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1.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899754

RESUMO

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Lectinas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797045

RESUMO

Mixtures of drugs often have greater therapeutic value than any of their constituent drugs alone, and such combination therapies are widely used to treat diseases such as cancer, malaria, and viral infections. However, developing useful drug mixtures is challenging due to complex interactions between drugs. Natural substances can be fruitful sources of useful drug mixtures because secondary metabolites produced by living organisms do not often act in isolation in vivo. In order to facilitate the study of interactions within natural substances, a new analytical method to quantify interactions using data generated in the process of bioassay-guided fractionation is presented here: the extract fractional inhibitory concentration index (EFICI). The EFICI method uses the framework of Loewe additivity to calculate fractional inhibitory concentration values by which interactions can be determined for any combination of fractions that make up a parent extract. The EFICI method was applied to data on the bioassay-guided fractionation of Lechea mucronata and Schinus terebinthifolia for growth inhibition of the pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii. The L. mucronata extract contained synergistic interactions (EFICI = 0.4181) and the S. terebinthifolia extract was non-interactive overall (EFICI = 0.9129). Quantifying interactions in the bioassay-guided fractionation of natural substances does not require additional experiments and can be useful to guide the experimental process and to support the development of standardized extracts as botanical drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Anacardiaceae/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461117, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709364

RESUMO

To obtain consistent chromatographic behavior, it is important to develop resin packing methods in accordance with the characteristics of each resin. Resins, particularly those with a significant level of compressibility, require proper knowledge of the packing methodology to ensure scalable performance. The study demonstrates the applicability of pressure-flow modeling based on the Blake-Kozeny equation for cellulose based resins, using the MEP HyperCel (Pall) resin as a case study. This approach enabled the understanding of the appropriate bed compressibility and the determination of the minimum column diameter that can predict bed integrity during commercial manufacturing scale operation. Studies suggested that scale-dependent wall effects become negligible for column diameters exceeding 20 cm. Pressure-flow modeling produced a minimum compression recommendation of 0.206 for the MEP HyperCel resin. Columns with diameters up to 80 cm packed with this bed compression yielded incompressible beds with pressure-flow curves consistent with model predictions. Model parameter (particle diameter, viscosity, porosity) values were then varied to demonstrate how changing operating conditions influence model predictions. This analysis supported the successful troubleshooting of unexpected high pressures at the commercial manufacturing scale using MEP HyperCel resin, further supporting the applicability of this approach.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Géis/química , Porosidade , Pressão , Viscosidade
5.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597857

RESUMO

Natural products derived from plants and microbes are a rich source of bioactive molecules. Prior to their use, the active molecules from complex extracts must be purified for downstream applications. There are various chromatographic methods available for this purpose yet not all labs can afford high performance methods and isolation from complex biological samples can be difficult. Here we demonstrate that preparative liquid-phase isoelectric focusing (IEF) can separate molecules, including small molecules and peptides from complex plant extracts, based on their isoelectric points (pI). We have used the method for complex biological sample fractionation and characterization. As a proof of concept, we fractionated a Gymnema sylvestre plant extract, isolating a family of terpenoid saponin small molecules and a peptide. We also demonstrated effective microbial protein separation using the Candida albicans fungus as a model system.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Gymnema sylvestre/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
7.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(2): 98-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196471

RESUMO

Wounds must be treated both promptly and effectively to prevent the development of injury-related morbidity and mortality. When commercially available wound-care treatments prove either ineffective or unacceptable because of patients' unique medical needs, a compounded preparation can provide a beneficial alternative. One of the most essential components of preparations designed to treat wounds is the formulation base. In this article, the mechanism of wound healing is briefly reviewed, and bases used in compounds that deliver drugs to external wounds (e.g., cutaneous lesions, ulcers, and irritations; injuries to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, throat, vulva, perineum, and rectum) are described. Formulations for effective wound-care compounds are also provided.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 234: 115896, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070516

