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1.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(2): 126067, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005490

RESUMO

Forty rhizobial strains were isolated from Lotus creticus, L. pusillus and Bituminaria bituminosa endemic to Tunisia, and they belonged to the Mesorhizobium and Ensifer genera based on 16S rDNA sequence phylogeny. According to the concatenated recA and glnII sequence-based phylogeny, four Bituminaria isolates Pb5, Pb12, Pb8 and Pb17 formed a monophyletic group with Mesorhizobium chacoense ICMP14587T, whereas four other strains Pb1, Pb6, Pb13 and Pb15 formed two separate lineages within the Ensifer genus. Among the L. pusillus strains, Lpus9 and Lpus10 showed a 96% identical nucleotide with Ensifer meliloti CCBAU83493T; whereas six other strains could belong to previously undescribed Mesorhizobium and Ensifer species. For L. creticus strains, Lcus37, Lcus39 and Lcus44 showed 98% sequence identity with Ensifer aridi JNVU TP6, and Lcus42 shared a 96% identical nucleotide with Ensifer meliloti CCBAU83493T; whereas another four strains were divergent from all the described Ensifer and Mesorhizobium species. The analysis of the nodC gene-based phylogeny identified four symbiovar groups; Mesorhizobium sp. sv. anthyllidis (Lpus3 and Lpus11 from L. pusillus, Lcus43 from L. creticus), Ensifer medicae sv. meliloti (four strains from L. creticus and two strains from L. pusillus), E. meliloti sv. meliloti (four from L. creticus, four from L. pusillus and four from B. bituminosa). In addition, four B. bituminosa strains (Pb5, Pb8, Pb12, and Pb17) displayed a distinctive nodC sequence distant from those of other symbiovars described to date. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the B. bituminosa symbionts (Pb5, Pb8, Pb12 and Pb17) would represent a new symbiovar of M. chacoense for which sv. psoraleae is proposed.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Mesorhizobium/fisiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Sinorhizobium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fabaceae/classificação , Genes Essenciais/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Mesorhizobium/classificação , Mesorhizobium/genética , Mesorhizobium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Nodulação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sinorhizobium/classificação , Sinorhizobium/genética , Sinorhizobium/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose/genética , Tunísia
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 23, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965334

RESUMO

Arsenic naturally occurs in the earth's crust and can be introduced in the environment by human activities. Agricultural practices in arsenic-contaminated environments pose a threat to human health. The contamination of crops contributes to the metalloid's introduction in the food chain. This study aims to test the hypotheses that the inoculation of a hyperaccumulator rhizobacterial strain, Ochrobactrum tritici As5, to the rhizosphere of rice plants reduces the arsenic presence inside the tissue of the rice plants and reduces the inhibitory effect of the metalloid on the plant's growth parameters. Inoculation of the hyperaccumulating strain O. tritici As5 showed the lowest concentration of arsenic in the plant's tissue (2.6 fold lower than sterile plants), compared to the unmodified type O. tritici SCII24 and sterile rice plants. The inoculation of the type strain SCII24 also led to a decrease in arsenic concentration in the plant tissue compared with sterile plants (1.6 fold lower than sterile plants). The difference in arsenic presence in shoots was smaller among treatment groups than in the roots, showing a similar trend. The inoculation of the hyperaccumulator As5 strain alleviated some of the toxic effects of arsenic on shoot growth compared to inoculation of the unmodified type strain. All these findings together, contribute to our understanding of the interplay between arsenic pollution, plants and their rhizobacteria, especially the role of bioaccumulation of metal(oids) by rhizobacteria, and provide important information on the prevention of arsenic uptake by crops and the development of phytostabilizers.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 26, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997078

RESUMO

Salinity stress is one of the key constraints for sustainable crop production. It has gained immense importance in the backdrop of climate change induced imbalanced terrestrial water budgets. The traditional agronomic approaches and breeding salt-tolerant genotypes have often proved insufficient to alleviate salinity stress. Newer approaches like the use of bacterial endophytes associated with agricultural crops have occupied center place recently, owing to their advantageous role in improving crop growth, health and yield. Research evidences have revealed that bacterial endophytes can promote plant growth by accelerating availability of mineral nutrients, helping in production of phytohormones, siderophores, and enzymes, and also by activating systemic resistance against insect pest and pathogens in plants. These research developments have opened an innovative boulevard in agriculture for capitalizing bacterial endophytes, single species or consortium, to enhance plant salt tolerance capabilities, and ultimately lead to translational refinement of crop-production business under salty environments. This article reviews the latest research progress on the identification and functional characterization of salt tolerant endophytic bacteria and illustrates various mechanisms triggered by them for plant growth promotion under saline environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 1-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451946

RESUMO

Microbe-assisted organopollutant removal, or in planta crop decontamination, is based on an interactive system between organopollutant-degrading endophytic bacteria (DEBOP) and crops in alleviating organic toxins in plants. This script focuses on the fast-growing body of literature that has recently bloomed in organopollutant control in agricultural plants. The various facets of DEBOP under study include their colonization, distribution, plant growth-promoting mechanisms, and modes of action in the detoxification process in plants. Also, an assessment of the biotechnological advances, advantages, and bottlenecks in accelerating the implementation of this decontamination strategy will be undertaken. The highlighted key research directions from this review will shape the future of agro-environmental sustainability and preservation of human health.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Endófitos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
5.
Microbiol Res ; 232: 126390, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855689

RESUMO

Continuous cropping of soybean often causes significant declines in yields of soybean because of the outbreaks of soil-borne fungal diseases. It has been reported that wild crops often harbour a unique microbiome to benefit the host plants. Thus, it is necessary to find the different community structures of the rhizomicrobiomes associated with cultivated and wild soybeans in their continuous cropping. In this study, we simulated monocropping of cultivated and wild soybeans under greenhouse conditions to investigate the rhizomicrobiomes of both soybeans. Results indicated that the bacterial community structure still maintained a changing trend after four continuous planting seasons, while fungal community structure showed a stable trend as indicated by the high similarity in the fungal community structure between the third and fourth planting rotations in both soybeans. In addition, by comparing the continuous cropping of the two soybeans, we found different fungal groups in their rhizospheres between the wild and cultivated soybeans following each passage. Spizellomycetaceae was more highly enriched in the rhizosphere following cultivation of the cultivated soybean, while Chaetomiaceae and Orbiliaceae were more highly enriched in the rhizosphere of wild soybean. Taken together, results of this study suggested that although there was the same trend of stabilized fungal development in the rhizospheres of both soybeans, wild soybean rhizosphere had different fungal groups compared with that of cultivated soybean following their continuous cropping. The findings of this study may provide useful information for the farmers with regard to planting soybean, especially when they consider growing soybean in monoculture.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbiota/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
6.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4135, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515535

RESUMO

Perennial grasses are promising feedstocks for biofuel production, with potential for leveraging their native microbiomes to increase their productivity and resilience to environmental stress. Here, we characterize the 16S rRNA gene diversity and seasonal assembly of bacterial and archaeal microbiomes of two perennial cellulosic feedstocks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). We sample leaves and soil every three weeks from pre-emergence through senescence for two consecutive switchgrass growing seasons and one miscanthus season, and identify core leaf taxa based on occupancy. Virtually all leaf taxa are also detected in soil; source-sink modeling shows non-random, ecological filtering by the leaf, suggesting that soil is an important reservoir of phyllosphere diversity. Core leaf taxa include early, mid, and late season groups that were consistent across years and crops. This consistency in leaf microbiome dynamics and core members is promising for microbiome manipulation or management to support crop production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Análise Multivariada , Panicum/genética , Panicum/microbiologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3166-3171, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545698

RESUMO

Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, is a widespread pathogen that affects many crops in California and throughout the world. Cover cropping with leguminous species is often integrated into a rotation scheme for its contribution to soil nitrogen, and can contribute to management of Verticillium wilt provided the chosen crop does not support development of V. dahliae. Seven cool season legumes (faba bean, bell bean, field pea, hairy vetch, common vetch, purple vetch, and woollypod vetch), and three warm season legumes (sesbania, sunn hemp, and black-eyed pea) were evaluated as hosts for reproductive growth of V. dahliae. All 10 legumes were colonized by V. dahliae, while remaining symptomless, when subjected to a root-dip inoculation. Similar results were obtained when plants were grown in infested potting soil, albeit with a lower frequency of infection than in root-dip assays. All tested legumes were also infected in field trials, with the exception of bell bean. Overall, warm season legumes sustained higher rates of infection than cool season legumes. Common vetch was the most extensively colonized of the cool season legumes. Based on the results of this study, legumes may not be an appropriate rotation crop in fields where Verticillium wilt is a problem.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Fabaceae , Verticillium , California , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Verticillium/fisiologia
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10947-10953, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498626

RESUMO

Aflatoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that can contaminate feed and food. They are a cause of growing concern worldwide, because they are potent carcinogenic agents. Thiosemicarbazones are molecules that possess interesting antiaflatoxigenic properties, but in order to use them as crop-protective agents, their cytotoxic and genotoxic profiles must first be assessed. In this paper, a group of thiosemicarbazones and a copper complex are reported as compounds able to antagonize aflatoxin biosynthesis, fungal growth, and sclerotia biogenesis in Aspergillus flavus. The two most interesting thiosemicarbazones found were noncytotoxic on several cell lines (CRL1790, Hs27, HFL1, and U937), and therefore, they were submitted to additional analysis of mutagenicity and genotoxicity on bacteria, plants, and human cells. No mutagenic activity was observed in bacteria, whereas genotoxic activity was revealed by the Alkaline Comet Assay on U937 cells and by the test of chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
10.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1828-1839, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398087

RESUMO

Mycoviruses from plant pathogens can induce hypovirulence (reduced virulence) in their host fungi and have gained considerable attention as potential biocontrol tools. An increasing number of mycoviruses that induce fungal hypovirulence, from a wide variety of taxonomic groups, are currently being reported. Successful application of these viruses in disease management is greatly dependent on their ability to spread in the natural populations of the pathogen. Mycoviruses generally lack extracellular routes of transmission. Hyphal anastomosis is the main route of horizontal mycovirus transmission to other isolates, and conidia of vertical transmission to the progeny. Transmission efficiencies are influenced by both the fungal host and the infecting virus. Interestingly, artificial transfection methods have shown that potential biocontrol mycoviruses often have the ability to infect a variety of fungi. This expands their possible use to the control of pathogens others than those where they were identified. Mycovirus research is also focused on gaining insights into their complex molecular biology and the molecular bases of fungus-virus interactions. This knowledge could be exploited to manipulate the mycovirus and/or the host and generate combinations with enhanced properties in biological control. Finally, when exploring the use of mycoviruses in field conditions, the pathogen life style and the characteristics of the disease and crops affected will deeply impact the specific challenges to overcome, and the development of biocontrol formulations and delivery methods.


Assuntos
Micovírus , Vírus de RNA , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Micovírus/fisiologia , Fungos/virologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/tendências , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Virulência
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374994

RESUMO

Tomatoes are among the most important horticultural crops; however, it is estimated that 30% of tomato yield is lost due to postharvest rot due to Rhizopus stolonifer, a fungus which requires lesions to initiate the infectious process. Tomato fruit cracking is a physiopathy which causes significant economic losses, since cracking is the door used by the fungus. In this experiment, 14 cultivars of tomato of different types were used. Fruit sampling was carried out in the middle of the crop cycle, coinciding with the peak of yield; then, the fruits were divided into two groups: one group was inoculated with Rhizopus in order to assess the effectiveness of washing, whilst the other was treated with sterile water. The fruits of each group were divided into lots to be treated with six washing treatments: dipping in hot water at 20, 40 and 60 °C for 20 s; the fruits were then sprayed with the following solutions: 0.6% of Hydrogen Peroxide 23% + Peracetic acid 15%; commercial bleach at 0.5% and 2% of Hydrogen Peroxide 50%. The control sample was not washed. The results show that there was an influence of cultivar on fruit cracking, which was strongly related with Rhizopus infection. Three cultivars were not susceptible to cracking, and therefore, were not sensitive to Rhizopus infection. The effectiveness of different washing treatments of tomato fruits depends on several factors; nonetheless, hot water treatment has been shown to be more effective than the use of chemical products such as commercial bleach or hydrogen peroxide. Another factor, the susceptibility of cultivars to cracking, determines the effectiveness of the washing treatment. The results provide an important basis for making decisions about the washing management of tomato fruits in packaging houses.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Rhizopus/patogenicidade , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizopus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3430, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366919

RESUMO

The root microbiota is critical for agricultural yield, with growth-promoting bacteria able to solubilise phosphate, produce plant growth hormones, antagonise pathogens and fix N2. Plants control the microorganisms in their immediate environment and this is at least in part through direct selection, the immune system, and interactions with other microorganisms. Considering the importance of the root microbiota for crop yields it is attractive to artificially regulate this environment to optimise agricultural productivity. Towards this aim we express a synthetic pathway for the production of the rhizopine scyllo-inosamine in plants. We demonstrate the production of this bacterial derived signal in both Medicago truncatula and barley and show its perception by rhizosphere bacteria, containing bioluminescent and fluorescent biosensors. This study lays the groundwork for synthetic signalling networks between plants and bacteria, allowing the targeted regulation of bacterial gene expression in the rhizosphere for delivery of useful functions to plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Medicago truncatula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Agricultura , Bactérias/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/microbiologia , Inositol/biossíntese , Inositol/genética , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Mycorrhiza ; 29(5): 445-457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456075

RESUMO

There is a growing recognition of the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in food security, specifically the potential for AMF to enhance the yield and mineral nutrition-including phosphorus, zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe)-of food crops. However, the bioavailability of Zn and Fe for humans in the grain of cereal crops can be overestimated by failing to consider the abundance of phytic acid (PA). This is because PA can chelate the micronutrients, making them difficult to absorb. In order to understand the effect of an AM fungus and soil Zn concentration on the productivity and nutritional quality of food parts, this study examined the growth and nutritional responses of durum wheat, with and without inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis, at five soil Zn concentrations. Growth and nutrient responses of the plants to soil Zn amendment was stronger than responses to AMF. However, the protective effect of AMF under soil Zn toxicity conditions was observed as reduced Zn concentration in the mycorrhizal durum wheat grain at Zn50. Here, AMF inoculation increased the concentration of PA in durum wheat grain but had no effect on the concentration of Zn and Fe; this consequently reduced the predicted bioavailability of grain Zn and Fe, which could lead to a decrease in nutritional quality of the grain. This research suggests that in soil with low (available) phosphorus and Zn concentrations, AMF may reduce the food quality of durum wheat because of an increase in PA concentration, and thus, a decrease in the bioavailability of Zn and Fe.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Ferro/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Triticum/química
14.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 39(8): 981-998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455102

RESUMO

The soil microbiota plays a major role in maintaining the nutrient balance, carbon sink, and soil health. Numerous studies reported on the function of microbiota such as plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in soil. Although microalgae and cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in soil, very less attention has been paid on the potential of these microorganisms. The indiscriminate use of various chemicals to enhance agricultural productivity led to serious consequences like structure instability, accumulation of toxic contaminants, etc., leading to an ecological imbalance between soil, plant, and microbiota. However, the significant role of microalgae and cyanobacteria in crop productivity and other potential options has been so far undermined. The intent of the present critical review is to highlight the significance of this unique group of microorganisms in terms of maintaining soil fertility and soil health. Beneficial soil ecological applications of these two groups in enhancing plant growth, establishing interrelationships among other microbes, and detoxifying chemical agents such as insecticides, herbicides, etc. through mutualistic cooperation by synthesizing enzymes and phytohormones are presented. Since recombinant technology involving genomic integration favors the development of useful traits in microalgae and cyanobacteria for their potential application in improvement of soil fertility and health, the merits and demerits of various such advanced methodologies associated in harnessing the biotechnological potential of these photosynthetic microorganisms for sustainable agriculture were also discussed.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Cianobactérias/genética , Engenharia Genética , Microalgas/genética , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Solo/química
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 75-81, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284020

RESUMO

Aflatoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite with high toxicity that is capable of contaminating various types of food crops. It has been identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chronic aflatoxin exposure has caused worldwide concern as a matter of public food safety. Peanuts and peanut products are the major sources of aflatoxin exposure. Therefore, some reduction interventions have been developed to minimize contamination throughout the peanut production chain. The purpose of this study is to estimate the efficacy of interventions in reducing the health impact of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. The estimated total Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated using FDA-iRISK software. Six aflatoxin reduction strategies were evaluated, including good agricultural practice (GAP), biocontrol, Purdue Improved Crop Storage packaging, basic processing, ozonolysis, and ultraviolet irradiation. The results indicated that basic processing could prevent huge public health loss of 4,079.7-21,833 total DALYs per year. In addition, GAP and biocontrol were both found to be effective strategies in the farm field. Meanwhile, the other three interventions had limited effectiveness in reducing total DALYs. In conclusion, this study could help farmers, processing plants, and government policy makers to alleviate aflatoxin contamination issues in the peanut production chain.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/efeitos adversos , Arachis/microbiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Avaliação da Deficiência , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Ozônio/química , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340442

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in pesticide use to improve crop production due to the growth of agricultural activities. Consequently, various pesticides have been present in the environment for an extended period of time. This review presents a general description of recent advances in the development of methods for the quantification of pesticides used in agricultural activities. Current advances focus on improving sensitivity and selectivity through the use of nanomaterials in both sensor assemblies and new biosensors. In this study, we summarize the electrochemical, optical, nano-colorimetric, piezoelectric, chemo-luminescent and fluorescent techniques related to the determination of agricultural pesticides. A brief description of each method and its applications, detection limit, purpose-which is to efficiently determine pesticides-cost and precision are considered. The main crops that are assessed in this study are bananas, although other fruits and vegetables contaminated with pesticides are also mentioned. While many studies have assessed biosensors for the determination of pesticides, the research in this area needs to be expanded to allow for a balance between agricultural activities and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Agricultura , Técnicas Biossensoriais/economia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Colorimetria/economia , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/economia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes/economia , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Musa/efeitos dos fármacos , Musa/microbiologia , Musa/parasitologia , Musa/virologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/economia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação
17.
Fungal Biol ; 123(8): 555-557, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345409

RESUMO

Fungi threaten the security of food supply to human populations on several fronts. They destroy up to 30 % of crop products through disease and spoilage processes, while mycotoxin-producing fungi and opportunistic pathogens endanger food safety. Control of these fungi is vital for improving food security, but current measures are inadequate and further challenges due to human-population growth and climate change are escalating. Investment and innovation in research on strategies to control fungal growth, harnessed through international, inter-disciplinary collaboration across socio-economic boundaries, provides one key to rising to this challenge.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/análise , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Micotoxinas/metabolismo
18.
Fungal Biol ; 123(8): 558-564, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345410

RESUMO

Plant fungal pathogens place considerable strain on agricultural productivity and threaten global food security. In recent decades, advances in crop breeding, farming practice and the agrochemical industry have allowed crop yields to keep pace with food demand. In this opinion article, we speculate on which recent technological advances will allow us to maintain this situation into the future. We take inspiration that it is 25 y since the first plant disease resistance genes were cloned, and imagine if and how agricultural control of pathogens will be achieved by the year 2044. We examine which technologies are best poised to make the jump from lab bench to field application, and propose that future control measures will likely depend on effective integrated disease management.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resistência à Doença , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fungos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia
19.
Fungal Biol ; 123(8): 565-583, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345411

RESUMO

Large losses before crop harvesting are caused by plant pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes. Among these, fungi are the major cause of losses in agriculture worldwide. Plant pathogens are still controlled through application of agrochemicals, causing human disease and impacting environmental and food security. Biological control provides a safe alternative for the control of fungal plant pathogens, because of the ability of biocontrol agents to establish in the ecosystem. Some Trichoderma spp. are considered potential agents in the control of fungal plant diseases. They can interact directly with roots, increasing plant growth, resistance to diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress. Furthermore, Trichoderma can directly kill fungal plant pathogens by antibiosis, as well as via mycoparasitism strategies. In this review, we will discuss the interactions between Trichoderma/fungal pathogens/plants during the pre-harvest of crops. In addition, we will highlight how these interactions can influence crop production and food security. Finally, we will describe the future of crop production using antimicrobial peptides, plants carrying pathogen-derived resistance, and plantibodies.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Trichoderma/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fungos/fisiologia , Trichoderma/genética
20.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2153-2170, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343378

RESUMO

The ready-to-eat salad sector, also called fresh-cut or bagged salads, is a fast-growing segment of the fresh-food industry. The dynamism and specialization of this sector, together with the lack of adequate crop rotation, the globalization of the seed market, and climate change, are the main causes of the development of many new diseases that cause severe production losses. Newly detected diseases of the most important crops grown (lettuce, wild and cultivated rocket, lamb's lettuce, chicory, endive, basil, spinach, and Swiss chard) are critically discussed. The management of these diseases represents a formidable challenge, since few fungicides are registered on these minor-use crops. An interesting feature of the ready-to-eat salad sector is that most crops are grown under protection, often in soilless systems, which provide an environment helpful to the implementation of innovative control methods. Current trends in disease management are discussed, with special focus on the most sustainable practices.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Alface , Doenças das Plantas , Verduras , Agricultura/normas , Agricultura/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Alface/microbiologia , Alface/normas , Ocimum basilicum , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Valerianella , Verduras/microbiologia
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