Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.383
Filtrar
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 442, 2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203445

RESUMO

The potential consequence of global climatic change caused the rise in temperature and precipitation decline, the aftermath of which has led to phenomenon like drought. As the agriculture is mainly dependent on the timely availability of water, delayed arrival of rainfall or decrease in the intensity of precipitation highly affects the growth of crops. If such situation persists for a longer period, the soil moisture content will be exploited completely and maturity of the crop will be stunted, finally adversely affecting the annual crop yield. In the present study, the capability of shortwave-infrared (SWIR) channels in detecting the agricultural crop stress in Raichur district of Karnataka state, India, using spectral vegetation indices namely Global Vegetation Moisture Index (GVMI) and Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) has been analyzed using multi-temporal MODIS data. The vegetation health analysis by utilizing both indices were carried out from year 2002 to 2012 for the Kharif season, and it was seen that the year 2002 suffered major agricultural drought where the lower GVMI and NMDI values were covering the majority of the crop areas and in the year 2010 agricultural crop production was observed to be good. The average values of GVMI and NMDI for the years 2002 and 2010 were plotted with the average NDVI values of all months of both years and the results revealed that NDVI values were in concurrence with both NMDI and GVMI.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ondas de Rádio , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Índia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/análise
2.
Planta ; 250(3): 857-871, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203447

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This represents the first report deciphering the dehydration response of suspension-cultured cells of a crop species, highlighting unique and shared pathways, and adaptive mechanisms via profiling of 330 metabolites. Grasspea, being a hardy legume, is an ideal model system to study stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. In this study, we investigated the dehydration-responsive metabolome in grasspea suspension-cultured cells (SCCs) to identify the unique and shared metabolites crucial in imparting dehydration tolerance. To reveal the dehydration-induced metabolite signatures, SCCs of grasspea were exposed to 10% PEG, followed by metabolomic profiling. Chromatographic separation by HPLC coupled with MRM-MS led to the identification of 330 metabolites, designated dehydration-responsive metabolites (DRMs), which belonged to 28 varied functional classes. The metabolome was found to be constituted by carboxylic acids (17%), amino acids (13.5%), flavonoids (10.9%) and plant growth regulators (10%), among others. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed predominance of metabolites involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, secondary metabolism and osmotic adjustment. Exogenous application of DRMs, arbutin and acetylcholine, displayed improved physiological status in stress-resilient grasspea as well as hypersensitive pea, while administration of lauric acid imparted detrimental effects. This represents the first report on stress-induced metabolomic landscape of a crop species via a suspension culture system, which would provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of stress responses and adaptation in crop species.


Assuntos
Lathyrus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Desidratação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lathyrus/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(5): 628-634, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053869

RESUMO

The antagonistic effect between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) is conclusively established in animals and human beings in the past decades. However, the underlying mechanisms of the interactions between Hg and Se in plants, as well as the metabolism of Hg-Se compounds in crops are still far from being understood. The botanic metallomics of Hg and Se mainly focuses on the translocation, transformation, and metabolism of Hg and Se in the environmental and botanic systems employing metallomics methods. An adequate understanding of the biological behavior of Hg and Se in plant is beneficial for sequestration of Hg and Se in soil-plant systems with high Hg and Se contamination. It can also provide a molecular mechanistic basis for Se supplementation in Se-deficient areas. Here, the key developments in current understanding of Hg and Se interactions in plants are reviewed. The metabolism and antagonism of Hg and Se in various plants, as well as the advanced analytical methods commonly used in this field, are summarized and discussed. As suggested, plant Hg and Se uptake, metabolism, and antagonism can be taken into account for detoxification and remediation strategies for the reduction of Hg and Se in the food chain.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Solo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 573-580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108290

