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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10756-10763, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483626

RESUMO

AFEX treatment of crop residues can greatly increase their nutrient availability for ruminants. This study investigated the concentration of acetamide, an ammoniation byproduct, in AFEX-treated crop residues and in milk and meat from ruminants fed these residues. Acetamide concentrations in four AFEX-treated cereal crop residues were comparable and reproducible (4-7 mg/g dry matter). A transient acetamide peak in milk was detected following introduction of AFEX-treated residues to the diet, but an alternative regimen showed the peak can be effectively mitigated. Milk acetamide concentration following this transition was 6 and 10 ppm for cattle and buffalo, respectively, but also decreased over time for cattle while tending to decrease (p = 0.08) for buffalo. There was no difference in acetamide concentration in the meat of cattle consuming AFEX-treated residues for 160 days compared to controls. Further investigation is necessary to determine the metabolism of acetamide in ruminants and a maximum acceptable daily intake for humans.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Acetamidas/metabolismo , Amônia/química , Animais , Búfalos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Leite/metabolismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 195-204, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323568

RESUMO

Contamination of agricultural soils by trace elements is a recurrent hazard for human health because of the possibility of pollutants entering the food chain. Aim of this study was to assess the human health risk from consumption of the common leafy (Lactuca sativa L.) and fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) crops, in an agricultural area of Southern Italy. Along with agricultural practices, a major pollutant source is recurrent flooding from the highly polluted Solofrana river. Soil samples and edible parts of crops from 14 sites (10 flooded and 4 not flooded) were analyzed for total amounts of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn. The bio-accumulation factor (BAF) and Health Risk Index (HRI) were calculated for each element, crop and site and as average values of all sites (BAFmean and HRImean). Moreover, the Hazard Index (HI) was determined for each site, as the sum of HRI for all elements. Cr and Cu, mostly derived from river flooding and agricultural practices, respectively, were the only elements whose levels exceeded law thresholds and/or the natural background of the study area. Of the two considered crops, L. sativa accumulated more Cd, Cr and Ni, whereas C. pepo was a more effective bioaccumulator of Zn. Both HRImean (for As, Cd, Cr and Ni) and HI were higher for L. sativa than for C. pepo. A low health risk was associated to major soil pollutants (Cr and Cu) found in the study area; in contrast, combined data on soil pollution and plant bio-accumulation points to accumulation of Cd and As, mainly in lettuce, as a potential risk for human health. The results suggest that soil pollution data alone is not sufficient to assess health risk.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Cadeia Alimentar , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Medição de Risco , Solo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 782-792, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150898

RESUMO

Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals such as Cd is a threat to ecosystems and food safety. Our knowledge is still limited about the effectiveness of remediation process for Cd-contaminated agro-soils under atmospheric Cd deposition. In this study, eight soil amendments were used in a Cd-contaminated purple soil to investigate their impacts on soil Cd availability, microbial response, and Cd uptake by mustard and corn plants via simulating the atmospheric Cd deposition under laboratory incubation and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the simulated atmospheric Cd deposition increased the soil high-risk Cd (HR, exchangeable and carbonate Cd) and decreased soil medium-risk Cd fraction (MR, bound to Fe/Mn oxide and organic Cd), and the largest direct effects on crop Cd uptakes were 0.94 and 0.66 for mustard and corn based on the path-coefficient analysis, respectively. Generally, Cd deposition led to decreasing soil microbial biomass carbon, populations of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, and enzyme activities of urease, catalase, sucrase, and acid phosphatase whereas increasing soil microbial biomass nitrogen. Compared with control and lime treatments, an organic-inorganic combined preparation (OCP) appeared to be effective for remediation of the Cd-contaminated purple soil due to its potential to increase the HR-Cd and reduce both MR-Cd and crop Cd uptake, as accompanied by its neutral effects on soil bacterial alpha diversity and community structure. Results also indicated that application of nitrogen fertilizers should be considered for remediation of the Cd-contaminated soils as nitrogen inputs were demonstrated to promote soil health under elevated Cd condition.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Fertilizantes , Solo/química
4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5209-5222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183522

