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1.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 2): 128170, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038807

RESUMO

Accurate quantification of species fractions is critical to determine meat adulteration. This study aimed to develop a novel quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detection of mammalian and poultry DNA. A shared single-copy nuclear DNA sequence derived from the first exon of the LcoR gene was identified as a multi-species universal reference for a qRT-PCR assay. The conservation and copy number of the LcoR gene were evaluated among different species. The limit of detection was 0.01 ng DNA or 0.01% meat ingredient, and the limit of quantification was 0.01 ng DNA or 0.05% meat ingredient. Both the relative error (R.E.) and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were ≤ 25%. Moreover, modified coefficient k was introduced into this quantitative system to improve the accuracy and reliability of results, with maximum R.E. improved from 19.43% to 16.16%. The quantitative method would contribute to fighting against meat adulteration and maintaining a fair market.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mamíferos/genética , Aves Domésticas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA/análise , Primers do DNA , DNA Complementar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Dosagem de Genes , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127682, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795852

RESUMO

Consumers are increasingly interested in low-fat meat products. Therefore, there is demand for new fat replacers that improve the quality of low-fat meat products. Whey protein isolate (WPI; 10% (w/v)) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 0-0.09% (w/v)) were used to produce WPI-SDS gel as a fat replacer of low-fat meat products. Characteristics of WPI-SDS gel were evaluated using SDS-PAGE, FT-IR, viscometer, and texture analyzer. Addition of SDS to WPI increased gelation while reducing aggregation. Addition of 0.06% SDS to WPI-SDS gel has the highest viscosity and hardness, while 0.09% SDS decreased the heat stability of WPI. Quality characteristics including cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, and chewiness were significantly improved in WPI-SDS gel-supplemented low-fat sausages. Particularly, the highest hardness and chewiness were obtained in the low-fat sausage added with WPI-SDS gel containing 0.06% SDS. Our results suggest that WPI-SDS gel can be used as a fat replacer in low-fat meat products.


Assuntos
Culinária , Produtos da Carne/análise , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Géis , Dureza , Viscosidade
3.
Food Chem ; 337: 127630, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791432

RESUMO

The current study developed a cheap and effective method for the simultaneous extraction of 14 heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in food matrix. Core-shell Fe3O4@PDA nanoparticles were constructed and acted as the magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent to separate and purify HAAs from meat products for the first time. Then, UPLC-MS/MS technique was employed to identify and quantify the HAAs easily. Fe3O4@PDA nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized successfully. Totally 14 HAAs were completely separated in 19.99 min with good regression coefficients. LODs and LOQs were in the range of 0.013-0.247 ng/g and 0.056-0.803 ng/g, respectively. The intra-day precisions and inter-day precisions were below 9%. Except for IQ[4,5-b], Phe-p-1, PhIP, other 11 types of HAAs (DMIP, 1,5,6-TMIP, IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, AαC, MeAαC, Harman, Norharman) could acquire relatively high recoveries (71.06%-108.49%). The proposed method was successfully devoted to the evaluation of HAAs levels in 8 commercial meat products to verify the adaptability.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nanopartículas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Aminas/análise , Aminas/química , Aminas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Carbolinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Imidazóis/análise , Indóis/química , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Polímeros/química , Carne de Porco/análise , Quinolinas/análise , Quinoxalinas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Gene ; 764: 145062, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860900

RESUMO

Recently, DNA-based methods have proved to be accurate, fast and sensitive for meat authentication. According to the European Union, the food safety standards require accurate and detailed composition information of the meat products. Therefore, an accurate, fast and cost-effective identification methodology is needed. In this study, multiplex PCR coupled with 12S rDNA sequencing was employed for the detection of meat adulteration in two red meat products (frozen beef liver and cold cut samples, respectively) in Egypt. Multiplex PCR allowed the identification of ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey residuals in processed red meat products (cold cuts) in a single step PCR reaction. Preliminary uniplex PCR was performed to evaluate primers specificity using DNA extracted from the positive control samples. The primers produced specific fragments for ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey as follows: 271, 183, 531 and 145 bp, respectively. Multiplex PCR revealed that none of the samples was contaminated by porcine or donkey residuals, but 62.5% of all tested processed beef samples contained poultry contaminants. The sensitivity of this method was 0.01 ng/µL for beef, poultry and donkey and 0.1 ng/µL for pig. Another promising finding is the identification of all frozen beef liver samples as a cattle species (Bos taurus) through PCR-sequencing of a short fragment of 12S rRNA gene. Finally, we recommend the employment of multiplex PCR and PCR-sequencing of 12S rDNA for quality control in routine analysis of processed and frozen meat products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Egito , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/normas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Food Chem ; 340: 128095, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007696

RESUMO

This article evaluates the use of emulsion gels (EGs) containing two different solid polyphenol extracts [from grape seed (R-EPG) or grape seed and olive (R-EPGO)] as animal fat replacers in the development of frankfurters. The incorporation of EGs improved their lipid content, particularly R-EPG and R-EPGO also contained high levels of phenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and flavanols). These frankfurters were judged acceptable by the panellists and showed good thermal and storage stability. Colour parameters, pH and textural properties were affected (p < 0.05) by the formulation, being significant the influence of polyphenols extracts. Spectroscopic results showed greater (p < 0.05) inter- and intramolecular lipid disorder in the frankfurters with EGs, irrespective of the presence of polyphenol extracts. Comparing the reduced-fat samples, R-EPG and R-EPGO showed the lowest (p < 0.05) total viable counts. Significant changes in pH and texture parameters were observed during chilled storage while lipid structure was not affected.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Emulsões/química , Produtos da Carne , Polifenóis/química , Animais , Cor , Géis/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Paladar
6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(1): 149-178, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043360

RESUMO

Plant extracts contain large amounts of bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols inhibit the growth of microorganisms, especially bacteria. Their mechanism of action is still not fully understood but may be related to their chemical structure. They can cause morphological changes in microorganisms, damage bacterial cell walls and influence biofilm formation. Polyphenols also influence protein biosynthesis, change metabolic processes in bacteria cells and inhibit ATP and DNA synthesis (suppressing DNA gyrase). Due to the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds, plant extracts offer an alternative to chemical preservatives used in the meat industry, especially nitrates (III). They can inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora, suppress oxidation of meat ingredients (lipids and proteins) and prevent discoloration. In this paper, we describe the factors that influence the content of polyphenols in plants and plant extracts. We present the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action, and discuss the effects of plant extracts on the shelf-life of meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Polifenóis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas , Polifenóis/farmacologia
7.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(5): 171-177, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132360

RESUMO

A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of fipronil and fipronil sulfone (metabolite B) in livestock products was developed. The analytes were extracted from samples with acidic acetonitrile. The crude extracts were subjected to clean-up step using neutral alumina cartridge column. The HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and ammonium formate solution. For the determination of the analytes, a tandem mass spectrometry with negative ion electrospray ionization was used. In the recovery tests using 6 livestock products fortified with MRLs levels of analytes, the truenesses for fipronil and fipronil sulfone were 95 to 115 and 94 to 101% with the repeatabilities of 0.8 to 4.1 and 0.9 to 5.1 RSD%, respectively. The limits of quantification for both analytes were estimated to be 0.001 mg/kg. The developed method is considered suitable for regulatory analysis of fipronil and fipronil sulfone.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pirazóis , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Gado , Pirazóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13466, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043554

RESUMO

Sremski kulen is a wide diameter dry fermented sausage, produced from pork, seasoned with red spicy paprika, stuffed into pork cecum, and preserved by smoking, fermentation and drying. Due to specific ripening process, Sremski kulen is suitable for the accumulation of biogenic amines. Therefore, the aminogenesis was studied in traditionally produced Sremski kulen, taking into account the physicochemical parameters and microbial counts. The content of six biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The ripening process of Sremski kulen was slow followed by changes in aw and pH value as well as expressed proteolysis. The autochthonous microbiota showed pronounced decarboxylase activity. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were detected at each examined ripening stage while histamine was not detected until the end of ripening (16.55 ± 2.33 mg/kg). Tyramine, cadaverine, and putrescine content significantly increased during the ripening period (p < .05). In the final product, cadaverine was the dominant biogenic amine (132.40 ± 5.05 mg/kg), followed by tyramine (115.80 ± 15.46 mg/kg) and putrescine (68.55 ± 2.39 mg/kg). Although the long ripening period greatly contributed to the accumulation of biogenic amines in final product, their content are not of concern from product safety aspects, but requires improvement in hygiene of production process.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne de Porco , Animais , Cadaverina/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Proteólise , Putrescina/análise , Suínos , Tiramina/análise
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 9841-9850, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921473

RESUMO

Authentication of dairy and meat products is important to ensure fair competition, consumer benefit, and food safety. The large difference in price between camel and cow milk may be an incentive to adulterate camel dairy products with cow-derived foodstuffs. However, no studies so far have used triplex real-time PCR with an endogenous control to identify camel and cow origins in dairy and meat products. In this study, we developed a triplex real-time PCR assay based on amplification of mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA for the authentication of camel-derived dairy and meat products. This method was applied to identify camel and cow DNA in milk, yogurt, cheese, milk powder, milk beverage, meat products, and mixtures with milk and meat. Concentrations as low as 1 to 5% and 0.1% camel milk and meat, respectively, were detected in the mixtures, and 1 to 5% and 0.1% cow milk and meat, respectively, were identified via this approach. The limits of detection were 0.005 to 0.0025 ng, 0.05 to 0.001 ng, 0.001 to 0.0005 ng, and 0.00025 to 0.0001 ng of DNA in camel milk, camel yogurt, commercial camel milk beverage, and camel meat, and from 0.0025 to 0.001 ng, 0.5 to 0.001 ng, 1 to 0.05 ng, 0.01 ng, 0.001 ng, 0.0005 to 0.00025 ng, 0.0005 to 0.00025 ng, and 0.005 ng of DNA from cow milk, yogurt, cheese, acidic whey, milk powder, beef, beef jerky, and beef sausage, respectively. Different dairy and meat samples of camel and cow origins had a range of authentication limits and limits of detection. The designed triplex real-time PCR assay was shown to be a specific, sensitive, and efficient technique for the identification of camel and cow DNA in foodstuffs.


Assuntos
Camelus , Produtos da Carne/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Camelus/genética , Bovinos/genética , Queijo/análise , DNA/análise , Laticínios/análise , Feminino , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Leite/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Iogurte
10.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13446, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885584

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the palatability of sausages undergoing low-temperature fermentation and drying process. Lactobacillus sakei D-1001 or Lactobacillus salivarius A001 were used as starter cultures for fermentation, and the following properties of the sausages were investigated: colony-forming units of lactic acid bacteria; concentrations of lactic acid, protein, peptides, and free amino acids; distribution of protein; composition of free amino acids; and physical properties and taste. Alterations in the composition of proteins, peptides, and free amino acids as well as in various physical properties were caused by fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. A sensory test indicated that the palatability of the fermented sausages was greater than that of the non-fermented sausages, particularly in terms of hardness and juiciness. This was considered to be due to protein degeneration and changes in the physical properties of the sausages as a result of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. However, the taste of the fermented sausages was sourer than that of the non-fermented sausages, and therefore, inferior. Our study revealed that the palatability of the sausages in terms of hardness and juiciness were increased by low-temperature fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and the drying process.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Dessecação/métodos , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Lactobacillus sakei , Lactobacillus salivarius , Produtos da Carne/análise , Paladar , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Proteólise , Suínos
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13458, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996238

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of the addition of plant-derived extracts (control, garlic extract or a combination of carvacrol, thymol, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol oils extracts) to pig feedstuff and the reduction in salt content (NaCl or a mixture 60:40 sodium chloride:potassium lactate) on some physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability of dry-fermented sausages. Six different batches were formulated. The pH, color, lipid oxidation, and microbial counts were measured, and a consumer home test was performed. Both the use of a plant-derived extract and salt type affected the dry-fermented sausage characteristics. The low-salt batches presented a lower pH and higher microbial counts than the control. The salt reduction affected the color but only in the oil batches, resulting in higher L* and lower a* values. The oil batches presented the highest TBAR values (>1 mg/kg), suggesting that antioxidant compounds present into the meat were not bioavailable on the sausages or were missed during the curing process. The use of plant-derived extracts affected to consumer acceptability, whereas salt replacement did not. Oil batches scored lower than the other. From the current results, the oil extract would not be a recommended additive in pig feedstuff, especially when a low-salt strategy will be employed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Produtos da Carne , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Suínos , Paladar , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Cor , Fermentação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Produtos da Carne/análise
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2857-2865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812228

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to develop Manihot esculenta and Carrageenan bio-based composite active film functionalized with anise, caraway, and nutmeg essential oils (EOs) and to assess the shelf life of chicken nuggets wrapped with the developed film at refrigeration storage. Overall, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the three EOs ranged from 0.4 to 0.8% v/v of which nutmeg EO was found most effective. Incorporation of EOs in the film resulted in significant (P ˂ 0.05) decrease in tensile strength and water activity while elongation at break was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased. No significant (P ˃ 0.05) changes in thickness and Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) were observed. Based on physicomechanical and sensory evaluation, films incorporated with 0.5, 1, and 1% concentration of anise, nutmeg, and caraway EO were selected. Chicken nuggets overwrapped with aforementioned films were stored aerobically at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) to evaluate antimicrobial, antioxidant, and sensory characteristics. The result indicated that pH, peroxide, free fatty acid (FFA), and thiobarbituric acide (TBA) value of treatments were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lower than controls however significantly (P < 0.05) higher DPPH activity was observed in all treatments. The total plate count, psychrophilic count and, yeast and mold count were also significantly (P ˂ 0.01) lower in treatment groups and were within the permissible limits. The treated samples were well acceptable during whole storage period of 15 days. The application of composite, active edible bio-based film was found proficient in confining product quality attributes throughout storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The majority of films used for packaging of meat and meat products are derived from synthetic "plastic" materials. The demerits associated with plastics have eventually led to explore natural alternatives such as edible films. The composite-active bio-based films have a huge potential to be molded for specific film properties based on requirements of product-specific packaging conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Filmes Comestíveis , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Polímeros/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carragenina/química , Galinhas , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Manihot/química , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polímeros/síntese química , Refrigeração , Paladar
13.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2852-2856, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839974

RESUMO

An in-depth understanding of mass transfer during brining process is important for improving the quality and characteristics of meat products. In this study, a fitted equation of time and NaCl concentrations in the aqueous phase of beef was established to calculate the NaCl diffusion coefficient for simulation. A three-dimensional simulating model of mass transfer was developed to evaluate the NaCl diffusion in beef during brining process. And the validity of this simulating model was verified by comparing the NaCl concentrations evaluated by the numerical simulation simulated with the experimental measurements. The results indicated that the power function time variant equation can predict NaCl concentrations (R2 = 0.995) and accurately calculate the NaCl diffusion coefficient (8.46 × 10-10 m2 /s). The simulating model visually showed the NaCl diffusion in beef during brining process. Therefore, this research provided a new method for predicting the NaCl diffusion in realistic meat processing. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research gives a new method for predicting the NaCl diffusion in meat product. The method accurately evaluated NaCl concentrations in beef at different brining time and clearly showed NaCl diffusion in beef during brining process, which could be helpful in reducing the cost and the complexity of detecting NaCl concentrations in meat during brining process.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Difusão , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Sais/análise
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2879-2888, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839999

RESUMO

Ultrasound-assisted freezing (UF) has proven to be a method that can effectively increase the freezing rate of frozen food and improve its quality. The functional properties of myofibrillar proteins (MP) are important factors that affect the further processing quality of meat products. At present, the effect of UF on the functional properties of frozen MP is not yet clear. Therefore, in the present study, changes in the functional properties (emulsifying and gel properties) of MP in common carps (Cyprinus carpio) frozen with UF at different power levels were investigated. The results revealed that, compared with immersion freezing (IF), UF at 175 W (UF-175) effectively inhibited the decrease in protein solubility, absolute Zeta potential, emulsion activity index, storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') caused by freezing. UF-175 sample had lower protein turbidity, and smaller protein particle size than any other frozen samples (P < 0.05), which suggested that UF-175 inhibited protein aggregation induced by freezing. In addition, shorter T21 and T22 relaxation times were obtained in UF-175 sample than other frozen samples, indicating that UF-175 reduced the mobility of immobilized and free water. Accordingly, UF-175 sample had higher gel strength and water holding capacity than other frozen samples (P < 0.05). A denser and more uniform gel network structure was also found in UF-175 sample than other frozen samples. In general, improved functional properties of common carp MP can be achieved by optimal UF.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Animais , Carpas , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Congelamento , Tamanho da Partícula , Ultrassom
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3124-3133, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860235

RESUMO

In a commercial oyster mushroom farm, from 300 g of the total harvest, only the cap and stem of the fruiting body parts are harvested (200 g) while the unused lower section called fruiting-body-base (FBB) is discarded (50 g). A new antioxidative FBB flour (FBBF) conversion to mixed-ratio chicken patty was recently developed which converts 16.67% of FBB into an edible flour. At the initial stage, pretreatments of FBBF were optimized at particle size (106 µm) and citric acid concentration (0.5 g/100 mL) to improve flour antioxidant responses. Such pretreatments boosted total phenolic content (2.31 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g) and DPPH (51.53 ± 1.51%) of pretreated FBBF. Mixed-ratio chicken patty containing FBBF (10%, 20%, 30%) significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the patties. However, only the hardness and chewiness increased proportionally with the increase FBBF in concentration. Notably, 60 panellists considered that 10% FBBF-chicken patty sensory attributes, including lightness, redness, and yellowness, is acceptable to consumers. This information could be used to market any type of commercial mushroom farm waste as alternative food products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that unused harvested mushroom waste from a local farm can be used to make an antioxidative chicken patty that is acceptable to consumer panellists. The converted mushroom waste into flour suggests that smaller particles and citric acid pretreatment can increase its nutritional value. This information can be used for waste conversion into new product development from any type of mushroom farm.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carpóforos/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pleurotus/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Cor , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Paladar
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(32): 8648-8657, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672946

RESUMO

The quality of fermented sausage is strongly influenced by its fatty acid (FA). However, the role of a defined starter culture in modifying sausage FA composition, and especially in the production of hydroxy FAs (HFAs), has not been determined. In this study, the FA compositions of sausages fermented with Latilactobacillus sakei, with L. sakei plus Staphylococcus carnosus, and with an aseptic control were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and gas chromatography-MS. The sausages fermented with L. sakei, and with L. sakei plus S. carnosus, showed a reduced accumulation of poly and/or diunsaturated FAs and distinct composition of HFAs compared to the aseptic control. 2-HFAs were enriched via high-speed counter-current chromatography and identified uniquely in the L. sakei plus S. carnosus fermented sausage. Through lipid analyses, this study illustrated how the choice of a defined starter culture affected the observed FA metabolism in fermented sausages, facilitating the development of starter cultures or additives that impart desirable characteristics to sausage.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Suínos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679725

RESUMO

Hercegovacki prsut as a traditional dry-cured smoked ham (prosciutto) produced by using an open fire that can be potentially contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can pose a health risk for consumers. The aim of this research was to identify the types and concentrations of 16 PAHs in 34 samples of traditionally smoked prosciutto. Out of 16 investigated PAHs, identified in the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) list of priority pollutants, 14 compounds were detected. Average levels of cancerogenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), chrysene (Chry), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)) ranged from

Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Fumaça
18.
Food Chem ; 332: 127388, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603918

RESUMO

Peptidyl post-translational modifications (PTMs) could influence the final quality of processed meat. In this study, the peptide oxidative phenomena in Spanish dry-cured ham (Biceps femoris muscle) was evaluated at different ripening times (9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of processing) evidencing interactions amongst the lipid and protein oxidation, major peptidyl PTMs and the release of free amino acids (FAAs). Results showed that 12 months of processing enabled the most abundant protein-bound carbonyls, while TBARS value was significantly favored (p < 0.001) by ripening. However, FAAs were still intensively generated during overall ripening. Peptidomics and chemometrics further revealed that proteolysis mostly hampered the oxidized peptides rather than the deamidated ones during ripening. Myosin light chain (MYL1 and MYL3) showed high oxidative susceptibility owing to peptidyl methionine and proline oxidation as well as acetaldehyde adduct formation on lysine or histidine residues.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Peptídeos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dipeptídeos/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/química , Oxirredução , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Food Microbiol ; 91: 103505, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539975

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between bacterial communities and volatile compounds in traditional dry sausages from different regions in Northeast China. The bacterial community structure of dry sausages from five different regions as determined by high-throughput sequencing technology demonstrated that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla; Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Weissella were the predominant genera; and Staphylococcus xylosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Weissella hellenica, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the predominant species. Meanwhile, a total of 120 volatile compounds were detected in sausages from five different regions and mainly included alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters and terpenes. Furthermore, the potential correlations between the core bacteria and major volatile compounds (64) were explored based on Spearman's correlation analysis. Positive correlations were found between W. hellenica, Lb. sakei, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lb. plantarum and carboxylic acids and alcohols. Lc. lactis, Lb. alimentarius and Lb. plantarum were associated with the production of most esters, aldehydes and ketones. This study provides a deep insight into the relationship between the bacterial community and the volatile flavour profile of dry sausages, which may be helpful for the production of fermented dry sausages.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Produtos da Carne , Microbiota/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Suínos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Água/análise
20.
Food Chem ; 330: 126897, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569929

RESUMO

Because of the need to abolish the castration of piglets without anaesthesia/analgesia, the pig industry is searching for a mode of action for the valorisation of meat with boar taint, an off-odour in entire male pigs. Carcasses with boar taint were selected by means of sensory and chemical analysis, after which patties with different levels of tainted boar meat were produced, as well as cooked ham and Frankfurter sausages using different smoke condensates and cooking temperatures. For these products orthonasal and retronasal boar taint odour were assessed by a trained expert panel. The results offer guidance regarding dilution of tainted meat (with <400 µg/kg androstenone if skatole is low or <200 µg/kg androstenone in concurrence with ≥37 µg/kg skatole) and the potential application of smoke condensates (e.g., Rudinsmoke C for sausages and Smokez LFBN for ham) as promising boar taint masking strategies.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Androstenos/análise , Animais , Culinária , Odorantes/análise , Escatol/análise , Fumaça , Suínos
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