RESUMO

Nonylphenols are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are used in various industries and are constantly discharged into the terrestrial environment. However, there have been few studies on the phytotoxicity of this chemical in the soil environment. In this study, mung bean (Vigna radiata) and rice (Oryza sativa) were grown in soil containing nonylphenol for 14 and 21 days (reflecting acute and chronic exposure, respectively), and we evaluated physiological responses (chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, and stomatal opening size) as well as changes in plant growth (shoot growth and root development) in crop plants grown in soil containing nonylphenol. In mung bean, chlorophyll content and stomata size decreased by exposure to nonylphenol. The decrease in chlorophyll content was attributed to electrolyte leakage due to damage of membrane barrier with increase of cell permeability caused by nonylphenol. Moreover, necrosis of the leaves of mung bean was observed at 2000 mg/kg soil. In rice, shoot growth, chlorophyll content and root development were reduced by chronic exposure to nonylphenol at 2000 mg/kg. Although the exposure concentrations were higher and nonylphenols are non-persistent, their constant release into soil poses a risk to terrestrial ecosystems. Our findings provide information that can be useful for soil ecological risk assessment for nonylphenol in agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 47-57, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981935

RESUMO

Frequently detected residuals of antibiotics in crops has drawn increasing attention from research community and the general public. This study was conducted under the controlled environmental conditions to investigate the uptake, translocation and distribution of three different veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in plants of Zea mays L. (maize, the third largest crop in the world, especially in China) and the associated mechanisms. The distribution color-maps of mixed-VAs showed that the highest RCF (root concentration factors) values of chlortetracycline (CTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) were found in the 0.5-2.0 mm zone (cell division zone), while the highest RCF value of sulfathiazole (ST) was in the 6.0-8.0 mm zone (elongation zone) of root tips (0.5-10.0 mm) after 120 h of exposure to VAs. The translocation factor (TF) of CTC was greater than 1.0, but the TFs of SMZ and ST were less than 1.0 under addition of single antibiotic. However, the TFs of three VAs were all greater than 1.0 at the end of exposure under addition of mixed-VAs. The dissipation of antibiotics by maize was also demonstrated by harvesting all plant parts in an enclosed system. The possible mechanisms for uptake and translocation of VAs in maize were investigated by adding multiple respiration inhibitors into the culture solution. The RCFs of VAs were suppressed heavily by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and sodium azide (NaN3), which indicates that the uptake of VAs was an active process. The results of TFs and stem concentration factors (SCFs) of CTC and SMZ in HgCl2 treatments revealed that the translocation of VAs was associated with the aquaporin activity in maize. The findings from this study will have significant implications for the management of crop food contamination by VAs and for the development of phytoremediation technology for antibiotics in the environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Drogas Veterinárias/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , China , Contaminação de Alimentos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 1156-1164, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018455

RESUMO

Significant global warming increases over the last century have resulted in recent research focused on practices to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural management practices, such as nitrogen (N) fertilization and aerated irrigation (AI), have significantly increased crop yields by improving soil water and fertilizer availability, and have been widely adopted in recent years. However, the interactive impact of different growing seasons and management practices in the greenhouse on GHG emissions is unclear. This greenhouse study was conducted during Spring and Autumn cultivation periods in Yangling, China with five N application rates (0, 50, 150, 200,250 kg ha-1) and two irrigation methods (AI and conventional irrigation [CK]). The results indicated that AI and N application both increased tomato yield, but also increased soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The temperature was 4 °C higher during Spring cultivation than during Autumn cultivation, which significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil emissions of CO2, N2O, and net GHG by 10.6%, 43.8%, and 12.3%, respectively. However, the yield in Spring cultivation only increased by 5.1% (P > 0.05). Thus, among the selectable cultivation seasons, the cooler season (Autumn) along with AI and 200 kg N ha-1, was recommended to farmers to avoid adverse effects of a warming environment. AI and 150 kg N ha-1 in Spring cultivation could be recommended as an alternative measure to local farmers. Our results suggest that in a future warmer climate, reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate in conjunction with the use of AI will remain important practices for maintaining crop yield while reducing soil net GHG emissions. There is an urgent need to transform current management practices to offset the negative impacts of climate change.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , China , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes , Aquecimento Global , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(17): 17173-17182, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001784

