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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1827-1831, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agriculture is the main means of subsistence for most of the population in developing countries. Crops that can increase their value with in situ processing have a big impact on the small landholder's economics. Moreover, crops such as coffee and cocoa beans have been very important for Ecuadorian farmers. In this study, we wanted to analyze if the climatic conditions exist for growing high-quality tea in Ecuador and determine the areas that will be less affected by global climate change in the future. RESULTS: We used a GIS (geographic information systems) based analysis, together with ecological niche modeling to determine areas in Ecuador where Ceylon and Nilgiris tea varieties could be grown, which will maintain similar ecological conditions in the future, and have a high agricultural aptitude. In total, there are more than 150 000 ha in Ecuador that could be converted to high-quality tea plantations, most of them in the coastal provinces, with some specific areas in the Andean foothills. CONCLUSION: Ecuador has a significant amount of land with the potential to grow high-quality tea, with no significant ecological niche modifications due to climate change in the long-term future. Tea is a viable and potentially highly profitable crop for small landholders and should be considered by local stakeholders. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Equador
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416145

RESUMO

The high-yield agricultural model in Almería is based on eight different crops. Having led fruit and vegetable exports in Spain for more than 50 years, a decrease in melon and watermelon growing areas in Almería caused a change in supply that affected the model's profit. Papaya cultivation could reactivate the profit of the agricultural model in Almería and also improve the available product range. The papaya crop needs greenhouse infrastructures high enough to contain the growth and size of the plants during a cycle crop, which is possible in most of the greenhouses of the Horticultural production model of Almería. The papaya harvests obtained in the region meet the quality requirements demanded by European markets. Furthermore, yields obtained are equal or higher than yields obtained by other producing countries. This crop improves profit compared with the profit obtained from the rotation of other horticultural crops that have been traditionally grown in the region.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , /estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras/economia , Espanha , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Planta ; 250(3): 769-781, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270598

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Despite the relatively little attention given to tef, the value chain is quickly transforming and is expected to further do so in the near future. Tef is called an "orphan" crop in Ethiopia as it receives relatively little attention from the Ethiopian government and from international donors. Given the low yields of tef compared to other crops, it is often viewed as a low-priority crop and relatively little is known about the value chain of tef. We fill some of this knowledge gap in this paper. We illustrate tef's importance in Ethiopia's food systems and the rapid changes upstream, midstream, and downstream in its value chain. We show that tef production and productivity is rapidly increasing and that tef markets are improving over time. More specifically, using a growth decomposition analysis, we find that while the expansion of land and labor use have been important sources of growth in tef production, the relative contributions of modern input use and agricultural extension have been increasing over time. We also show that tef has greater economic potential, with comparatively more of it consumed by the better-off segments of the population, indicating that its importance is likely to grow over time as income grows in the country. Using reasonable assumptions on income growth, urbanization, and commercialization, we estimate that national tef consumption and marketed output will increase by about 250 and 300%, respectively, over a 20-year period.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Eragrostis , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
4.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(4): 583-593, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161584

RESUMO

Beetle insect species classified within the Melolonthidae complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are a serious pest in several crops around the world including avocado (Persea americana Mill). The present work focused on determining the spatial behavior of the Melolonthidae complex of beetles and determined the economic impact in avocado crops in Antioquia, Colombia, South America. Beetle presence and damage produced in both foliage and fruits were quantified during 3 years for each avocado tree tested in two planted lots located in different places. The indexes of Cambardella, Morisita, and economic losses were calculated with data obtained. Our results strongly suggest that beetles present an isotropic movement in the lots with the damage beginning by the borders. Once insects enter the lots, they move in any direction inside the crop area with weak or moderate spatial dependence and low or null aggregation. Strong preference for fruits rather than foliage was observed. Economic analysis indicates that damage in fruit skin causes major losses. From observed results, it is proposed that integrated pest control should be directed mainly to fruits from the very early stages of growth and development and traps should be localized strategically and following the spatial and temporal distribution of insects for both prevention and control.