RESUMO

The developed method was evaluated for the determination of 10 antibiotics belonging to four chemical classes (fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, lincosamides, and metoxybenzylpyrimidines) and six of their metabolites in four vegetable matrices (lettuce, tomato, cauliflower, and broad beans). The reported method detection limits were sufficiently low (0.1-5.8 ng/g dry weight) to detect target compounds in vegetables under real agricultural practices. Absolute and relative recovery values ranged from 40 to 118% and from 70 to 118%, respectively, for all targeted compounds at the spike level of 100 ng/g dry weight. Regarding method precision, the highest relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained for enrofloxacin in lettuce (20%), while for the rest of the compounds in all matrices, the RSD values were below 20% for the same spike level. Matrix effects, due to electrospray ionization, ranged from - 26 to 29% for 85% of all estimated values. In a field study, four of the 10 targeted antibiotics were detected in tested vegetables. For the first time, antibiotic metabolites were quantified in vegetables grown under real field conditions. More specifically, decarboxyl ofloxacin and TMP304 were detected in tomato fruits (1.5 ng/g dry weight) and lettuce leaves (21.0-23.1 ng/g dry weight), respectively. It is important to remark that the concentration of TMP304 was five times higher than that from the parental compound, emphasizing the importance of metabolite analysis in monitoring studies. Therefore, the method provided a robust, reliable, and simple-to-use tool that could prove useful for routine multiclass analysis of antibiotics and their metabolites in vegetable samples. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Verduras/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 95-104, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136935

RESUMO

Biostimulants improve yield, quality, and stress acclimation in crops. In this work, we tested the possibility of using phenolics-rich extracts from spelt (Triticum dicoccum L.) husks to attenuate the effects of salt stress (100-200 mM NaCl) in maize. Two methanolic extracts were prepared from the soluble-conjugated (SC), and the insoluble-bound (IB) phenolic acid fractions of the spelt husk, and their effects were investigated on several stress-associated biochemical parameters, such as proline, lipid peroxidation, H2O2, GSH levels, and ion content. Results show that SC and IB fractions of husk extracts behaved very differently, no doubt due to their greatly divergent chemical composition, as revealed by both GC-MS and HPLC analyses. The efficacy of treatments in mitigating salt stress was also dose- and timing-dependent. IB, even at the lower concentration tested, was able to recover the performance of stressed plants in terms of growth, photosynthetic pigments content, and levels of salt stress markers. Recovery of shoot growth to control levels and reduction of stress-induced proline accumulation occurred regardless of whether plants were pre-treated or post-treated with IB, whereas only pre-treatment with the higher dose of IB was effective in mitigating oxidative stress. Although in some cases SC and even methanol alone exerted some positive effects, they could also be deleterious whereas IB never was. Overall, results indicate that a polyphenol-containing extract obtained from spelt by-products can behave as biostimulant in maize plants and can mitigate their response to salt stress, by acting on different biochemical targets.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Potássio/química , Prolina/química , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/química
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(5): 635-642, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053868

RESUMO

The biogeochemistry of mercury (Hg) in rice-paddy soil systems raises concerns, given that (1) the redox potential in paddy soil favors Hg methylation and (2) rice plants have a strong ability to accumulate methylmercury (MeHg), making rice an important source for MeHg exposure to humans. Therefore, all factors affecting the behavior of Hg in rice-paddy soils might impact Hg accumulation in rice, with its subsequent potential risks. As a typical wetland, paddy soils are managed by humans and affected by anthropogenic activities, such as agronomic measures, which would impact soil properties and thus Hg biogeochemistry. In this paper, we reviewed recent advances in the effects of farming activities including water management, fertilizer application and rotation on Hg biogeochemistry, trying to elucidate the factors controlling Hg behavior and thus the ecological risks in rice-paddy soil systems. This review might provide new thoughts on Hg remediation and suggest avenues for further studies.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Fertilizantes , Mercúrio/química , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Metilação , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/química
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 17996-18000, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090005

RESUMO

Synthetic pesticides are largely decried. A common attitude against the synthetic agrochemicals is to avoid, criticise or ban these substances. Along with chemical pesticides to defend crops from bioagressors are microorganisms, semiochemical and natural substances used as plant protection products including biocontrol agents (BCAs) and crop protection products in organic production. Nevertheless, a natural substance status does not confer or imply safety, security or absence of residues (in the context of plant protection). Although in this paper we do not consider the toxicological perspective of highly toxic chemicals with adverse effects on humans and non-target organisms sprayed on crops, we have applied ourselves to working on the safe use of synthetic agrochemicals. Thus, along with biopesticides (either BCA or others) allowed in organic farming, we show that some synthetic chemical pesticides may be used in safe manner. HIGHLIGHTS: • Synthetic agrochemicals are widely criticised. • Some pesticide usages are not sprayed on crops. • Some biocontrol agents are of synthetic origin.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/análise , Agentes de Controle Biológico/análise , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Proteção de Cultivos/economia , Proteção de Cultivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , União Europeia , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 673-680, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096397