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution, in particular with cadmium (Cd), threatens both the environment and human health. The phytoremediation of contaminated soil is one recently developed eco-friendly technique that can be applied to mitigate this issue. Repairing Cd-contaminated paddy soil during the fallow winter period can ensure future rice production while reducing heavy metal pollution. Seven winter crops were planted in this study to investigate the accumulation of this metal in mid-level Cd and low-level lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)-contaminated paddy soils. Results show that after 4 or 5 months of growth, all crops had become moderately tolerant to toxicity; indeed, shoot Cd bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were 37.4, 17.0, 11.5, 10.5, 5.8, 3.9, and 1.4 for Sedum alfredii (SA), Witloof chicory (WC), edible-leaf beet (EB), Cardamine hupingshanensis (CH), leafy mustard (LM), oil mustard (OM), and perennial ryegrass (PR), respectively, while shoot Pb and Zn BCF values were less than 1 and 5, respectively. And SA, WC, EB, and CH all had higher shoot Cd accumulation capacities, especially SA in which the level reached 53.9 mg kg-1. The calculation results of restoration potential show that it will take at least 5 years for WC, 7 years for SA and EB, and 10 years for CH to reach the repair target. These results show that it is possible to grow winter crops to repair soil Cd pollution, with WC, EB, CH, and SA, the best candidates for making full use of fallow periods while simultaneously achieving soil phytoremediation. The results of this study will prove useful for establishing a new summer production model by ensuring the winter repair of contaminated paddy soil.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lolium , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza , Estações do Ano , Sedum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
8.
J Environ Radioact ; 204: 21-34, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954850

RESUMO

Studies performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide interception and weathering values for radioactive particles. None of these studies were available in the English language literature before or were considered in the international reviews. The estimated mass interception fractions ranged 0.2-1.4 m2 kg-1 may be explained by the size of the particles used in the research. The interrelationships among the interception fractions, plants biomass and size of radioactive particles were determined for different plants: spring and winter wheat, maize, rice, pasture and sown grass. A filtration model rather accurately approximated data for pasture grass and some other crops but does not reflect properly patterns of the interception fraction dependence on biomass for perennial sown grass. The values derived have been compared with some expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 472) where possible. The information presented can be used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental impact assessments.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Radioisótopos/metabolismo , Pesquisa , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos da radiação , Filtração , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Federação Russa , U.R.S.S.
9.
Food Chem ; 291: 239-244, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006465

RESUMO

A novel and sensitive deep eutectic solvent-based matrix solid phase dispersion (DES-MSPD) method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in various crops was established using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The DES-MSPD sample preparation procedure was optimized. Based on the optimal conditions, the intra-day and inter-day variability for AFs in all crop samples was less than 7.5%. Linearity was observed with R2 values (>0.994). Using the present method, HPLC-FLD gave the limits of detection (LODs) of 0.03-0.10 µg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.10-0.33 µg/kg for AFs. This work represents the first attempt of using DESs as a green extraction medium for the extraction of AFs in MSPD. Compared with conventional MSPD methods, the DES-MSPD procedure looks promising as a relatively simple and low cost process to build an assay that can be used for monitoring concentrations of AFs in crops.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/química , Aflatoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 177: 133-139, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981444

RESUMO

Seleniferous soil and crops have recently attracted attention worldwide. Cultivating seleniferous crops in the absence of heavy metals is greatly challenging. This study aimed to develop approaches for the safe exploitation of seleniferous soil. We collected 246 pairs of rice grain samples and their corresponding rhizosphere soil samples and 8542 topsoil samples from Binyang and Xingbin in Guangxi. The Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, and Se contents of soil and rice grain samples were tested. Several soil properties, including CaO, Mn, Mo, and S contents; total organic carbon content; and pH were also measured. Soil and rice grain samples that were classified as seleniferous accounted for 85.77% and 88% of all samples, respectively. More than 30% of soil and rice grain samples were potentially polluted by Cd. The percentage of seleniferous rice grain samples increased as soil Se concentration increased. Notably, however, the percentage of Cd-polluted rice grain samples decreased with the increase in soil Cd concentration. Models for the prediction of BAFs of heavy metal and Se were accurately established on the basis of significant partial correlations between log10 (BAFs) and log10 (soil properties). Farmlands with seleniferous soil under preferential protection and with safely exploited seleniferous soil accounted for 82.61% of the total study area. Sites that require remediation or land-use changes accounted for only 14.7% of the total study area and were mainly distributed in the center of the study area.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Selênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Selênio/química , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832379