Assuntos
Besouros , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Herbivoria , Persea , Animais , Colômbia , Frutas , Folhas de Planta , Análise Espacial
5.
Planta ; 250(3): 677-694, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190115

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Due to significant contributions of orphan crops in the economy of the developing world, scientific studies need to be promoted on these little researched but vital crops of smallholder farmers and consumers. Food security is the main challenge in the developing world, particularly in the least developed countries. Orphan crops play a vital role in the food security and livelihood of resource-poor farmers and consumers in these countries. Like major crops, there are members of all food types-cereals, legumes, vegetables and root and tuber crops, that are considered to be orphan crops. Despite their huge importance for present and future agriculture, orphan crops have generally received little attention by the global scientific community. Due to this, they produce inferior yields in terms of both quantity and quality. The major bottlenecks affecting the productivity of these crops are little or no selection of improved genetic traits, extreme environmental conditions and unfavorable policy. However, some orphan crops have recently received the attention of the global and national scientific community where advanced research and development initiatives have been launched. These initiatives which implement a variety of genetic and genomic tools targeted major constraints affecting productivity and/or nutritional quality of orphan crops. In this paper, some of these initiatives are briefly described. Here, I provide key suggestions to relevant stakeholders regarding improvement of orphan crops. Concerted efforts are urgently needed to advance the research and development of both the major and orphan crops so that food security will be achieved and ultimately the livelihood of the population will be improved.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 15872-15883, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955197

RESUMO

Conventional agriculture has been widely used to overcome food scarcity in Egypt, but in turn created new environmental, social, and economic problems. Aquaponics has a huge potential as a sustainable solution since it demonstrates promising results for urban food development while providing new entrepreneurship and start-up opportunities. Although it presents a big opportunity especially for developing countries like Egypt, it still requires further studies and researches to fully overcome foreseen challenges. This study discusses the possibility of implementing aquaponics as an alternative to conventional agriculture in Egypt through a comparison between aquaponics and conventional agriculture. The first section of this investigation analyzes the economic feasibility of aquaponics in terms of capital and operational expenditure costs. Then, an experimental comparative study is carried out examining two pilot-scale aquaponics systems (Deep water Culture system and Integrated Aqua-Vegaculture system), where crop quality (vitamins, heavy metals, and pesticides residues) of the two systems has been compared among each other, as well as to that of the commercially available organic food available in supermarkets. Results indicated that both systems produce high-quality safe organic food. The economic feasibility analysis indicated that Integrated Aqua-Vegaculture System is producing more crops with a wider variety of almost 20% less capital expenditure and operational expenditure costs. Fish production for both systems was close, yet slightly higher in Deep Water Culture. Although, on the short term, aquaponics entails relatively high capital and operational expenditure costs compared with conventional agriculture; yet, on the long term, it is more profitable, while saving up to 85% of the water wasted by conventional farming techniques. Finally, the study discusses the main limitations, drawbacks, and future of aquaponics in Egypt where public awareness and a new mindset are needed to highlight the link between agriculture and sustainability.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Corchorus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia/métodos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/instrumentação , Animais , Ciclídeos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Egito , Desenho de Equipamento , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Alface/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11261-11268, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796662

RESUMO

The main objective of this study is to estimate the total economic loss due to inefficient use of irrigation water in Tunisia. Several approaches have been used for this purpose. The optimal level of water application for different crops is calculated using the actual crop evapotranspiration which is based on FAO-56 method. The residual imputation and yield comparison methods have been used to estimate the economic value of irrigation water for different irrigated crops in different bioclimatic areas. For the empirical analysis, primary data were obtained from a series of surveys that covered 78% of the total irrigated areas and were collected within the framework of the "Virtual Water and Food Security in Tunisia project" (2013-2015). Secondary data about land distribution of crops in Tunisia were taken from the Ministry of Agriculture (2016). Around 724 farms were randomly sampled considering their bioclimatic area, farm type, and production system. The survey included the main 20 crops produced in Tunisia. Results show that most of farmers are either under or over utilizing irrigation water. The value of total direct economic losses, at the country level, of both types of water inefficiencies, was estimated to around 470 million Tunisian Dinars. Therefore, an improvement of water use efficiency at field level through dissemination of information/knowledge on irrigation scheduling and crop water requirements by extension services to farmers is needed to reduce this huge economic loss, reach higher sustainability in water use and improve food security.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/economia , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendas/economia , Tunísia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211410, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785905

RESUMO

The emergence of wheat-blast in Bangladesh in the 2015-16 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop threatens the food security of South Asia. A potential spread of the disease from Bangladesh to India could have devastating impacts on India's overall food security as wheat is its second most important staple food crop. West Bengal state in eastern India shares a 2,217 km-long border with Bangladesh and has a similar agro-ecology, enhancing the prospects of the disease entering India via West Bengal. The present study explores the possibility of a 'wheat holiday' policy in the nine border districts of West Bengal. Under the policy, farmers in these districts would stop wheat cultivation for at least two years. The present scoping study assesses the potential economic feasibility of alternative crops to wheat. Of the ten crops considered, maize, gram (chickpea), urad (black gram), rapeseed and mustard, and potatoes are found to be potentially feasible alternative crops. Any crop substitution would need support to ease the transition including addressing the challenges related to the management of alternative crops, ensuring adequate crop combinations and value chain development. Still, as wheat is a major staple, there is some urgency to support further research on disease epidemiology and forecasting, as well as the development and dissemination of blast-resistant wheat varieties across South Asia.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/microbiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Índia , Magnaporthe/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Política Pública , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(1): 341-348, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462317

