oleifera's (and other multifunctional crops') various Food-Energy-Water uses, optimizing the benefits of its multiple uses and livelihood improvements remains challenging. There is a need for holistic approaches capable of assessing the multifunctionality of agriculture and livelihood impacts. Therefore, this paper critically evaluates Moringa oleifera's Food-Energy-Water-Livelihood nexus applications to gain insight into the tradeoffs and synergies among its various applications using a systems thinking approach. A systems approach is proposed as a holistic thinking framework that can help navigate the complexity of a crop's multifunctionality. The "Success to the Successful" systems archetype was adopted to capture the competition between the need for leaf yields and seed yields. In areas where there is energy and water insecurity, Moringa oleifera seed production is recommended for its potential to coproduce oil, the water purifying coagulant, and a residue that can be applied as a fertilizer. In areas where food insecurity is an issue, focusing on leaf production would be beneficial due to its significance in augmenting food for human consumption, animal feed, and its use as a biostimulant to increase crop yields. A causal loop diagram was found to effectively map the interconnections among the various uses of Moringa oleifera and associated livelihood improvements. This framework provides stakeholders with a conceptual decision-making tool that can help maximize positive livelihood outcomes. This approach can also be applied for improved management of other multifunctional crops.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Água , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Sementes , Análise de Sistemas
19.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 62: 102089, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333377

RESUMO

Plants are resistant to most pathogens because of an immune system that perceives invading microbes and activates defense. A large repertoire of innate immune receptors mediates specific direct or indirect recognition of pathogen-derived molecules. Disease is often a consequence of insufficient immune surveillance, and the transfer of immune receptor genes from resistant plants to susceptible crop varieties is an effective strategy for combating disease outbreaks. We discuss approaches for identifying intracellular and cell surface immune receptors, with particular focus on recently developed and emerging methodologies. We also review considerations for the transfer of immune receptor genes into crop species, including additional host factors that may be required for immune receptor function. Together, these concepts lay out a broadly applicable playbook for developing crop varieties with durable disease resistance.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética
20.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361726

RESUMO

FINEAU (2021-2024) is a trans-disciplinary research project involving French, Serbian, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian colleagues, a French agricultural cooperative and two surface-treatment industries, intending to propose chènevotte, a co-product of the hemp industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from polycontaminated wastewater. The first objective of FINEAU was to prepare and characterize chènevotte-based materials. In this study, the impact of water washing and treatments (KOH, Na2CO3 and H3PO4) on the composition and structure of chènevotte (also called hemp shives) was evaluated using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, solid state NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that all these techniques are complementary and useful to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. Before any chemical treatment, the presence of impurities with a compact unfibrillated structure on the surfaces of chènevotte samples was found. Data indicated an increase in the crystallinity index and significant changes in the chemical composition of each sample after treatment as well as in surface morphology and roughness. The most significant changes were observed in alkaline-treated samples, especially those treated with KOH.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Cinética , Teste de Materiais , Termogravimetria
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