RESUMO

The antioxidant defense system acts to maintain the equilibrium between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the elimination of toxic levels of ROS in plants. Overproduction and accumulation of ROS results in metabolic disorders and can lead to the oxidative destruction of the cell. Several stress factors cause ROS overproduction and trigger oxidative stress in crops and weeds. Recently, the involvement of the antioxidant system in weed interference and herbicide treatment in crops and weeds has been the subject of investigation. In this review, we address ROS production and plant mechanisms of defense, alterations in the antioxidant system at transcriptional and enzymatic levels in crops induced by weed interference, and herbicide exposure in crops and weeds. We also describe the mechanisms of action in herbicides that lead to ROS generation in target plants. Lastly, we discuss the relations between antioxidant systems and weed biology and evolution, as well as the interactive effects of herbicide treatment on these factors.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14277-14286, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864035

RESUMO

The irrigation with sewage water can be useful if it has no negative effects on food crop yield, soil pollution, and health of humans. However, it includes various types of contaminants like heavy metals that pollute the soil and crops. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible health risks of heavy metals in forages. Forages both of summer and winter were grown with different water treatments (sewage water and tap water) in Department of Botany, University of Sargodha. The concentration of iron (Fe) in water, soil, and plant samples was determined. The Fe values in tap and sewage water were observed as 0.090 and 0.115 mg/L, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Fe was 9.608 mg/kg in the soil where Trifolium alexandrinum is grown, and the lowest mean concentration was 0.154 mg/kg which occurred in the soil where Trifolium resupinatum is grown in winter. The maximum mean concentration of Fe in the root samples of plants was observed as 2.483 mg/kg in Pennisetum typhoideum, and the minimum mean concentration occurred as 0.390 mg/kg in Zea mays grown in summer. The maximum bioconcentration factor value of Fe was observed for T. resupinatum (5.259) grown in winter. The maximum pollution load index value of Fe was observed for T. alexandrinum (0.1688). The maximum value of daily intake of metals was observed as 0.0731 in Medicago sativa, and the maximum health risk index value was determined as 0.1091 in P. typhoideum.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferro/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14128-14136, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859443

RESUMO

A field experiment was performed to study the effects of mixed amendments, namely lime + organic fertilizer (LO), lime + organic fertilizer + calcium-magnesium phosphate fertilizer (LOC), lime + organic fertilizer + sepiolite (LOS), and lime + organic fertilizer + calcium-magnesium phosphate fertilizer + sepiolite (LOCS), on the availability and uptake of Cd from contaminated paddy soil under a rice-rape (Oryza sativa L. and Brassica napus L.) rotation system. The results showed that the grain yields of rice and rape with mixed amendment-treated were slightly influenced, in that the soil pH significantly increased while the DTPA-extractable Cd content of the soil and Cd uptake by the rice and rape were significantly reduced. The uptake of Cd by brown rice decreased significantly (p < 0.05), by 55.9-59.3% and 69.6-75.5% in the 2016 and 2017 crops, respectively, compared with that of the control (CK). The Cd uptake by rapeseeds during the 2017 season observably (p < 0.05) decreased by 38.2 and 29.6% under LO and LOC treatments, respectively. The Cd concentrations in rapeseeds were 0.11-0.18 mg kg-1 under all the treatments except LOCS treatment, which is lower than the National Standard of Pollutants in Food of China (GB 2762-2017, 0.2 mg kg-1). From both economic and food safety standpoints, rape is recommended for Cd-contaminated soil because it has a low Cd accumulation ability. The results showed that the rice-rape rotation combined with LO or LOC application was useful for reducing the Cd content in both rice and rape in Cd-contaminated soil and the effects could be sustained at least for three crop seasons.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Fertilizantes , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Agricultura/métodos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Cálcio , Compostos de Cálcio , China , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Compostos de Magnésio , Silicatos de Magnésio , Oryza/metabolismo , Óxidos , Fosfatos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 288: 170-177, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902278

RESUMO

An excess of nitrogen (N) is used in agriculture endangering the environment and food quality. One approach to circumvent this is to generate crops with a stable or even increased productivity under limited N. Here, we studied the effect of reduced N availability on potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber yield and quality traits using five varieties: the wild Andigena and the commercial cultivars Désirée, Milva, Saturna and Alegria. Growth on limited N resulted in less tubers with a reduced weight except for Andigena. Tubers from low N-grown plants contained more starch, less sucrose and were delayed in sprouting. Some of the trait differences can be explained by changes in hormone levels between cultivars and N conditions. In general, Saturna and Alegria performed better under limited N making them excellent breeding candidates. Our results suggest that wild species more flexibly adapt to limited N, a trait lost in commercial potatoes.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amido , Sacarose
15.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 1009-1019, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823329