RESUMO

Current assessments from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggest that some current insecticides may be lost or severely restricted in the near future. An experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2015 at two locations in Mississippi to determine the impact of losses of insecticide classes on integrated pest management of insect pests in cotton. The treatments included cotton treated with all available classes of insecticides, cotton treated with all classes except neonicotinoids, cotton treated with all classes except pyrethroids, cotton treated with all classes except carbamates and organophosphates, and an untreated control. Plots were scouted weekly and insecticide applications were made with the most efficacious and economical insecticides for each treatment when that treatment reached threshold for a particular insect pest(s). The primary insects at both locations were tobacco thrips and tarnished plant bugs. Thrips pressure was similar at both locations and generally showed that all insecticide treatments provided a similar level of protection compared with the untreated control. At the Stoneville location where tarnished plant bug pressure was greatest, cotton yields and economic returns differed between plots where all classes of insecticides were applied compared with the untreated control and where neonicotinoids were excluded. However, in Starkville where tarnished plant bug pressure was less, there were no differences among treatments. Although yield and economic returns were similar in high tarnished plant bug pressure areas when using all classes compared with managing without pyrethroids or organophosphates, a rotation among all insecticide classes should be beneficial for resistance management in Mid-South cotton production.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Heterópteros , Controle de Insetos/normas , Inseticidas , Animais , Gossypium , Controle de Insetos/economia , Mississippi
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 734-740, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212704

RESUMO

Maltese agriculture faces great challenges due to the severe scarcity of water. Sufficient water resources, in quantity and quality, are necessary to cover the demand in the production of wine grape, one of the most important crops in Maltese agriculture. But also, economic efficiency is essential in the grape cultivation. A Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is defined for Maltese vineyards in the Siggiewi region, considering two irrigation scenarios, irrigation with groundwater or "do-nothing", compared with the "use non-conventional waters" from mixing water from a small desalination plant and groundwater. For the alternative 'mixing desalinated water with groundwater' it is possible to improve water availability and quality for vine crops, while increasing economic benefits for farmer. The results indicate a profitable project from a minimum area of 1 ha, but final benefit is highly dependent on the irrigated surface extension according to water price. Desalination, compared with other type of non-conventional water is considered the best option in this assessment with a small reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant (120 m3/day) for covering the irrigation needs.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/economia , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Água Subterrânea , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malta , Águas Salinas/química
13.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(1): 40-48, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346534

RESUMO

The benefits of insect pollination to crop yields depend on genetic and environmental factors including plant self-fertility, pollinator visitation rates, and pollinator efficacy. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, such variation in pollinator benefits across both plant cultivars and growing regions is not well documented. In this study, across three states in the northern Great Plains, United States, from 2016 to 2017, we evaluated the pollinator-mediated yield increases for 10 varieties of confection sunflowers, Helianthus annuus L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), a plant that is naturally pollinator-dependent but was bred for self-fertility. We additionally measured pollinator visitation rates and compared per-visit seed set across pollinator taxa in order to determine the most efficacious sunflower pollinators. Across all locations and hybrids, insect pollination increased sunflower yields by 45%, which is a regional economic value of over $40 million and a national value of over $56 million. There was, however, some variation in the extent of pollinator benefits across locations and plant genotypes, and such variation was significantly related to pollinator visitation rates, further highlighting the value of pollinators for confection sunflowers. Female Andrena helianthi Robertson (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) and Melissodes spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most common and effective pollinators, while other bees including managed honey bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), small-bodied sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), bumble bees Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and male bees were either infrequent or less effective on a per-visit basis. Our results illustrate that wild bees, in particular the sunflower specialists A. helianthi and Melissodes spp., provide significant economic benefits to confection sunflower production.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Comportamento Animal , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Helianthus , Polinização , Animais , Biomassa , Feminino , Masculino
14.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 14(1): 78, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cultivated banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are valuable for nutritional and socio-economic security for millions of people worldwide. In Benin, banana and plantain are among the most produced, consumed, and traded commodities. Its production is mainly for local consumption and remains insufficient to the demand. However, the varietal diversity of banana and plantain cultivated in Benin is not documented. This study aims at characterizing the banana and plantain cropping systems, genetic diversity, and production constraints as a baseline to the full utilization of this resource in crop improvement and to identify the potential production and agronomic qualities. METHODS: A baseline investigation of ethnobotanical attributes of banana cultivars was done in 51 randomly chosen villages in southern Benin. Interviews with randomly selected representative farmers were carried out. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used for global confirmatory investigation of survey data. Socio-demographic data and indigenous knowledge on the farmer uses of banana and plantain diversity, such as cultural practices, origin, and availability of banana and plantain planting materials, and the constraints and criteria of varietal preference cited by farmers were ranked. RESULTS: Eighty-seven locally recognized cultivars were found: 73 of banana and 14 of plantain groups. The most popular cultivars were Sotoumon (banana) (52.94%), Aloga (plantain) (41.17%), Planta (banana) (33.33%), and Adjangan (plantain) (27.45%). Of the eleven production constraints identified, the main biotic challenges were banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar and banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), while abiotic problems were drought and the wind. Some local varieties like Amandan, Assonwonnou, Coleti, and Ninkouin are extremely rare owing to agronomic and economic preference perceptions. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study provides a baseline for banana diversity in Benin and the West African region and entry points for biological characterization and production improvement. This would enable the exploitation of this resource for plant breeding towards biotic and abiotic challenges facing banana production.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Benin , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Musa/classificação , Musa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558279

