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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1022-1029, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pork is used as raw material to produce Cantonese sausage, and 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of d-sodium erythorbate is added to the pork meat. In this study the myoglobin oxidation rate, relative metmyoglobin content, heme iron content, redness, pH, free radical content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value were measured at different processing times and different content of d-sodium erythorbate. RESULTS: It was found that d-sodium erythorbate significantly reduced the free radical content and myoglobin and lipid oxidation rates and increased heme iron levels. When d-sodium erythorbate was added to the sausage, the absorption peak of myoglobin porphyrin shifted left, migrating from 414 to 405 nm. At 72 h, with an increase in the d-sodium erythorbate content, a significant negative correlation was identified between heme iron and the degree of redness (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: During sausage processing, there are strong correlations among TBARS values, free radical content, metmyoglobin levels, heme iron levels, a* and pH at the same d-sodium erythorbate level. At the same processing time, adding d-sodium erythorbate can slow the rate of myoglobin and lipid oxidation and prevent the discoloration of sausage. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Lipídeos/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Mioglobina/química , Animais , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos , Metamioglobina/química , Oxirredução , Suínos
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1246-1255, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese mutton ham is a dry-cured meat product with a long ripening time. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize antioxidant peptides from Chinese mutton ham. RESULTS: Mutton ham peptides (MHPs) were purified by gel filtration, anion exchange and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography steps. The 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) free radical scavenging capacity was used to guide the purification of MHPs. Three antioxidant peptides were identified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as Met-Trp-Thr-Asp (MWTD), Ala-Pro-Tyr-Met-Met (APYMM) and Phe-Trp-Ile-Ile-Glu (FWIIE), with molecular weights 551.61, 611.76, and 706.84 Da, respectively. Among them, APYMM exhibited the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. The three peptides had the ability to inhibit lipid oxidation and Fenton's reagent-induced protein oxidation and DNA damage. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, FWIIE and APYMM showed increased antioxidant activity, while MWTD showed decreased activity. CONCLUSION: Three novel peptides isolated from Chinese mutton ham had strong biological activity. Chinese mutton ham is potentially a functional food and an excellent source of natural antioxidants. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1265-1273, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect on chemical composition, physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics, fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation, and sensory acceptability of an oil-in-water emulsion gel that was prepared with chestnut flour, chia oil, gellan gum, and water (CEG), used as a fat replacer in pork burgers. The original mixture was used as a control sample (CS). The other samples were formulated partially replacing pork backfat with 5% of CEG (CEG5%) and 10% of CEG (CEG10%). RESULTS: Proximate analysis of samples showed several differences between samples. The CEG addition was found to be effective for improving the cooking yield while diameter reduction and thickness increase were positively affected. As regards lipid oxidation, in cooked burger, the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for CS, CEG5% and CEG10% were 0.46, 0.57, and 0.59 mg malonaldehyde/kg sample, respectively. The linolenic and linolenic acid content of pork burger increased as CEG addition increased. Sensory properties for CS and CEG5% were similar whereas CEG10% showed the highest sensory scores. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of chestnut flour and chia oil could be used as a novel ingredient to develop pork burgers with a better nutritional profile without diminishing their sensory and physico-chemical properties. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/química , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Farinha/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Salvia/química , Animais , Culinária , Emulsões/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Géis/química , Humanos , Suínos , Paladar
4.
Food Chem ; 306: 125622, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610330

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential of pulsed electric field (PEF) as a sodium-reduction strategy for processed meat. Beef jerky was used as a model and prepared using different levels of NaCl, viz. 2.0% (control), 1.2% (T1) and 1.2% along with PEF processing (T2). A significant (p < 0.05) effect of PEF was observed on shear force (N) and toughness (N/mm s) of the products, which was also reflected in sensory scores. No effects for PEF were observed on colour, yield (%) and oxidative and microbial stability. PEF-treated samples (T2) had significantly (p < 0.05) lower sodium content than the control, however, the sensory scores were comparable (p > 0.05) with control and >84% of the panellists preferred T2 samples over T1 for saltiness. Results suggest that PEF treatment improved saltiness by influencing the salt diffusion and sodium delivery that led to better perception during chewing. PEF could be a novel method to produce healthier reduced-sodium meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Sódio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Eletricidade , Manipulação de Alimentos
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 313: 108379, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675541