RESUMO

Transformation of organic microcontaminants (OMCs) during wastewater treatments results in the generation of transformation products (TPs), which can be more persistent than parent compounds. Due to reuse of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) for crop irrigation, OMCs and TPs are released in soils being capable to translocate to crops. Furthermore, OMCs are also susceptible to transformation once they reach the soil or crops. The recalcitrant antiepileptic carbamazepine (CBZ) and some of its frequently reported TPs have been found in agricultural systems. However, there is no knowledge about the fate in reuse practices of multiple CBZ TPs that can be formed during wastewater treatment processes. For the first time, this work presents a study of the behavior of CBZ TPs generated after a conventional Ultraviolet-C (UVC) treatment in an agricultural environment. The UVC-treated water was used for the irrigation of lettuces grown under controlled conditions. The latter was compared to the fate of TPs generated in the peat and plant by irrigation with non-treated water containing CBZ. A suspect screening strategy was developed to identify the TPs using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-MS). The results revealed the presence of 24 TPs, 22 in UVC-treated water, 11 in peat and 9 in lettuce leaves. 4 of the TPs identified in peat (iminostilbene, TP 271B, TP 285A-B); and 3 in leaves (10-11 dihydrocarbamazepine, TP 271A-B) were not previously reported in soils or edible parts of crops, respectively. Comparing the TPs found in peat and lettuces derived from both irrigation conditions, no significant differences regarding TPs formation or occurrence were observed. UVC treatment did not contribute to the formation of different TPs than those generated by transformation or metabolism of CBZ in peat or plant material. This research improves the current knowledge on the fate of CBZ TPs in agricultural systems because of reuse practices.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Irrigação Agrícola , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 630-647, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844108

RESUMO

Sustainability and a more environment-friendly approach is an emerging issue relevant to crop production. Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, heat, cold or heavy metal pollution can severely compromise yields, and in this respect, plant protection practices should be highly efficient as well as safe for the environment and people. Among the many ways to achieve high productivity of healthy, safe and tasty food, the use of beneficial micro-organisms as biostimulants is the most promising one. Two types of soil fungi can be considered efficient natural plants stimulants: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma spp. (TR). Generally, most investigations indicated AMF and TR were effective, as well as safe, for use as natural biopreparations dedicated to horticultural crops, although some reports pointed to their negative impact on plants. This review focuses on the mutual interaction of AMF and TR, as well as complex relationships with plants analysed on a multidimensional level: biochemical, morphological, ecological and agrotechnical. AMF and TR were found to be effective elicitors of root system development, nutrient uptake, plant stress response and production of secondary metabolites. As natural plant stimulants, beneficial fungi are compatible with modern trends of crop management, environmental conservation and functional food production. Herein, we demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of AMF and TR use in horticulture and their prospects, as well as the points that need further exploring.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Trichoderma/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico , Simbiose
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 176: 85-94, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921700

RESUMO

Brassica parachinensis L., a daily consumed leaf vegetable, is a high-Cd accumulator that substantially threatens human health. Screening and breeding Cd pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) of crops is a low-cost strategy to restrict human Cd intake from contaminated soils via the food chain. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the low-Cd-accumulating traits of B. parachinensis Cd-PSCs. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of the Cd-treated (5 µM) roots and shoots of a low-Cd-accumulating cultivar (SJ19) and a high-Cd-accumulating cultivar (CX4) of B. parachinensis to reveal the molecular mechanisms in response to Cd stress. Compared to CX4, many pathways involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms were exclusively up-regulated in SJ19 roots upon exposure to low Cd concentrations, which may produce more energy and metabolites for Cd detoxification. Antioxidant enzymes in the peroxisome were up-regulated in both SJ19 and CX4 roots in response to Cd, while glutathione biosynthesis was only activated in SJ19 roots. In SJ19 shoots, pathways of photosynthesis and cell growth were activated to mitigate Cd-induced damages. Furthermore, Cd transport genes, such as MTP1, HMA3 and CAX family genes, were highly induced by Cd stress in SJ19 roots in accordance with the high Cd concentration in roots, while genes involved in root-to-shoot Cd translocation such as FRD3 and CESA3 were suppressed, which may contribute to the low Cd concertation in edible part of SJ19. Our study provides a genetic basis for further Cd-PSCs screening and breeding.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Cádmio/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Chemosphere ; 225: 479-489, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897471