RESUMO

Croplands are subjected to nutrient loss mainly due to agricultural harvest. Silicon has beneficial effect on alleviating nutrient imbalance-induced stress. Addition of crop residue biochars to cropland can import both silicon (Si) and nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) directly and enhance their availability. Nevertheless, how the concentrations of Si and nutrients vary among the biochars derived from different feedstocks, and how crop Si and nutrients respond to addition of biochars to croplands have not yet been clarified comprehensively and quantitatively. Total and essentially available Si and nutrients in crop residue biochars and their relationships with crop Si and nutrient uptake were investigated by using data collected from peer reviewed papers. Biochars derived from rice husk, rice straw, corn stover, sugarcane residues, and wheat straw, which were produced by thermal pyrolysis at 150-900 °C under oxygen-limited conditions, averagely contained 20.03% (n = 10), 12.39% (n = 16), 10.25% (n = 7), 7.40% (n = 9), and 3.34% (n = 3) of total Si, respectively. By contrast, crop residue biochars contained, on average, 1.23% nitrogen (n = 461), 0.32% phosphorus (n = 209), 0.56% sulfur (n = 187), 2.73% potassium (n = 197), 1.17% calcium (n = 123), and 0.54% magnesium (n = 111), which largely depended on and varied widely with their feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions. On average, 32.6%-54.9% of the total Si and nutrients (excluding nitrogen) in crop residue biochars were essentially available. Hence, addition of crop residue biochars to croplands may contribute a considerable amount of total and available Si and nutrients, except available inorganic nitrogen. The increasing amounts of Si and nutrient input with addition of biochars had positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationships with the increment of crop Si and nutrient uptake, respectively. In conclusion, addition of crop residue biochars can be beneficial to sustainable agriculture system through concerting Si and nutrient cycling in croplands.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Nutrientes/análise , Silício/análise , Solo/química , Fazendas
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5202-5210, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of climate change has been identified as an emerging issue worldwide owing to potential effects that can provoke changes in the nature and occurrence of food safety hazards. Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring toxic substances produced by several genera of filamentous fungi, among which, primarily aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and zearalenone are of the greatest concern owing to their negative impact on human health, animal productivity and international trade. RESULTS: Extreme weather conditions such as floods and droughts which have not occurred previously in Serbia may be supporting factors for contamination of crops by various species of toxigenic fungi and their related mycotoxins. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate analyses were used as powerful tools allowing better understanding of the range of climate factors impacting on crop contamination by mycotoxins. Among the selected environmental variables, temperature and moisture significantly influenced aflatoxin production. Recent drought and then flooding confirmed that Serbia is one of the few European countries with very high risk exposure to natural hazards, as well as that mycotoxins are one of the foodborne hazards most susceptible to climate change. Thus climate change effects on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination are now receiving scientific attention, especially from a risk analysis perspective. CONCLUSION: This paper evaluates the available information on the influence of climate change on mycotoxin contamination, especially aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). In addition, this investigation should beneficially contribute to more accurate predictions of the regional risk from mycotoxins in future decades. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Leite/química , Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Bovinos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Ecossistema , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Modelos Biológicos , Análise de Componente Principal , Sérvia , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(5): 719-730, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993637

RESUMO

The focus of this critical insight article is a brief overview of analytical challenges the cannabis industry faces and how analytical chemists have new opportunities to demonstrate the merits of employing mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis of cannabis and its products. The current range of cannabis products extends from recreational use to medicines, edibles, beverages, and beyond. The standards employed to assure product quality, integrity, and safety are lacking compared to those currently used by the pharmaceutical, food, and beverage industries. This manuscript overviews some of the important analytical issues that exist for the growth and harvest of the cannabis plant to the production of a wide variety of its products. Currently, the topics of interest for safety in cannabis testing where mass spectrometry can play an important role include what are currently referred to as potency, pesticides, terpenes, heavy metals, and mycotoxins from bacteria. Since each state in the USA as well as several countries has their own regulations, the analytical opportunities and challenges vary depending upon which jurisdiction a laboratory is supporting. This Critical Insight report will suggest where mass spectrometry can play an important role and provide valuable input on these topics. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/análise , Cannabis/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Terpenos/análise , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cannabis/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Micotoxinas/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 289: 673-679, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955664

RESUMO

Prolonged dietary exposure to AA-contaminated food crops cultivated in contaminated farmland was shown to be one of the main culprits of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of AA at trace levels are important for surveillance purposes. We report the development of a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for AA-detection. One striking feature of the method is that the Zn/H+-induced nitroreduction convert AA into their respective aristolactams, which dramatically enhances their analytical sensitivity. The method was applied to quantitate AA in food grains and soil samples collected from farming villages of Serbia, and flour samples purchased from supermarkets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of detecting AA in food ingredients available in supermarkets, which is alarming because it reveals AA poses insidious threats not only to residents of rural farming villages, but also to people residing in urban areas.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aristolóquicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Exposição Dietética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Farinha/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sérvia , Solo/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 177: 133-139, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981444

RESUMO

Seleniferous soil and crops have recently attracted attention worldwide. Cultivating seleniferous crops in the absence of heavy metals is greatly challenging. This study aimed to develop approaches for the safe exploitation of seleniferous soil. We collected 246 pairs of rice grain samples and their corresponding rhizosphere soil samples and 8542 topsoil samples from Binyang and Xingbin in Guangxi. The Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, and Se contents of soil and rice grain samples were tested. Several soil properties, including CaO, Mn, Mo, and S contents; total organic carbon content; and pH were also measured. Soil and rice grain samples that were classified as seleniferous accounted for 85.77% and 88% of all samples, respectively. More than 30% of soil and rice grain samples were potentially polluted by Cd. The percentage of seleniferous rice grain samples increased as soil Se concentration increased. Notably, however, the percentage of Cd-polluted rice grain samples decreased with the increase in soil Cd concentration. Models for the prediction of BAFs of heavy metal and Se were accurately established on the basis of significant partial correlations between log10 (BAFs) and log10 (soil properties). Farmlands with seleniferous soil under preferential protection and with safely exploited seleniferous soil accounted for 82.61% of the total study area. Sites that require remediation or land-use changes accounted for only 14.7% of the total study area and were mainly distributed in the center of the study area.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Selênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Selênio/química , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
13.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(4-5): 471-481, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820711

RESUMO

Eliminating malnutrition remains an imminent priority in our efforts to achieve food security and providing adequate calories, proteins, and micronutrients to the growing world population. Malnutrition may be attributed to socio-economic factors (poverty and limited accessibility to nutritional food), dietary preferences, inherent nutrient profiles of traditional food crops, and to a combination of all such factors. Modern advancements in "omics" technology have made it possible to reliably predict, diagnose, and suggest ways to remedy the low protein content and bioavailability of key micronutrients in food crops. In this review, we briefly describe how proteomics techniques can potentially be used for improving the nutrient profile of major crops, through high throughput multiplexed assays. Food safety is another important issue where proteomics and related platforms can offer solution for absolute quantitation of food allergens and mycotoxins present in the plant-based food. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the proteomic-based strategies in food crops to meet the challenges of overcoming malnutrition throughout the world.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Proteômica/métodos , Alérgenos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818876

RESUMO

Vehicle emissions have been known to cause trace metal contamination in soils. The extent of such contaminations in soils, and of the effects of traffic density and distance from highways on the concentration of trace metals in roadside agricultural soils is largely unknown. This study examined the total concentrations of common trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in roadside agricultural soils from Thailand with diverse traffic densities (approximately 30⁻200 million vehicles/kilometer/year), roadside distances (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 m from the road edge), and crops (rice, maize, and sugarcane). Cadmium, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations significantly decreased with increasing distance away from the roads (p < 0.05). However, the concentrations of these metals were not correlated with traffic density, probably due to extensive road maintenance and expansion. The contamination factor demonstrated that the road edge soils were moderately- to highly-polluted with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The safest distance to minimize metal pollution for agricultural production is proposed to be greater than 10 m away from the road edge.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tailândia
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(14): 4080-4088, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896940

RESUMO

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) oversees the safety assessment of genetically engineered (GE) crops in the European Union and has developed a study design and statistical approach for assessing the compositional equivalency between a GE crop and the corresponding non-GE crop on the basis of the results from a small number of concurrently grown reference lines. Confidence limits around the differences in mean analyte composition between the GE variety and the reference lines are compared with equivalence limits on the basis of the variability of the reference lines. Here, we evaluated the performance and consistency of the equivalence conclusions using a non-GE variety that is, by definition, equivalent to the non-GE crop. Using this approach across the same analytes with the same non-GE variety, it was found that equivalence could not be concluded for 19.7, 22.9, 25.4, and 53.5% of the analytes in four separate studies. In addition, equivalency conclusions for the same analyte often differed from study to study. These results call into question the consistency and value of this approach in the risk assessment of GE crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/normas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , União Europeia/organização & administração , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
16.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(1): 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814420

RESUMO

A simultaneous analytical method based on LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of flufenacet and its metabolites, [(4-fluorophenyl)(1-methylethyl) amino]oxo-acetic acid and [N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl) acetamide]-2-sulfinylacetic acid, in agricultural products. The compounds were extracted from samples with methanol. The crude extracts were purified using Bond Elut C18 and InertSep GC/PSA, then determined by LC-MS/MS. The average recoveries (n=5) from 4 kinds of agricultural products (wheat, soybean, potato and tomato) spiked at the level of the MRLs or the uniform limits (0.01 µg/g) were 70.6-97.0%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 5%. The lower limits of quantitation of flufenacet and its metabolites were 0.01 µg/g.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Tiadiazóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(1): 14-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821203

RESUMO

Salvia officinalis L. is a popular herb widely used in culinary, cosmetic, and medicinal preparations, and also as an ornamental plant. Sage crops are threatened by many diseases, such as gray mold, powdery mildew, and leaf spot, by weeds, and by pests, such as aphids. Use of crop protection products may lead to presence of pesticide residues in this herb. The aim of this work was to study presence of pesticide residues in the herb, S. officinalis L., available on the retail market in Poland, to verify their compliance with the maximum residue levels (MRLs) and to assess the chronic and acute risks associated with consumption of this herb and infusions prepared from contaminated sage plants. Ninety active substances of pesticides were analyzed, including all active substances registered in Poland for protection of the sage. Five active substances were found, one fungicide - boscalid and four insecticides: chlorpyrifos, pp'-DDT, dimethoate (residue levels above MRL) and indoxacarb. The chronic and acute exposure to pesticide residues consumed with sage did not exceed 0.02% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.1% of the acute reference dose (ARfD), respectively.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Salvia officinalis/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Humanos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Chás de Ervas/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 224: 407-416, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831491

RESUMO

An open-system combustion chamber was designed and constructed for simulation of burning of various biomass types to estimate emission factors of pollutant gases, fine particulate matters and their composition to find out significant tracers. Rice straw (RS), maize residues (MR) and forest leaf litters (FLL) from mixed deciduous forest (MDF) and dry dipterocarp forest (DDF) were collected from various places in Northern Thailand based on land-use types. Approximately 1 kg of air-dried biomass sample was burned in the chamber, PM2.5 were collected. CO2 dominated during the flaming state while CO is predominant in the smoldering state. The highest EFPM2.5 was obtained from MDF burning (4.38 ±â€¯2.99 g kg-1), while the lowest value was from MR burning (2.15 ±â€¯0.95 g kg-1). Among water soluble ions, K+ (biomass burning (BB) tracer) was the most abundant species in PM2.5 followed by Cl- and SO42-. The average EFK+ from the burning of agricultural biomass was significantly higher than the burning of FLL. Scatter plot of K+/SO42- versus K+/Cl- can be used to distinguish between agricultural crop residues and FLL burning. Levoglucosan (BB tracer) was a dominant species among anhydrosugars and also a major component found in FLL burning. The ratios of levoglucosan/K+ and levoglucosan/mannosan obtained from forest and agricultural waste burnings were significantly different, therefore they can be used for BB source identification.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Florestas , Tailândia , Árvores/química
20.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 22(1): 28-33, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Efforts to increase domestic soybean production have been widely carried out by farmers, including the management of soil fertility, such as the use of inorganic fertilizers. However, the development of soybean is generally on marginal dry land, the use of inorganic fertilizers is often inefficient (especially phosphate fertilizers), because phosphorus is fixed by Al or Fe. This study aimed to improve the efficiency of phosphate fertilization by the use of organic fertilizers from the wild plant Calopogonium moconoides and their effect on increasing yields of soybean crops on dry land. This research was conducted on the dry land of Takalar Regency, south Sulawesi, Indonesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was carried out in the dry land of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The experiments were arranged on the Split Plot Design. As the main plot was the dose of organic fertilizer from the wild plant Calopogonium consisting of three levels, namely 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 as sub-plots were inorganic P fertilization consisting of three levels, namely 50, 100 and 150 kg SP36 ha-1. Each treatment was repeated three times so there were 27 experimental units. RESULTS: The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer with a dose of 20 t ha-1 increased growth and increased yields shown by higher plants and significantly more pods and higher production per ha (2.15 t ha-1). CONCLUSION: Increasing the dosage of organic fertilizer and increasing the dose of inorganic P fertilizer increased the availability of nutrient phosphorus.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Fosfatos/química , Soja/química , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Fertilizantes , Indonésia , Fósforo/química , Solo/química
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