RESUMO

Lactobacillus algidus is a meat spoilage bacterium often dominating the bacterial communities on chilled, packaged meat. Yet, L. algidus strains are rarely recovered from meat, and only few studies have focused on this species. The main reason limiting detailed studies on L. algidus is related to its poor growth on the media routinely used for culturing food spoilage bacteria. Thus, our study sought to develop reliable culture media for L. algidus to enable its recovery from meat, and to allow subculturing and phenotypic analyses of the strains. We assessed the growth of meat-derived L. algidus strains on common culture media and their modifications, and explored the suitability of potential media for the recovery of L. algidus from meat. Moreover, we determined whether 12 meat-derived L. algidus strains selected from our culture collection produce biogenic amines that may compromise safety or quality of meat, and finally, sequenced de novo and annotated the genomes of two meat-derived L. algidus strains to uncover genes and metabolic pathways relevant for phenotypic traits observed. MRS agar supplemented with complex substances (peptone, meat and yeast extract, liver digest) supported the growth of L. algidus, and allowed the recovery of new L. algidus isolates from meat. However, most strains grew poorly on standard MRS agar and on general-purpose media. In MRS broth, most strains grew well but a subset of strains required supplementation of MRS broth with additional cysteine. Supplementation of MRS broth with catalase allowed growth in aerated cultures suggesting that the strains produced hydrogen peroxide when grown aerobically. The strains tested (n = 12) produced ornithine from arginine and putrescine from agmatine, and two strains produced tyramine from tyrosine. Our findings reveal that L. algidus populations are underestimated if routine culture protocols are applied, and prompt concerns that L. algidus may generate tyramine or putrescine in meat or fermented meat products.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Putrescina/análise , Putrescina/metabolismo , Suínos
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 218-224, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, fat replacement in meat products is a matter of concern in the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of pork backfat with two oleogels of linseed in dry-cured sausages. RESULTS: Five batches of dry-cured sausages were prepared with two oleogels, a mixture of γ-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol (SO) and beeswax (B), at two levels of replacement (20% and 40%) (SO-20, SO-40, B-20, and B-40, respectively) and a control batch. The fatty acid profile improved in terms of nutrition: the polyunsaturated fatty acid / saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 ratio was about 1.41 and 0.93 for the higher levels of replacement, SO-40 and B-40, respectively. Quality parameters such as pH and color also changed with the inclusion of oleogels, resulting in changes in the sensory quality. CONCLUSION: Oleogels based on linseed enabled the replacement of pork backfat in fermented sausages. Depending on the level of fat substitution, such oleogels could replace fat in dry-cured sausages at the industrial level. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fermentação , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Suínos , Paladar
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 268-276, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of Pickering emulsion stabilized by food-derived particles is of great interest in the food field, including meat processing. However, the creaming phenomenon is a thorny problem and may impact the resulting product quality. Here, we used polysaccharide nanoparticles from Flammulina velutipes (FVPN) as a stabilizer to prepare a oil/water Pickering emulsion and partly replace the original fat of common emulsified sausage, focusing on exploring the influence of phase separation on the sausage's techno-functional and sensory quality, with the aim of developing a new alternative fat substitute. RESULTS: Reformulated sausages showed increases in moisture (53.24-64.85%) and protein content (11.97-12.76%), but were reduced in fat content (27.28-18.76%). The increased FPOE (FVPN-palm oil emulsion; substitution rate 5-37%) amount in sausages resulted in significantly reduced (P < 0.05) cooking loss (18.87-8.63%). Meanwhile, emulsion improved the springiness and cohesiveness of sausage and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) hardness and chewiness when the replacement amount was less than 20%. Experimental sausages attained a more compact pore structure without harming sensory characteristics. Compared with creaming emulsion, pristine emulsion resulted in a sausage with higher moisture content, lower cooking loss, better elasticity and denser structure. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of sausages could be influenced by emulsion stability. Emulsion, especially with no creaming, can be effectively used as fat substitute at a level of 20% or less without adversely affecting the sensory characteristics of emulsified sausages. The incorporation of FPOE provides the potential for developing a new alternative approach for animal fat improvement in meat products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Flammulina/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Animais , Culinária , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Dureza , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Suínos , Paladar , Água/análise