RESUMO

The preparation mainly composed of extraction, pre-purification and dehydration is essential for the research and development of natural polysaccharides. The methods or conditions used in the three procedures had significant effects on the composition, structure and function of the polysaccharides obtained. Temperature, pH, enzyme, ultrasound and microwave were the important factors associated with their physicochemical changes. Molecular degradation and intermolecular interaction were two of the main mechanisms responsible for the changes. The degradations of polysaccharides responding to hydrothermal and ultrasonic conditions could be partly descripted by multiple linear regression model, implying the possibility for the prediction and control of polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, the interactions between polysaccharide and other compounds, forming complexes natively or conditionally, could be selectively triggered or eliminated to obtain polysaccharides under certain functions. This work shows new insights into the preparation of polysaccharides, which could benefit the efficient utilization of their natural and modified properties.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Físico-Química , Modelos Lineares , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936688

RESUMO

Bioaffinity capturing of molecules allows the discovery of bioactive compounds and decreases the need for various stages in the natural compound isolation process. Despite the high selectivity of this technique, the screening and identification methodology depends on the presence of a protein to capture potential ligands. However, some proteins, such as snake secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), have never been investigated using this approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a new method for screening natural compounds using a bioaffinity-guided ultrafiltration method on Crotalus durissus terrificus sPLA2 followed by HPLC-MS to identify the compounds, and this method could be used to discover new anti-inflammatory compounds from the various organisms originating from biodiversity. Different extracts were selected to evaluate their ability to inhibit sPLA2 activity. The extracts were incubated with sPLA2 and the resulting mixture was ultrafiltrated to elute unbound components. The resulting compounds were identified by HPLC-MS. We identified hispidulin as one of the components present in the Moquiniastrum floribundum leaf and evaluated the ability of this isolated compound to neutralize the inflammatory activity of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crotalus/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Ligantes , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/química
10.
Mar Drugs ; 18(2)2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979232

RESUMO

Microbial co-cultivation is employed for awakening silent biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to enhance chemical diversity. However, the selection of appropriate partners for co-cultivation remains a challenge. Furthermore, competitive interactions involving the suppression of BGCs or upregulation of known, functional metabolite(s) during co-cultivation efforts is also common. Herein, we performed an alternative approach for targeted selection of the best co-cultivation pair. Eight marine sediment-derived fungi were classified as strong or weak, based on their anti-phytopathogenic potency. The fungi were co-cultured systematically and analyzed for their chemical profiles and anti-phytopathogenic activity. Based on enhanced bioactivity and a significantly different metabolite profile including the appearance of a co-culture specific cluster, the co-culture of Plenodomus influorescens (strong) and Pyrenochaeta nobilis (weak) was prioritized for chemical investigation. Large-scale co-cultivation resulted in isolation of five polyketide type compounds: two 12-membered macrolides, dendrodolide E (1) and its new analog dendrodolide N (2), as well as two rare azaphilones spiciferinone (3) and its new analog 8a-hydroxy-spiciferinone (4). A well-known bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone type mycotoxin, cephalochromin (5), whose production was specifically enhanced in the co-culture, was also isolated. Chemical structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by NMR, HRMS and [] analyses. Compound 5 showed the strongest anti-phytopathogenic activity against Xanthomonas campestris and Phytophthora infestans with IC50 values of 0.9 and 1.7 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Agroquímicos/química , Agroquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Phytophthora infestans/efeitos dos fármacos , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Xanthomonas campestris/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(3): 105892, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926284

RESUMO

Three homologous oxygenated elansolid-type of polyketide spanned macrolides were isolated from a heterotrophic marine bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716, associated with an intertidal red alga Hypnea valentiae. The complete genome of the bacterium was sequenced and all detectable natural product gene clusters were analysed. The B. amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 genome features polyketide synthase (pks) systems of every known formally classified family, nonribosomal peptide synthetases and hybrid clusters. Comprehensive spectroscopic studies revealed the compounds to possess isobenzofuranyl benzoate and 1H-furopyrano[2,3-c]oxacyclononadecine-6-carboxylate moieties. The identified compounds displayed broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≤1.0 µg/mL, whereas the standard antibiotics ampicillin and chloramphenicol were active only at concentrations of ≥6.25 µg/mL. The plausible mechanism of elansolid-type macrolide biosynthesis by trans-AT polyketide synthases through the pks starter unit para-hydroxybenzoic acid was hypothesised, and the structures were correlated with the gene organisation, with the predicted gene cluster comprising 16 genes (~81 kb in size). The best binding poses for each compound with the peptide deformylase (PDF) protein of S. aureus revealed docking scores (>11.30 kcal/mol) greater than actinonin (6.96 kcal/mol), a natural PDF inhibitor. The higher electronic values along with optimum lipophilic parameters support the potential anti-infective properties of the studied macrolides. These antibacterial elansolid-type of polyketide spanned macrolides in marine symbiotic B. amyloliquefaciens could be potential leads for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications against emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrolídeos/química , Macrolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oxigênio
12.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 126(2): 116-128, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269604

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant public health problem, with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 170 million. Current therapy for HCV infection includes the prolonged administration of a combination of ribavirin and PEGylated interferon-α, for over a decade. This regimen is expensive and often associated with a poor antiviral response and unwanted side effects. A highly effective combination treatment is likely required for the future management of HCV infections and entry inhibitors could play an important role. Currently, no entry inhibitor has been licensed for the prophylactic treatment of hepatitis C. Therefore, additional agents that combat HCV infection are urgently needed and must be developed. Many phytochemical constituents have been identified that display considerable inhibition of HCV at some stage of the life cycle. This review will summarise the current state of knowledge on natural products and their possible activities in the context of HCV infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico
13.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112187, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865001

RESUMO

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype-selective pharmacological profiles of tobacco alkaloids are essential for understanding the physiological effects of tobacco products. In this study, automated electrophysiology was used to functionally characterize the effects of distinct groups of tobacco alkaloids on human α4ß2 and α7 nAChRs. We found that, in tobacco alkaloids, pyridine as a hydrogen bond acceptor and a basic nitrogen atom at a distance of 4-7 Šare pharmacophoric elements necessary for molecular recognition by α4ß2 and α7 nAChRs with various degrees of selectivity, potency, and efficacy. While four alkaloids-nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and R-anatabine-potently activated α4ß2, they were also weak agonists of α7 nAChRs. Nicotine was the most potent agonist of α4ß2, while anabasine elicited the highest activation of α7. None of the tobacco alkaloids enhanced nAChR activity elicited by the endogenous ligand acetylcholine; therefore, none was considered to be a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of either α4ß2 or α7 nAChRs. In contrast, we identified tobacco alkaloids, such as the tryptophan metabolite 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, that decreased the activity of both α4ß2 and α7 nAChRs. Our study identified a class of alkaloids with positive and negative effects against human α4ß2 and α7 nAChRs. It also revealed human α4ß2 to be the principal receptor for sensing the most abundant alkaloids in tobacco leaves.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Tabaco/química , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/agonistas , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112201, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499140