RESUMO

In order to alleviate the situation that bad money drives out good in the produce market within the context of incomplete information, as well as bridge the gap between demand and product surplus, establishing and improving the safety certification system for farm produce is an urgent need. This paper discusses factors that affect consumers' purchase of pork with safety certificates in the setting of incomplete information. Data from 844 consumers in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, along with a structural equation model, are adopted to study consumers' purchase intention of certified safe pork form. According to our studies, major factors refer to degree of understanding, degree of concern, recognition ability, government publicity, pork's origin information, consumers' educational levels, income levels, and consumers' evaluation of government supervision. Accordingly, suggestions are provided as follows. Above all, enhancing education and training of food safety is conducive to lead consumers' behaviors in a correct way. Next, news media and social public opinions can play a stronger role in guidance and supervision. Thirdly, an upgraded legal system should be accompanied by better policy implementation. Finally, strengthening the origin certification system and promoting a sense of brand are of significance.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Fazendas/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Animais , Culinária , Humanos , Intenção , Carne Vermelha , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Suínos
16.
F1000Res ; 72018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416712

RESUMO

Invasive species pose considerable harm to native ecosystems and biodiversity and frustrate and at times fascinate the invasive species management and scientific communities. Of the numerous non-native species established around the world, only a minority of them are invasive and noxious, whereas the majority are either benign or in fact beneficial. Agriculture in North America, for example, would look dramatically different if only native plants were grown as food crops and without the services of the European honey bee as a pollinator. Yet the minority of species that are invasive negatively alter ecosystems and reduce the services they provide, costing governments, industries, and private citizens billions of dollars annually. In this review, I briefly review the consequences of invasive species and the importance of remaining vigilant in the battle against them. I then focus on their management in an increasingly connected global community.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/economia , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15420, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337571

RESUMO

Here we assess the quality and in-season development of European wheat (Triticum spp.) yield forecasts during low, medium, and high-yielding years. 440 forecasts were evaluated for 75 wheat forecast years from 1993-2013 for 25 European Union (EU) Member States. By July, years with median yields were accurately forecast with errors below ~2%. Yield forecasts in years with low yields were overestimated by ~10%, while yield forecasts in high-yielding years were underestimated by ~8%. Four-fifths of the lowest yields had a drought or hot driver, a third a wet driver, while a quarter had both. Forecast accuracy of high-yielding years improved gradually during the season, and drought-driven yield reductions were anticipated with lead times of ~2 months. Single, contrasting successive in-season, as well as spatially distant dry and wet extreme synoptic weather systems affected multiple-countries in 2003, '06, '07, '11 and 12', leading to wheat losses up to 8.1 Mt (>40% of total EU loss). In these years, June forecasts (~ 1-month lead-time) underestimated these impacts by 10.4 to 78.4%. To cope with increasingly unprecedented impacts, near-real-time information fusion needs to underpin operational crop yield forecasting to benefit from improved crop modelling, more detailed and frequent earth observations, and faster computation.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , União Europeia , Previsões/métodos , Estações do Ano , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , União Europeia/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Chuva , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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