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 258-267, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Composite gels were individually prepared from 20 g kg-1 myofibrillar protein (MP) imbedded with typical native starch (potato, tapioca, rice or corn starch) in 0.6 mol L-1 NaCl at pH 6.2. The gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and microstructure of the obtained myofibrillar protein-starch composite gels were evaluated. RESULTS: Tapioca starch improved (P < 0.05) gel strength and water holding capacity of MP composite gel at 80 °C. Rheological properties of MP-starch composites differed significantly with the addition of different types of native starch. Additionally, the promoting effect of starch on the storage modulus of the composite gels positively correlated with the gelatinization properties of different typical starch. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that the filling effect of starch on the composite gel was related to the pasting temperature and particle size of typical starch, with almost no particles forming at 80 °C. Moreover, the addition of starch changed the relaxation peak area and increased the relaxation time in nuclear magnetic resonance tests, which suggested that starch could improve the water holding capacity of MP-starch composite gels. CONCLUSION: Different typical native starch has varied impacts on the gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and microstructure of MP gels, indicating the potential and feasibility of these typical native starches as an addition agent to modify the textural properties in comminuted meat products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Miofibrilas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Amido/química , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Géis/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manihot/química , Oryza/química , Reologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Suínos , Zea mays/química
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 325-334, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meat fraud and adulteration incidents occur frequently in almost all regions of the globe, especially with the increase in the world's population. To ensure the authenticity of meat products, we developed a 10-plex xMAP assay to simultaneously detect ten animal materials: bovine, caprine, poultry, swine, donkey, deer, horse, dog, fox and mink. RESULTS: This method was investigated by analyzing DNA extracts from raw muscle, muscle mixtures, meat products and animal feeds. Our results indicated that the species of interest can be identified, differentiated and detected down to 1 g kg-1 in binary mixtures or 0.01-0.001 ng of genomic DNA from specific species. Testing of 125 commercial samples showed a 97.4% coincidence rate with the method used in routine testing in our lab. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the method established in this study could detect ten animal materials simultaneously within 3 h, which provides a new, useful tool for animal ingredient analysis in meat products and animal feeds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cervos , Cães , Raposas , Cabras , Cavalos , Vison , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 410-420, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present research aimed to evaluate the nutritional, technological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of bologna sausages made with pork fat replaced with Echium oil. Three different treatments were processed, all of them with approximately 35% less sodium than a regular bologna-type sausage: Control (only pork backfat addition) and T25 and T50 (replacement of 25 and 50% of the added animal fat with Echium oil respectively). RESULTS: Proximate composition, texture profile analysis, fatty acid profile and microstructure were evaluated to characterize the products. In refrigerated storage, the following characteristics were assessed: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) index, objective color, pH value, microbiological counts and sensory acceptance. Both samples with Echium oil (T25 and T50) showed a healthier lipid profile, with high omega-3 content, mainly from α-linolenic and stearidonic fatty acids, consequently presenting better (P ≤ 0.05) values of nutritional indices than the Control. However, the replacement of 50% animal fat with Echium oil negatively affected (P ≤ 0.05) most of the technological characteristics and the sensory acceptance of bolognas. In contrast, the treatment with 25% replacement did not show significant differences in most of the evaluated parameters compared with the Control sample. CONCLUSION: Thus the replacement of 25% of pork backfat with Echium oil in bologna sausages can be recommended, representing a good balance between nutritional gains and sensory impairment. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Echium/química , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sódio/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Suínos , Paladar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 794-802, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-sodium sausages were manufactured using sodium substitution and biopolymer encapsulation. A diet comprising 10% treatment sausages (six treatment groups: C (100% NaCl), T1 (55% sodium substitute + 45% saltwort salt), T2 (55% sodium substitute + 45% saltwort salt with chitosan), T3 (55% sodium substitute + 45% saltwort salt with cellulose), T4 (55% sodium substitute + 45% saltwort salt with dextrin), and T5 (55% sodium substitute + 45% saltwort salt with pectin)) was added to a 90% commercial mouse diet for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Subacute toxicity, hematology, liver function, and organ weight tests in low-sodium sausage groups showed results similar to those of the control group, and all toxicity test levels were within normal ranges. CONCLUSIONS: All low-sodium sausage types tested are suggested to be safe in terms of subacute toxicity. Moreover, low-sodium sausages can be manufactured by biopolymer encapsulation of saltwort using pectin, chitosan, cellulose, and dextrin without toxicity. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Salsola/química , Sódio/análise , Animais , Biopolímeros/metabolismo , Biopolímeros/toxicidade , Celulose/análise , Celulose/metabolismo , Celulose/toxicidade , Quitosana/análise , Quitosana/metabolismo , Quitosana/toxicidade , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Salsola/metabolismo , Salsola/toxicidade , Sódio/metabolismo , Sódio/toxicidade , Suínos
12.
Food Chem ; 306: 125602, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629969

RESUMO

Effects of high-pressure treatments (HPT, 100-300 MPa, 9 min, 25 °C) on the in vitro digestibility of gel-type meat products were studied using a simulated digestion-model. In vitro digestibilities of the cooked rabbit meat batters throughout the simulated oral-, gastric-, and intestinal-phases were determined. Peptides in the intestinal digesta were identified via Mass Spectrometer. Results revealed that in vitro digestibilities of HPT-samples were higher than the control (1.98%, 6.13% and 61.31% for oral-, gastric- and intestinal-phase respectively) throughout the digestion (P < 0.05). Alterations of the peptide profiles were induced by HPT, showing HPT-specific patterns of mutual peptides in the digestive products. Coupled with the identifications of salt-soluble proteins from raw batters, it was confirmed that myofibrillar proteins account for the major contribution to the HPT-induced changes. The results indicated that HPT can potentially be an effective technology to improve the digestibility of meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeos/química , Animais , Culinária , Pressão , Proteólise , Coelhos
13.
Food Chem ; 309: 125643, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670131

RESUMO

This study investigated the changes in the nitrite content and temperature of meat batter with the remote infusion of atmospheric non-thermal plasma (ANP) and the quality properties of ground hams cured by remote infusion of ANP. Remote infusion of ANP for 14.78 min generated 100 mg kg-1 of nitrite in 3.2 kg meat batter, and the meat batter temperature increased from 1.8 to 9.2 °C. The residual nitrite content of ground ham cured by the remote infusion of ANP (RANP) was higher than that of ground ham cured with sodium nitrite (SN) at 1 day of storage (p < 0.05); however, no difference between RANP and SN was observed after 30 days of storage (p > 0.05). The color and malondialdehyde content of ground hams did not differ between RANP and SN during storage (p > 0.05). The remote infusion ANP system could be applied to cure meat products without the addition of nitrite sources.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Gases em Plasma/química , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/análise , Nitrito de Sódio/análise , Suínos , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Food Chem ; 309: 125654, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678669

RESUMO

A specialized DNA extraction method and a SYBR Green quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SyG-qPCR) assay were combined to generate a ready-to-use kit for rapid detection of porcine admixtures in processed meat products. Our qPCR assay utilized repetitive LINE-1 elements specific to the genome of Sus scrofa domesticus (pig) as a target and incorporated internal controls. We improved the genomic DNA extraction method, and reduced extraction times to the minimum. The method was validated for specificity, sensitivity (0.001% w/w) and robustness, and values were compared with those of a commercially available kit. We also tested our method using 121 processed food products and consistently detected amplification only in samples containing pork. Due to its efficiency and cost-effectiveness, our method represents a valuable new method for detecting food adulteration with pork that is superior to existing quality control approaches.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/normas , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Produtos da Carne/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/instrumentação , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos
15.
Food Chem ; 303: 125395, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454758

RESUMO

The multi-isotope calibration (MICal) is a fast and accurate calibration strategy for multi-elemental determination that uses only two solutions, (1) 50% (v v-1) sample plus 50% (v v-1) analytical blank solution, and (2) 50% (v v-1) sample plus 50% (v v-1) standard solution (containing the analytes). The calibration curves were built as a function of the intensity signals of solution 1 (y-axis) versus solution 2 (x-axis), employing the various isotopes of each monitored mass/charge. The concentration of the analytes was calculated from the slope and the concentrations of the standards added to solution 2. The validation of the method was evaluated using standard reference materials of bovine liver and bovine muscle. The recoveries varied from 87 to 113% for MICal, which were similar to the conventional standard additions calibration procedure (83 to 120%).


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Bovinos , Isótopos , Fígado/química , Produtos da Carne/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 304: 125448, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491713

RESUMO

Blood, from slaughterhouses, is an inevitable part of meat production, causing environmental problems due to the large volumes recovered and its low valorization. However, the α137-141 peptide, a natural antimicrobial peptide, can be obtained after hydrolysis of hemoglobin, the main constituent of blood red part. To recover it at a sufficient concentration for antimicrobial applications, a new sustainable technology, called electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF), was investigated. The α137-141 concentration was increased about 4-fold at a feed peptide concentration of 8% with an enrichment factor above 24-fold. This feed peptide concentration also needed the lowest relative energy consumption. Moreover, this peptide fraction protected meat against microbial growth, as well as rancidity, during 14 days under refrigeration. This peptide fraction was validated as a natural preservative and substitute for synthetic additives against food spoilage. Finally, producing antimicrobial/antioxidant peptide from wastes by EDUF fits perfectly with the concept of circular economy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Sangue , Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Matadouros , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos , Refrigeração , Ultrafiltração
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13998-14004, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747274

RESUMO

The contents of anthraquinone (ATQ) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene (ANT) and PAH4) in smoked Frankfurter-style sausages were investigated depending on various smoking conditions. During smoking, the smoke generator, the smoking duration, the type of wood, and some more plant-specific parameters were tested. The sausages were also barbecued on a charcoal grill. The lowest mean contents of all analytes were observed when friction smoke was used (ATQ < limit of quantification (LOQ); ANT < LOQ; PAH4 < limit of detection (LOD)) and the highest when the settings of ventilations flaps were changed (ANT 36.3 µg/kg; PAH4 2.2 µg/kg) or at an intensive smoke density (ATQ 3.2 µg/kg). The contents increased with the smoking time, but irregularities were detected after 10 min. The use of different types of wood had no influence on the ATQ content but affected the PAH content. In barbecued samples, ATQ and ANT contents were detected at the level of friction smoke and maximum PAH4 contents were found above the exposure during smoking. Due to the varying influence of the smoking parameters on the two analytes, there was no direct correlation between the contents of ATQ and ANT in all smoking experiments.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/química , Culinária/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/química , Culinária/instrumentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Fumaça/análise , Suínos , Madeira/química
18.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3091-3098, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627254

RESUMO

The effects of four treatments of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) as replacements for pork back fat were evaluated for the physicochemical, technological, and sensory properties; nitrite content; and amino acid profile in pork sausages. Five batches were manufactured: one control (formulated with pork back fat) and four treatments with raw, boiled, deep-fried, and fried P. eryngii to replace the pork back fat in sausages. The results indicated that the fat content and energy value decreased, while the protein, moisture, total dietary fiber content, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity of the modified sausages increased. All samples were judged acceptable for their sensory characteristics, with the best one being the sausage containing deep-fried P. eryngii. The raw and fried P. eryngii decreased the residual nitrite content in the sausages. Boiled P. eryngii enhanced the essential amino acids content in the sausages, while the other P. eryngii treatments improved the nonessential amino acid content. In summary, P. eryngii may potentially replace fat in sausages. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In manufacturing pork sausages, the mushroom P. eryngii can substitute pork back fat to improve the nutritional quality by reducing fat and energy value, while enhancing the protein and total dietary fiber content in the sausages. Raw and fried P. eryngii decreased the residual nitrite content in the sausages. This study provides a basis for preparing healthier alternatives to traditional sausages by substituting pork fat with mushrooms.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pleurotus , Suínos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Pleurotus/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Paladar
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2944-2954, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553057

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms, especially yeasts and molds, related to the improvement of beef quality during dry-aging of beef through microbiome analysis, and to examine the possibility of using them as starter culture strains to improve the efficiency of dry-aging beef production. Beef sirloins were dry-aged for 28 days using different wind speeds (0, 2.5, and 5 m/s) at 1 to 3 °C and 75% relative humidity, and microbial compositions were confirmed by microbiome analysis. Mold and yeast samples were plated on potato dextrose agar supplemented with 10% tartaric acid, and the isolated colonies were identified by DNA sequencing. The isolates were subjected to microbial characterization (morphological characterization, growth condition, and enzyme activity). Microbiome analysis showed that the dominant microorganisms were molds and yeasts identified as Pilaira anomala SMFM201611 and Debaryomyces hansenii SMFM201707. Pilaira anomala SMFM201611 and D. hansenii SMFM201707 were inoculated into 24 sirloins of the lowest grade. All samples were dry-aged for 0, 14, 21, and 28 days and analyzed for microbial growth, pH, shear force, ultrastructure, and flavor compounds (free amino acids and free fatty acids). Inoculation with P. anomala SMFM201611 and D. hansenii SMFM201707 improved tenderness and cause the breakdown of myofibrils by proteolysis. Both microorganisms also produced free amino acids and fatty acids through proteolytic and lipolytic activities. These results indicate that P. anomala SMFM201611 and D. hansenii SMFM201707 isolated and identified from dry-aged beef can improve the quality of low-grade beef during dry-aging. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: During dry-aging, mold and yeast improve the quality of dry-aged beef. Pilaira anomala SMFM201611 and Debaryomyces hansenii SMFM201707 isolated from dry-aged beef can improve tenderness by breaking down myofibrils. Both microorganisms improve flavor by producing free fatty acids and amino acids, and the taste and aroma characteristics of low-grade beef may be improved during the dry-aging process.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Aromatizantes/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Melhoria de Qualidade , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Paladar , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10930-10936, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496247

RESUMO

The stability of lipids in meat products depends on the initial concentration of hydroperoxides, the catalytic involvement of metal ions and myoglobin, endogenous antioxidants, and biological and technological factors. Ground meat was treated with additives, sealed in vacuum bags, heated to 75 °C, and stored opened to air at 4 °C. S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NAC-SNO) at concentration like nitrite used by the industry prevents lipid peroxidation in the product, even after storage for 1 month at 4 °C. The same simulated treatments at different concentrations of both compounds show that NAC-SNO acts as an antioxidant ∼4-fold better than nitrite at pH 6.2 or 3.0. Ascorbic acid significantly improves nitrite antioxidant effect. NAC-SNO was found to prevent, much better than nitrite, accumulation of reactive aldehydes and hydroxynonenal protein modification. In condition like those used by the industry for meat products processing, NAC-SNO acts better than nitrite to provide antioxidant protection without the side effect of N-nitrosation, oxidation, and the loss of nutrient generated by nitrite.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Antioxidantes/análise , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Acetilcisteína/análise , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Conservantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Nitritos/análise , Oxirredução , Perus
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