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bergenin is a well-known active compound that exhibits antioxidant, antiarrhythmic, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the resource reserve of Rodgersia sambucifolia, one of the main raw materials for extracting bergenin, have sharply declined, and the bergenin content in different germplasms differs vastly, resulting in a serious shortage of the market supply of bergenin. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the influence of genetic diversity and environmental factors on bergenin content in Rodgersia sambucifolia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty Rodgersia sambucifolia samples with a growth period of 2-3 years were collected from different areas across China and the bergenin content was determined via HPLC. Meanwhile the total genomic DNA was extracted and ISSR was performed. The bergenin content as measured using HPLC and the environmental data gathered from the meteorological stations and field work were combined and analyzed using correlation tests in XLSTAT 2018 to detect the key factors affecting bergenin content. The genetic UPGMA tree constructed based on genetic distances of the 50 samples and the chemical dendrogram constructed according to the distance between the bergenin content were compared to determine the correlation between genetic and chemical differentiation. RESULTS: Among the 50 individuals, bergenin content varied from 2.83 to 12.54%, with the highest content being 4.43-fold that of the lowest content. The survey of the 50 individuals produced a total of 193 amplified bands, 187 of which were polymorphic (96.89%). In the study, bergenin content was positively correlated with annual mean temperature (AMT) (r = 0.583, P < 0.0001) and 1-12 month monthly mean temperature (MMT) (P < 0.0001). A comparison of the genetic dendrogram with the AHC dendrogram found no corresponding relationship between them. Mantel correlation analyses also showed that there was no significant correlation between them (r = 0.144). CONCLUSIONS: There were large differences in bergenin content among different germplasms that were not correlated with the high genetic variation in Rodgersia sambucifolia but were significantly correlated with environmental factors, such as temperature. This study lays the foundation for subsequent superior germplasm selection and artificial breeding of Rodgersia sambucifolia to improve the bergenin content and meet market demands.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Variação Genética , Saxifragaceae/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Saxifragaceae/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 371-380, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871149

RESUMO

Microbial natural products represent a rich resource of evolved chemistry that forms the basis for the majority of pharmacotherapeutics. Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a particularly interesting class of natural products noted for their unique mode of biosynthesis and biological activities. Analyses of sequenced microbial genomes have revealed an enormous number of biosynthetic loci encoding RiPPs but whose products remain cryptic. In parallel, analyses of bacterial metabolomes typically assign chemical structures to only a minority of detected metabolites. Aligning these 2 disparate sources of data could provide a comprehensive strategy for natural product discovery. Here we present DeepRiPP, an integrated genomic and metabolomic platform that employs machine learning to automate the selective discovery and isolation of novel RiPPs. DeepRiPP includes 3 modules. The first, NLPPrecursor, identifies RiPPs independent of genomic context and neighboring biosynthetic genes. The second module, BARLEY, prioritizes loci that encode novel compounds, while the third, CLAMS, automates the isolation of their corresponding products from complex bacterial extracts. DeepRiPP pinpoints target metabolites using large-scale comparative metabolomics analysis across a database of 10,498 extracts generated from 463 strains. We apply the DeepRiPP platform to expand the landscape of novel RiPPs encoded within sequenced genomes and to discover 3 novel RiPPs, whose structures are exactly as predicted by our platform. By building on advances in machine learning technologies, DeepRiPP integrates genomic and metabolomic data to guide the isolation of novel RiPPs in an automated manner.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Software , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Genômica/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metabolômica/métodos , Biossíntese Peptídica/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ribossomos/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795131

RESUMO

The procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids and nutraceutics from microalgae using classic solvents have been frequently used over the years. However, these production methods usually require expensive and toxic solvents. Based on our studies involving the use of eco-sustainable methodologies and alternative solvents, we selected ethanol (EtOH) and cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) for extracting bio-oil and lipids from algae. Different percentages of EtOH in CPME favor the production of an oil rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), useful to biofuel production or rich in bioactive compounds. The proposed method for obtaining an extract rich in saturated or unsaturated fatty acids from dry algal biomass is disclosed as eco-friendly and allows a good extraction yield. The method is compared both in extracted oil percentage yield and in extracted fatty acids selectivity to extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2).