RESUMO

Endosulfan is a broad spectrum insecticide used in agriculture for protection of various food and non-food crops. It is persistent in nature and hence found in soil, air and water. The potential use of plants and microorganisms for the removal of endosulfan from soil was studied. Helianthus annuus plant was grown in soil spiked with 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 concentrations of endosulfan and inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains Paenibacillus sp. IITISM08, Bacillus sp. PRB77 and Bacillus sp. PRB101 for 40, 80 and 120 days. Potential of plant for endosulfan uptake was evaluated by investigating the endosulfan levels in plant tissues (root and shoot). The results indicated that endosulfan accumulation followed the pattern of root > shoot as well as decrease in uptake of endosulfan in root and shoot of a plant grown in bacterial inoculated soil as compared to un-inoculated soil. Bacterial inoculation had a positive effect on endosulfan degradation. Maximum degradation of 92% at 5 mg kg-1 of endosulfan in soil was observed on inoculation with PRB101 after 120 days of inoculation. The results showed that plant growth promoting bacteria enhances plant biomass production. Lipid peroxidation was also estimated by determining the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, which is a biomarker of oxidative damage. Decrease in MDA formation by root and leaves of plants grown in the bacteria inoculated plant was also observed. The results suggested the effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to boost accumulation potential, biomass production and enhance remediation of endosulfan contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Endossulfano/metabolismo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Inoculantes Agrícolas , Agricultura , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Endossulfano/análise , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/análise , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704105

RESUMO

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are heterocyclic secondary metabolites with a typical pyrrolizidine motif predominantly produced by plants as defense chemicals against herbivores. They display a wide structural diversity and occur in a vast number of species with novel structures and occurrences continuously being discovered. These alkaloids exhibit strong hepatotoxic, genotoxic, cytotoxic, tumorigenic, and neurotoxic activities, and thereby pose a serious threat to the health of humans since they are known contaminants of foods including grain, milk, honey, and eggs, as well as plant derived pharmaceuticals and food supplements. Livestock and fodder can be affected due to PA-containing plants on pastures and fields. Despite their importance as toxic contaminants of agricultural products, there is limited knowledge about their biosynthesis. While the intermediates were well defined by feeding experiments, only one enzyme involved in PA biosynthesis has been characterized so far, the homospermidine synthase catalyzing the first committed step in PA biosynthesis. This review gives an overview about structural diversity of PAs, biosynthetic pathways of necine base, and necic acid formation and how PA accumulation is regulated. Furthermore, we discuss their role in plant ecology and their modes of toxicity towards humans and animals. Finally, several examples of PA-producing crop plants are discussed.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/farmacologia , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Cobre/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 307-314, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711597

RESUMO

Untreated industrial sewage and domestic wastewater irrigation has led to agricultural soil-crop system contamination by heavy metals and fluoride in Dongdagou and Xidagou stream basins, Baiyin city, China. A total of 36 pairs of soil and wheat samples (roots, stalks, leaves, husks, and grains) and 42 pairs of soil and maize samples (roots, stalk1, stalk2, stalk3, leaves, husks, corncobs and grains) were collected from Dongdagou and Xidagou stream basins to examine the accumulation, fractionation, correlation of heavy metals and F in soil-crop systems. Risks posed by heavy metals and F in this system to human health was also assessed. The total contents of F and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn Zn, Cr and Ni), as well as the fraction distribution in soil, were determined. The total contents of F and heavy metals in crop tissues were also determined. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn Zn, F and Cr in Dongdagou and Xidagou stream basins exceeded the soil background value. Heavy metals and F more easily accumulated in the male inflorescence of maize. Correlation analysis showed that content of water soluble F positively were correlated with the contents of Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn Zn, Cr and Ni in exchangeable and carbonate fractions (P < 0.05). Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that the combined stresses of soil total Cu and Ni accounts for 100% effect on water soluble F accumulation in soil and crop roots. The hazard index indicated that noncancerous risk is likely to occur through maize grains and wheat grains consumption by children and adults.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , China , Fluoretos/análise , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA