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1.
Meat Sci ; 158: 107908, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446367

RESUMO

Spanish consumers have a strong preference for Iberian meat products, as they perceive them to be of extra sensorial and nutritional quality. The production of these meat products depends on multiple variables, such as genetics, livestock production systems and, above all, the feed provided. The aim of this paper is to study the preferences of Spanish consumers for the various types of Iberian dry-cured ham, analysing whether they are willing to pay the premium required by the highest-quality products. The methodological approach combined a sensory analysis and a choice-based conjoint experiment with obtained through tasting sessions in Extremadura (SW of Spain). Findings of the sensory test have shown that there are significant differences in odour, texture and taste, explained mainly by the type of feed pigs were fed. The main results of the choice experiment have also shown that the type of feed is the most preferred attribute by consumers, in line with the sensory analysis.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Produtos da Carne/normas , Carne de Porco/normas , Adulto , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/economia , Espanha , Suínos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336635

RESUMO

The consumption pattern of salami has been subjected to relatively widespread attention by academician, but few studies concerning the health implications of salami consumption have been published. Since additives and product origins represent important attributes for salami, the objective of this paper is twofold: (i) to explore the role of two additives, salt and nitrates, in addition to the Italian origin, in relation to consumer attitudes and preferences towards salami, (ii) to segment consumer behaviour by assessing their willingness-to-buy salami, in order to verify whether different purchasing patterns can be identified within the different social groups. The analysis was conducted on two different levels. The first was developed through a conjoint analysis, while the second implemented a frequency analysis based on a bivariate analysis. Results show the price as one of the most important variables in identifying the quality level of salami, in addition, certain socio-economic segments of consumers show a significant propensity to pay an additional price for salami with a low salt content and is nitrate-free.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Aditivos Alimentares/economia , Produtos da Carne/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Nitratos/economia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Meat Sci ; 152: 104-108, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844619

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to assess consumers' willingness to pay for reformulated frankfurters in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings. Images of frankfurter packages were designed using a fractional factorial design with 5 2-level variables: brand type, sodium reduction, saturated fat reduction, fibre claim and cholesterol claim. An online study with 548 consumers was implemented with Chilean participants, who were asked to indicate how much they would be willing to pay for each of the packages. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and hierarchical cluster analysis. Willingness to pay was significantly affected by brand type and sodium and fat reduction, whereas fibre and cholesterol claim did not have a significant effect. These results suggest that in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings reformulation of processed meat products should focus on the reduction of key nutrients, although consumers may not be willing to pay a higher price for reformulated products.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Adulto , Chile , Colesterol na Dieta , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Prev Med ; 118: 325-331, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468795

RESUMO

The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers processed meat to be carcinogenic. Further, processed meat is associated with diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality. We aimed to assess health gains of four processed meat taxation scenarios in comparison to the reference and a minimum-risk-exposure-scenario. To estimate the shift in processed meat intake following respective taxes, we calculated price elasticities for processed meat. DYNAMO-HIA was used to dynamically project policy-attributable differences in the prevalence of diseases and deaths. In projection year 10, an extra 9300 males and 4500 females would be alive under the lowest tax scenario (4% tax), compared to the reference scenario. Prevalent IHD, diabetes and colorectal cancer cases in males would be 8400, 9500 and 500 lower, respectively, and there would be 4600, 7800 and 300 less cases in females. Of the respective death and disease reduction that would be achieved under the minimum-risk-exposure-scenario, the lowest tax reaches 2.84% (colorectal cancer in males) to 6.02% (diabetes in females). Under the highest tax scenario (33.3% tax), an extra 76,700 males and 37,100 females would be alive, compared to the reference scenario. Prevalent IHD, diabetes and colorectal cancer cases would be 70,800, 77,900 and 4900 lower in males and 29,900, 48,900 and 2300 lower in females, which represents 27.84% (colorectal cancer in males) to 37.76% (diabetes in females) of the maximal preventable death and disease burden. Further research needs to examine to what extent these health benefits are outweighed by a simultaneous tax-induced decrease in fish intake.


Assuntos
Comércio , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Produtos da Carne/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Saúde da População , Impostos/economia , Animais , Comércio/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Alemanha , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências
5.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0204139, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with increased mortality from chronic diseases, and as a result, it has been classified by the World Health Organization as carcinogenic (processed meat) and probably carcinogenic (red meat) to humans. One policy response is to regulate red and processed meat consumption similar to other carcinogens and foods of public health concerns. Here we describe a market-based approach of taxing red and processed meat according to its health impacts. METHODS: We calculated economically optimal tax levels for 149 world regions that would account for (internalize) the health costs associated with ill-health from red and processed meat consumption, and we used a coupled modelling framework to estimate the impacts of optimal taxation on consumption, health costs, and non-communicable disease mortality. Health impacts were estimated using a global comparative risk assessment framework, and economic responses were estimated using international data on health costs, prices, and price elasticities. FINDINGS: The health-related costs to society attributable to red and processed meat consumption in 2020 amounted to USD 285 billion (sensitivity intervals based on epidemiological uncertainty (SI), 93-431), three quarters of which were due to processed meat consumption. Under optimal taxation, prices for processed meat increased by 25% on average, ranging from 1% in low-income countries to over 100% in high-income countries, and prices for red meat increased by 4%, ranging from 0.2% to over 20%. Consumption of processed meat decreased by 16% on average, ranging from 1% to 25%, whilst red meat consumption remained stable as substitution for processed meat compensated price-related reductions. The number of deaths attributable to red and processed meat consumption decreased by 9% (222,000; SI, 38,000-357,000), and attributable health costs decreased by 14% (USD 41 billion; SI, 10-57) globally, in each case with greatest reductions in high and middle-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Including the social health cost of red and processed meat consumption in the price of red and processed meat could lead to significant health and environmental benefits, in particular in high and middle-income countries. The optimal tax levels estimated in this study are context-specific and can complement the simple rules of thumb currently used for setting health-motivated tax levels.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Produtos da Carne/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Impostos/economia , Humanos
6.
Meat Sci ; 143: 114-118, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734004

RESUMO

This research evaluated the utilization of winter mushrooms as a replacement for phosphate in emulsion-type sausages. Winter mushroom powder (WMP) was added to the sausages at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/w), and phosphate was added at 0.3% as a positive control. The WMP additions above 1.0% increased the pH of meat batter and efficiently inhibited the exudation of fat from the sausages (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of sausages was inhibited by the addition of WMP (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the addition of phosphate and WMP provided different instrumental texture properties. However, no adverse effects were observed with respect to the color and sensory properties of the sausages containing WMP, except for that containing 2.0% WMP. Therefore, this research indicates that WMP can effectively replace phosphate in meat products, and that the most effective addition level may be 1.0% WMP.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Emulsificantes/química , Flammulina/química , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Químicos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/economia , Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Emulsões , Flammulina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Preferências Alimentares , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/economia , Liofilização , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Oxirredução , Fosfatos/efeitos adversos , Fosfatos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Refrigeração , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano , Sensação , Sus scrofa
7.
Meat Sci ; 143: 137-146, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751220

RESUMO

Since the 1970s, in some European countries rabbit meat production has progressively become a highly specialized industry, which has made Europe the second (after China) largest rabbit meat producer in the world. However, the industry is currently facing a critical period due to structural weaknesses, progressive and constant reductions in consumption, and raising criticism related to welfare conditions and other ethical issues. This trend is questioning the future of the rabbit meat industry, which could lead to the loss of knowledge and technical expertise acquired over decades of major investments and research efforts (a valuable cultural and professional heritage for future generations). In the present review, we provide an overview of the rabbit meat industry, market and value chain, we depict consumer's attitude towards rabbit meat, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and factors driving their current purchase behavior. Finally, we will attempt to outline possible strategies to ensure a sustainable future for the production of rabbits for commercial meat purposes.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Modelos Econômicos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/ética , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal/tendências , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta Saudável/ética , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/tendências , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/ética , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Orgânicos/economia , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne/economia , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Coelhos , Crescimento Sustentável
8.
Meat Sci ; 143: 242-251, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803858

RESUMO

In March 2012 ABC World News Report aired a series of reports on lean finely textured beef (LFTB) that resulted in a 10-year low for beef prices and the bankruptcy of a major firm that produced LFTB. Using a random sample survey, we tested the effects of the media frame "pink slime" and industry frame "lean finely textured beef," alongside media use, food-related knowledge, trust in food-related institutions and preference for local, fresh, organic and GMO-free foods on perceptions of risk related to ground beef containing pink slime/LFTB, processed foods and red meat. The "pink slime" frame was strongly and positively associated with risk related to ground beef, but not risk related to red meat or processed foods. Attention to news stories about pink slime/LFTB was strongly associated with risk related to ground beef and processed foods, but not red meat. We found varying effects of food values, knowledge and trust on all three dependent variables. Implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/métodos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/economia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/economia , Produtos da Carne/economia , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/economia , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Terminologia como Assunto , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
9.
Meat Sci ; 143: 252-256, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807297

RESUMO

The growth of Clostridium perfringens from spore inocula was studied in sous vide cooked ground beef with added 0 to 3% grape seed extract (GSE). C. perfringens did not grow at 4 °C with or without GSE present. Lag time (LT) was 95 h in control samples at 15 °C, whereas 1-3% GSE addition significantly (p < .05) extended LT to 244 h or longer. Generation time (GT) in 3% GSE added beef was similar to that of control (19 h, 3% GSE versus 18 h, control) at 15 °C. At 20 °C, GT was 1.5 h in samples without GSE; however, 1-3% GSE addition extended GT about 2-3 folds (p < .05). Lag time at 20 °C was 23 h in control samples, while LT was 40-59 h in samples containing GSE. Interestingly, GSE did not affect LT at 25 °C; however, significantly (p < .05) longer GT was observed in 3% GSE added samples than the other sample groups. Additionally, GSE from 1 to 3% in beef extended the period needed to reach 6 log cfu/g at 15 or 20 °C, while 3% GSE was required at 25 °C. The findings suggest that GSE exhibits concentration and temperature dependent inhibitory effect on growth of C. perfringens in sous vide cooked ground beef. Grape seed extract can be used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the microbiological safety of sous vide cooked meat products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Culinária , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Carga Bacteriana , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Bovinos , Clostridium perfringens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Refrigeração , Especificidade da Espécie , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Temperatura
10.
Meat Sci ; 143: 210-218, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800926

RESUMO

The effects of ß-glucans (ßG) in beef emulsions with carrageenan and starch were evaluated using an optimal mixture modeling system. The best mathematical models to describe the cooking loss, color, and textural profile analysis (TPA) were selected and optimized. The cubic models were better to describe the cooking loss, color, and TPA parameters, with the exception of springiness. Emulsions with greater levels of ßG and starch had less cooking loss (<1%), intermediate L* (>54 and <62), and greater hardness, cohesiveness and springiness values. Subsequently, during the optimization phase, the use of carrageenan was eliminated. The optimized emulsion contained 3.13 ±â€¯0.11% ßG, which could cover the intake daily of ßG recommendations. However, the hardness of the optimized emulsion was greater (60,224 ±â€¯1025 N) than expected. The optimized emulsion had a homogeneous structure and normal thermal behavior by DSC and allowed for the manufacture of products with high amounts of ßG and desired functional attributes.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Modelos Biológicos , beta-Glucanas/química , Algoritmos , Animais , Brasil , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/ultraestrutura , Bovinos , Fenômenos Químicos , Culinária , Emulsões , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Dureza , Humanos , Mastigação , Produtos da Carne/economia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Valor Nutritivo , Pigmentos Biológicos , Refrigeração , Amido/química , Amido/ultraestrutura , Água/análise
11.
Meat Sci ; 143: 8-17, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684844

RESUMO

Cultured meat grown in-vitro from animal cells is being developed as a way of addressing many of the ethical and environmental concerns associated with conventional meat production. As commercialisation of this technology appears increasingly feasible, there is growing interest in the research on consumer acceptance of cultured meat. We present a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize and analyse the findings of 14 empirical studies. We highlight demographic variations in consumer acceptance, factors influencing acceptance, common consumer objections, perceived benefits, and areas of uncertainty. We conclude by evaluating the most important objections and benefits to consumers, as well as highlighting areas for future research.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne , Músculos/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/economia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/ética , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/economia , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/economia , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/ética , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/tendências , Músculos/química , Medição de Risco
12.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 11(2): 138-145, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486658

RESUMO

A total of 77 traditionally smoked meat samples produced in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia were tested for the occurrence of four EU regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Levels of PAHs exceeding the EU maximum levels for benzo[a]pyrene and for the sum of four PAHs (PAH4) were detected in 46% and 48% of the samples originating from Latvia. The detected BaP levels in smoked meats ranged from 0.05 to 166 µg kg-1, while the PAH4 content ranged from 0.42 to 628 µg kg-1. The mean dietary exposure to PAHs was estimated at the levels of 5.4 ng BaP/kg bw/day and 36 ng PAH4/kg bw/day. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was utilised to assess the risks to Latvian consumers due to PAHs and the obtained MOEs were in a range of 7205-24,434, thus indicating a potential concern for consumer health for specific population groups.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Países Bálticos , Calibragem , Carcinógenos Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa , Dieta/etnologia , União Europeia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Conservação de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/efeitos adversos , Alimentos em Conserva/economia , Alimentos em Conserva/normas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Produtos da Carne/normas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fumaça , Propriedades de Superfície , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Food Sci ; 82(11): 2659-2668, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058811

RESUMO

Bacon is one of the most recognizable consumer pork products and is differentiated by appearance, flavor, thickness, and several possible product claims. The objective of this study was to explore the attributes of retail bacon that influence consumers to purchase and consume bacon. An Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was designed for attributes of raw American-style bacon. An ACBC survey (N = 1410 consumers) and Kano questioning were applied to determine the key attributes that influenced consumer purchase. Attributes included package size, brand, thickness, label claims, flavor, price, and images of the bacon package displaying fat:lean ratio. Maximum Difference Scaling (MaxDiff) was used to rank appeal of 20 different bacon images with variable fat:lean ration and slice shape. The most important attribute for bacon purchase was price followed by fat:lean appearance and then flavor. Three consumer clusters were identified with distinct preferences. For 2 clusters, price was not the primary attribute. Understanding preferences of distinct consumer clusters will enable manufacturers to target consumers and make more appealing bacon. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) is a research technique that allows consumers to react to assembled products and identify product attributes that they prefer. Kano questions allow researchers to look at the individual aspects of a product and understand consumer sentiment and expectations towards those product qualities while Maximum Difference scaling allows consumers to directly rank single attributes of a product relative to one another. A combination of these 3 approaches can provide key understandings on consumer perception of retail bacon allowing companies to optimize and maximize their development and advertising resources.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
14.
Meat Sci ; 131: 82-89, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494317

RESUMO

Recent innovations in processed meats focus on healthier reformulations through reducing negative constituents and/or adding health beneficial ingredients. This study explored the influence of base meat product (ham, sausages, beef burger), salt and/or fat content (reduced or not), healthy ingredients (omega 3, vitamin E, none), and price (average or higher than average) on consumers' purchase intention and quality judgement of processed meats. A survey (n=481) using conjoint methodology and cluster analysis was conducted. Price and base meat product were most important for consumers' purchase intention, followed by healthy ingredient and salt and/or fat content. In reformulation, consumers had a preference for ham and sausages over beef burgers, and for reduced salt and/or fat over non reduction. In relation to healthy ingredients, omega 3 was preferred over none, and vitamin E was least preferred. Healthier reformulations improved the perceived healthiness of processed meats. Cluster analyses identified three consumer segments with different product preferences.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Vitamina E
15.
Food Environ Virol ; 9(2): 208-218, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197972

RESUMO

Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection. Therefore we set out to investigate the prevalence of HEV in retail pork products available in Canada, by screening meal-size portions of pork pâtés, raw pork sausages, and raw pork livers. The presence of the HEV genomes was determined by RT-PCR and viral RNA was quantified by digital droplet PCR. Overall, HEV was detected in 47% of the sampled pork pâtés and 10.5% of the sampled raw pork livers, but not in the sampled pork sausages, and sequencing confirmed that all HEV strains belonged to genotype 3. Further phylogenetic analysis revealed that except for one isolate that clusters with subtype 3d, all isolates belong to subtype 3a. Amino acid variations between the isolates were also observed in the sequenced capsid region. In conclusion, the prevalence of HEV in pâtés and raw pork livers observed in this study is in agreement with the current HEV distribution in pork products reported in other developed countries.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Genótipo , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0168710, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are large differences in the burden and health implications of obesity by race and gender in the US. It is unclear to what extent policies modifying caloric consumption change the distribution of the burden of obesity and related health outcomes. Meat is a large component of the American diet. We investigate how changing meat prices (that may result from policies or from exogenous factors that reduce supply) might impact the burden of obesity by race and gender. METHODS: We construct a microsimulation model that evaluates the 15-year body-mass index (BMI) and mortality impact of changes in meat price (5, 10, 25, and 50% increase) in the US adult population stratified by age, gender, race, and BMI. RESULTS: Under each price change evaluated, relative to the status quo, white males, black males, and black females are expected to realize more dramatic reduction in 2030 obesity prevalence than white females. Life expectancy gains are also projected to differ by subpopulation, with black males far less likely to benefit from an increase in meat prices than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Changing meat prices has considerable potential to affect population health differently by race and gender. In designing interventions that alter the price of foods to consumers, it is not sufficient to assess health effects based solely on the population as a whole, since differential effects across subpopulations may be substantial.


Assuntos
Comércio , Carne/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calibragem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Dieta , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Meat Sci ; 125: 106-113, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940228

RESUMO

Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento do Consumidor , Produtos da Carne/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Fazendas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appetite ; 108: 245-254, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717657

RESUMO

Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Tecnologia de Alimentos/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Produtos da Carne , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Pegada de Carbono , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Tecnologia de Alimentos/economia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/economia , Países Baixos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/economia , Autorrelato , Células-Tronco/citologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Environ Virol ; 8(3): 200-5, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27169536

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging causative agent of food and waterborne hepatitis in human beings. HEV circulates among human populations and swine herds, and may be found in water contaminated by swine feces, as well as in pork. In the present study, 68 sediment samples and 250 water samples collected from the Sinos River tributaries, as well as 50 samples of pork products (pâté and blood sausage) marketed in the Sinos River watershed region, Brazil, were tested for the presence of HEV genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by nucleotide sequencing was used for detection and characterization of HEV genomes. Overall, 36 % of food samples tested positive for HEV (genotype 3). No sediment or water samples were positive. These results suggest that contaminated pork products may be a source of HEV infection within this region and indicate a need for better monitoring of food safety and swine herds.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Rios/virologia , Animais , Brasil , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Produtos da Carne/economia , Filogenia , Suínos
20.
J Food Prot ; 79(4): 613-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27052866

RESUMO

Viability of Listeria monocytogenes was monitored during refrigerated (4°C) and/or frozen (i.e., deep chilling at -2.2°C) storage on casing-cooked hams that were commercially prepared with and without potassium lactate and sodium diacetate (1.6%), buffered vinegar (2.2%), buffered vinegar and potassium lactate (1.7%), or a blend of potassium lactate, potassium acetate, and sodium diacetate (1.7%). A portion of these hams were subsequently surface treated with lauric arginate ester (LAE; 44 ppm). In phase I, hams (ca. 3.5 kg each) were sliced (ca. 0.7 cm thick, ca. 100 g), inoculated (ca. 4.0 log CFU per slice), surface treated with LAE, and stored at either 4°C for 120 days or at -2.2°C for 90 days and then at 4°C for an additional 120 days. In phase I, without antimicrobials, the population of L. monocytogenes increased by ca. 5.9 log CFU per slice within 120 days at 4°C; however, pathogen levels increased only slightly (ca. 0.45 log CFU per slice) for hams formulated with potassium lactate and sodium diacetate and decreased by ca. 1.2 log CFU per slice when formulated with the other antimicrobials. For slices held at -2.2°C and then stored at 4°C, but not treated with LAE, L. monocytogenes increased by ca. 4.5 log CFU per slice for controls, whereas when formulated with antimicrobials, pathogen levels decreased by ca. 1.4 to 1.8 log CFU per slice. For product treated with LAE, L. monocytogenes increased by ca. 4.0 log CFU per slice for controls, whereas when formulated with antimicrobials, pathogen levels decreased by ca. 0.9 to 1.9 log CFU per slice. In phase II, whole hams (ca. 1.0 kg each) containing antimicrobials were inoculated (6.8 log CFU per ham) and then stored at -2.2°C for 6 months. Pathogen levels decreased by ca. 2.0 to 3.5 log CFU per ham (without LAE treatment) and by ca. 4.2 to 5.2 log CFU per ham (with application of LAE via Sprayed Lethality in Container) when product was held at -2.2°C. In general, deep chilling hams was listericidal, and inclusion of antimicrobials in the formulation suppressed outgrowth of L. monocytogenes during extended cold storage.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Acetatos/análise , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/economia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Suínos
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