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Microalgas/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lipídeos/química
17.
Virol J ; 16(1): 150, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses including influenza and paramyxoviruses are acquiring multi-drug resistance. A potential solution for this emerging issue is to create new antiviral drugs from available compounds of natural products. It is known that the majority of drugs have been developed using compounds derived from actinomycetes, which are naturally occurring gram-positive bacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiviral properties of extremophilic actinomycetes extracts from strains that were isolated from extreme environments in Kazakhstan. METHODS: Five strains of extremophilic actinomycetes isolated from the unique ecosystems of Kazakhstan were extracted and tested for antiviral activity against influenza viruses (strains H7N1, H5N3, H1N1 and H3N2) and paramyxoviruses (Sendai Virus and Newcastle Disease Virus). The antiviral activity of these selected extracts was tested by checking their effect on hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities of the studied viruses. Additionally, actinomycetes extracts were compared with commercially available antiviral drugs and some plant preparations that have been shown to exhibit antiviral properties. RESULTS: The main findings show that extracts from strains K-192, K-340, K-362, K-522 and K525 showed antiviral activities when tested using influenza viruses, Sendai Virus, and Newcastle Disease Virus. These activities were comparable to those shown by Rimantadine and Tamiflu drugs, and "Virospan" and "Flavovir" plant preparations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several extracts with antiviral activities against several strains of influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. Our research findings can be applied towards characterization and development of new antiviral drugs from the active actinomycetes extracts.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Hemaglutinação , Cazaquistão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neuraminidase/análise , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Sendai/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Mar Drugs ; 17(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816961

RESUMO

Marine sponge genus Haliclona, one of the most prolific sources of natural products, contains over 600 species but only a small part of them had been classified and chemically investigated. On the basis of extensive literature search, this review firstly summarizes 112 nitrogenous secondary metabolites from classified and unclassified Haliclona sponges as well as from their symbiotic microorganisms. Most of these substances have only been found in Haliclona sponges, and display diverse bioactive properties with potential applications in new drug discovery.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Haliclona/metabolismo , Compostos de Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Compostos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Simbiose
19.
Mar Drugs ; 17(12)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817295

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites of a rare New Zealand deep-sea sponge, Lamellomorpha strongylata, resulted in the isolation of twenty-one indole alkaloids, including two new bisindoles-(Z)-coscinamide D (1), (E)-coscinamide D (2)-and four compounds isolated for the first time as natural products-lamellomorphamides A (3), B (4), C (5) and D (6). In addition, fifteen previously reported natural products were isolated, seven of which are seco analogs of hamacanthin alkaloids. The one sponge produces enantiomerically pure but opposite configurations of compounds that only differ in the number of bromines, suggesting enantiodivergent biosynthesis. In addition, four compounds were isolated as partial racemates, suggesting these compounds are biosynthesized via two independent routes.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Poríferos/metabolismo , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Nova Zelândia , Metabolismo Secundário , Estereoisomerismo
20.
Mar Drugs ; 17(12)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817754

RESUMO

The activities linked to the fishing sector generate substantial quantities of by-products, which are often discarded or used as low-value ingredients in animal feed. However, these marine by-products are a prominent potential good source of bioactive compounds, with important functional properties that can be isolated or up-concentrated, giving them an added value in higher end markets, as for instance nutraceuticals and cosmetics. This valorization of fish by-products has been boosted by the increasing awareness of consumers regarding the relationship between diet and health, demanding new fish products with enhanced nutritional and functional properties. To obtain fish by-product-derived biocompounds with good, functional and acceptable organoleptic properties, the selection of appropriate extraction methods for each bioactive ingredient is of the outmost importance. In this regard, over the last years, innovative alternative technologies of intensification, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), have become an alternative to the conventional methods in the isolation of valuable compounds from fish and shellfish by-products. Innovative green technologies present great advantages to traditional methods, preserving and even enhancing the quality and the extraction efficiency, as well as minimizing functional properties' losses of the bioactive compounds extracted from marine by-products. Besides their biological activities, bioactive compounds obtained by innovative alternative technologies can enhance several technological properties of food matrices, enabling their use as ingredients in novel foods. This review is focusing on analyzing the principles and the use of UAE and SFE as emerging technologies to valorize seafoods and their by-products.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Pesqueiros , Química Verde , Animais , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Cosméticos/química , Cosméticos/provisão & distribução , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Ultrassom
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