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1.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 748-757, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418755

RESUMO

Although solar energy is promising for water purification, there is still a room for further improving the solar steam generation efficiency. Herein, an environmental energy-enhanced solar steam evaporator is fabricated by immersing a cellulose acetate fiber-based cigarette filter (CF) in an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) followed by freeze-drying and decorating with MXene sheets. The presence of MXene is to absorb solar light and convert solar energy to thermal energy for efficient water evaporation, while the porous PVA network generated inside the pores of the filter during the freeze-drying process accommodates the dispersed MXene sheets and interconnects the CF and MXene. Because of the constructed PVA/MXene network inside the CF porous architecture and the hydrophilic feature of both MXene and PVA, the resultant MXene/PVA modified CF (MPCF) is highly hydrophilic and competent for rapid upward transfer of water. Interestingly, in addition to the normal energy input by the incident solar light, the large-area sidewall of MPCF gains thermal energy from the environment in the forms of heat convection and heat radiation to enhance the solar steam generation efficiency, resulting in an ultrahigh water evaporation rate of 3.38 kg m-2 h-1 with an outstanding evaporation efficiency of 132.9%.


Assuntos
Vapor , Produtos do Tabaco , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Luz Solar
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107117, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette device and liquid characteristics, such as electrical power output and liquid nicotine concentration, determine the rate at which nicotine is emitted from the e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine flux), and thus are likely to influence user nicotine dependence. We hypothesize that nicotine flux would be associated with the E-cigarette Dependence Scale (EDS) among pod-based and disposable e-cigarette products. METHODS: Data were obtained from online panel participants between 18 and 65 years of age, who had indicated that they were either former or current e-cigarette users and resided within the United States (N = 1036). To be included in these analyses, participants had to provide information regarding device type (pod-based or disposable), power (watts), and nicotine concentration (mg/mL), from which we could determine nicotine flux (µg/s) (N = 666). To assess the relationship between nicotine flux and EDS, a series of multivariable linear regressions were conducted. Each model was separated by device type and adjusted for by age and past 30-day e-cigarette use. RESULTS: Greater nicotine flux was associated with higher EDS scores among pod-based e-cigarette users (beta = 0.19, SE = 0.09, p-value = 0.043), but not users of disposable e-cigarettes. Neither power nor nicotine concentration were associated with EDS scores among users of either e-cigarette device type. CONCLUSION: Results support the hypothesis that nicotine flux is positively associated with nicotine dependence in a sample of current users of pod-based and disposable e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Vaping , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
4.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107121, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research has highlighted the role of cognitive and affective mediators in facilitating the effectiveness of pictorial warning labels (PWLs). This study examines smokers' responses towards PWLs after 10 days of use and their associations with changes in quitting attitudes, beliefs, and intentions during this period. METHODS: Non-treatment-seeking, daily smokers completed a randomized, parallel design trial. Participants were randomized to either a PWL or control (i.e., text only or no warning label) group and received their preferred brand cigarettes affixed with their assigned label for 10 days. We assessed quitting attitudes, intentions, and beliefs at the onset and end of the study. At study end, smokers rated their PWL on a 5-point scale for 8 cognitive and emotional attributes: memorable, understandable, shocking, informative, offensive, boring, relevant, and interesting. RESULTS: Mean ratings of the PWLs were high for memorable, understandable, informative, relevant, and interesting (range = 3.4 to 4.0), moderate for shocking (2.9), and low for offensive (1.7), and boring (1.5). Among the PWLs, quitting-related attitudes, positive beliefs, and intentions increased over the study period (p < .001) and these changes were positively associated with most attributes except offensive and boring (p < .05). For the text-only label group, attitudes and intentions increased significantly but these changes were not associated with any attributes. CONCLUSION: Smokers generally have favorable evaluations of PWLs following repeated exposures. Further, these evaluations are associated with increased quitting attitudes and intentions, which may facilitate cessation attempts over longer periods of exposure.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114397, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626940

RESUMO

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavor chemicals in tobacco heating products (THPs), traditional tobacco products (TTPs) and their flavoring capsules. A total of 283 compounds were identified through non-target analysis, and the final 302 compounds were selected to develop an analytical method. The lower limits of detection (LOD) of analytes were 0.00074-12 mg/kg and their LOD range was wide depending on the presence or absence in the reference cigarette. The precision of the 302 compounds was less than 24.5%, and the accuracy ranged from 80.0% to 120%. A total of 190 flavors and 5 contaminants were determined in 21 THP, 10 TTP, 8 THP capsules and 11 TTP capsules. When comparing the total flavor content of flavors per cigarette, it was in the order of THP capsule> TTP capsule ≫ THP ≫ TTP. The correlations between the 53 cigarette products and 190 flavor chemicals were analyzed using PCA. It has been demonstrated that PCA results can be a useful tool in differentiating brands and manufacturers of tobacco products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Cápsulas , Aromatizantes , Calefação , Tabaco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) among young adult cigarette smokers in the period July-August 2018 to examine their preference for cigarillos in response to various packaging-related attributes, including flavor, flavor description, quality descriptors, pack size, and prices. METHODS: A convenience sample of 566 US young adult cigarette smokers aged 18-34, among whom 296 were current little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smokers, were recruited using Facebook ads and invited to participate in an online (Qualtrics) tobacco survey containing DCE and tobacco use questions. In the experiment, participants chose among two cigarillo products or "neither" (opt-out). RESULTS: We analyzed preferences for LCCs using multinomial, nested, random parameter logit models. Results showed that young adult cigarette smokers preferred grape over menthol, tobacco/regular, and wine flavors; "color only" and "color and text" flavor depictions over text only; "smooth" and "sweet" quality descriptors over "satisfying"; and larger pack sizes and lower prices. CONCLUSIONS: Regulating packaging-related features will impact LCC choices among US young adult smokers. FDA regulation over these packaging-related features may impact LCC use among young adult smokers.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Mentol , Embalagem de Produtos , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(S2): 51-57, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sale of single cigarettes (also known as singles or loosies) is a key driver for early initiation of smoking and is a leading contributor to the smoking epidemic in India. Sale of singles additionally deter implementation of tobacco control strategies of pictorial health warnings including plain packaging and defeat effective taxation and promote illicit trade. We review India's tobacco control policy responses towards banning singles and other products sold as loose tobacco and identify opportunities for future policy intervention especially in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Existing national and sub-national policy documents were analyzed for their content since the inception of the tobacco control laws in the country. RESULTS: There are no effective provisions at national level to ban loose tobacco products in India. However, the implementation of multiple legislative and regulatory measures (Acts/circulars/letters/notifications/orders/court judgements) in 16 Indian states and jurisdictions provide sufficient legal framework to substantiate its complete ban pan India. While the majority of state governments have adopted state level measures, Rajasthan had issued specific directive to all the 33 districts banning loose cigarettes and other tobacco products. Himachal Pradesh introduced the most unique and comprehensive legislation, for banning the sale of cigarettes and beedis (Dated November 7, 2016). The most recent notification in the state of Maharashtra (September 24, 2020) is the first to leverage powers using a mix of national and state legislations including the legislation addressing the rapidly emerging challenge of managing COVID-19. CONCLUSION: A robust national policy which supports strong provision to deter tobacco companies, their distribution network and vendors from selling singles or loose tobacco products is urgently needed. Such policy should be backed by cautionary messaging for consumers as well. Eliminating singles and loose tobacco sale will help in blunting tobacco use prevalence besides curbing spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Governo Estadual , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco products is common in young adults. We aimed to explore how ratings of subjective and contextual factors differed between discrete episodes of e-cigarette use vs. combustible tobacco product smoking among a sample of young adults. METHODS: Young adults (N = 29, ages 18-30) who used e-cigarettes and ≥1 combustible tobacco product at least once weekly completed a 1-week smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Twice daily random prompts assessed past-15-min use of tobacco products, ratings of subjective factors (e.g., negative affect, craving), and contextual factors related to activity, location, and companionship. A multivariable GEE model assessed whether subjective or contextual factors were associated with e-cigarette vs. combustible tobacco product episodes. RESULTS: 184 tobacco use episodes were reported (39.7% e-cigarette, 60.3% combustible tobacco product). High baseline cigarette dependence, as measured by the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence, was associated with lower odds of e-cigarette vs. combustible tobacco product episodes (aOR 0.01, 95% CI (0.002-0.08); p < 0.001). Neither between- or within-subjects negative affect or craving scores were associated with e-cigarette use. Activities of eating/drinking (aOR 0.20, 95% CI (0.08-0.49); p = 0.001) and being in the companionship of a person who smoked cigarettes (aOR 0.13, 95% CI (0.04-0.43); p = 0.001) were associated with lower odds of e-cigarette vs. combustible tobacco product use episodes. However, traveling (aOR 12.02, 95% CI (3.77-38.26); p ≤ 0.001) and being in a public space (aOR 2.76, 95% CI (1.10-6.96); p = 0.03) were associated with higher odds of e-cigarette than combustible tobacco product use episodes. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot data suggests that unique contextual factors may be associated with e-cigarette use, compared to combustible tobacco smoking in a sample of young adults who use both e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco products. Future research with larger samples is needed to better characterize varying contexts and cues for tobacco use among young adults who are dual users.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Uso de Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769598

RESUMO

We examined the role of depressive symptoms in the longitudinal trajectory of the number of tobacco products used across young adulthood, ages 18-30 years, and whether peer tobacco use exacerbated the effects of the depressive symptoms. Participants were 4534 initially 18-25-year-old young adults in the Marketing and Promotions Across Colleges in Texas project (Project M-PACT), which collected data across a 4.5-year period from 2014 to 2019. Growth curve modeling within an accelerated design was used to test study hypotheses. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with a greater number of tobacco products used concurrently and at least six months later. The number of tobacco-using peers moderated the association between depressive symptoms and the number of tobacco products trajectory. Young adults with elevated depressive symptoms used a greater number of tobacco products but only when they had a greater number of tobacco-using peers. Findings indicate that not all young adults with depressive symptoms use tobacco. Having a greater number of tobacco-using peers may facilitate a context that both models and encourages tobacco use. Therefore, tobacco prevention programs should aim to include peer components, especially for young adults.


Assuntos
Depressão , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Marketing , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Prat ; 71(7): 727-728, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792907

RESUMO

TOBACCO AND DNA METHYLATION: THE CASE FOR EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS The mechanisms of the long-term impacts of exposure to chemical substances remain poorly understood. While genotoxic and mutagenic effects have been well characterized, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation could also account for the delayed effects of exposures. It is in the case of tobacco that the strongest arguments for a role of these mechanisms have been obtained in human populations. This text presents recent data on this issue demonstrating the plausibility of epigenetic mechanisms to explain the persistence of biological signals long after stopping exposure.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
11.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 181, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest preventable cause of diseases and deaths; reducing tobacco intake is, therefore, an urgent public health goal. In recent years, e-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthier' alternative to tobacco smoking, whilst product features have evolved tremendously in the meantime. A lively scientific debate has developed regarding the potential benefits and risks of e-cigarettes although, surprisingly, there are few studies investigating the addictive potential of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. The present work comprises three work packages investigating the addictive potential of e-cigarettes from different perspectives: (1) the neurobiological addictive potential of e-cigarettes; (2) the experience and perception of dependence symptoms among users of e-cigarettes in a social context; and (3) the epidemiological perspective regarding factors influencing the potential for dependence. METHODS: Work package I: the neurobiological study will investigate the key elements of addiction in e-cigarettes compared to tobacco cigarettes using neurobiological and neuropsychological correlates associated with craving, incentive motivation, cue reactivity and attentional bias. Work package II: the sociological study part examines self-reports on the experience and perception of dependence symptoms in a social context, using focus group interviews and the analysis of posts in online discussion forums on e-cigarettes. Work package III: the epidemiological study part focuses on tolerance development and the role of psychosocial and product factors by analyzing longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC). DISCUSSION: The present study offers a chosen mix of three methodological approaches, thereby comprehensively examining core symptoms of positive and negative reinforcement in addiction. Whether e-cigarettes are as reinforcing and addictive as combustible tobacco cigarettes is an important public health issue with implications for prevention and treatment programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Work package I: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04772014. Work package II: Registered at OSF Registries: https://osf.io/dxgya (2021, January 14).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicotina
12.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 762-771, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785004

RESUMO

Cigarette and electronic cigarette use are significant public health concerns across the United States. Tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Electronic cigarettes initially emerged as a better alternative to conventional cigarettes and for promoting smoking cessation; however, current evidence reveals similar deleterious health implications caused by both products on almost all organ systems, including the skin. Recognition of the cutaneous manifestations associated with cigarette and electronic cigarette use is essential for dermatologists in current clinical practice. Dermatologists play a vital role in educating and counseling patients on smoking cessation. We specifically highlight the cutaneous consequences of conventional cigarette smoking and electronic cigarettes on dermatologic disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Humanos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770180

RESUMO

Exposure to tobacco advertisements is associated with initiation of tobacco use among youth. The mechanisms underlying this association are less clear. We estimated longitudinal associations between youths' cognitive and affective responses to advertisements for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) and initiation of these products. N = 1220 Ohio-residing boys of ages 11-16 were recruited into a cohort in 2015 and 2016. Participants completed surveys every six months for four years. Surveys assessed cognitive and affective responses to tobacco advertisements (which included health warnings) and tobacco use after an advertisement viewing activity. We used mixed-effects Poisson regression models with robust standard errors to estimate risk of initiating use of each tobacco product according to participants' cognitive (i.e., memorability of health risks) and affective (i.e., likability of advertisement) responses to advertisements for that product. No associations between affective responses to advertisements and tobacco use outcomes were detected in adjusted models. However, finding health risks memorable was associated with reduced risk of ever smoking initiation (aRR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.95) and a reduced risk of ever SLT initiation that approached statistical significance (aRR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.05). Measures to increase saliency of health risks on cigarette and SLT advertisements might reduce use among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Publicidade , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently in developed countries there is an increase in the consumption of roll your own tobacco, which is associated with a higher proportion of users of this form of tobacco who wish to make an attempt to quit. The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions based on the type of tobacco consumed. METHODS: Longitudinal study of a cohort of 641 smokers recruited between 2015 and 2018 in a health area of Galicia included in smoking cessation programs, based on psychological counseling and pharmacological treatment. The characteristics and success of the intervention were evaluated in two groups: roll your own tobacco smokers (RYO) and manufactured tobacco smokers (MT). A logistic regression was performed to determine the probability of success in smoking cessation. The risk measure was the odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: RYO users started at a younger age and had a lower sociocultural stratum than MT users. Interventions to quit smoking in RYO users were associated with less abstinence at 4 weeks (52% MT vs 38% LT) (OR: 0.5; 95% CI 0.35-0.99; p=0.045;) and at 3 months (42% TM vs 30% TL) (OR:0.6; 95% CI 0.33-0.98; p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation programs are less effective in short-term RYO users. There are no differences in long-term abstinence between the two groups.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fumantes , Espanha
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818397

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the impact of implant placement depth (bone-level [BL] and subcrestal [SC]) on soft-tissue inflammatory parameters bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and crestal bone resorption (CBR) in moderate cigarette-smokers and nonsmokers at 5 years postplacement. Patient details were recorded, including sex, age, smoking history, duration of implants in function, implant arch location, and daily toothbrushing and flossing habits. Peri-implant BOP, PD, and CBR were measured in all groups, and group comparisons were done; a probability score < .05 was selected as a value for statistical significance. Fifty-three patients (27 smokers, 26 nonsmokers) had BL implants, and 55 patients (28 smokers, 27 nonsmokers) had SC implants. Among all patients, PD was higher in smokers than nonsmokers (P < .05). The peri-implant sites that demonstrated BOP were higher (P < .05) in nonsmokers than smokers. Among smokers, the CBR was higher in those with BL implants than those with SC implants (P < .05). Among nonsmokers, there was a difference in BOP, PD, and CBR at the 5-year follow-up. At 5 years, SC implants demonstrated less CBR than BL implants. Peri-implant PD is higher in smokers than nonsmokers, irrespective of the implant placement depth.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Produtos do Tabaco , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Humanos , não Fumantes , Fumantes
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e27875, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viewing their habitual smoking environments increases smokers' craving and smoking behaviors in laboratory settings. A deep learning approach can differentiate between habitual smoking versus nonsmoking environments, suggesting that it may be possible to predict environment-associated smoking risk from continuously acquired images of smokers' daily environments. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to predict environment-associated risk from continuously acquired images of smokers' daily environments. We also aim to understand how model performance varies by location type, as reported by participants. METHODS: Smokers from Durham, North Carolina and surrounding areas completed ecological momentary assessments both immediately after smoking and at randomly selected times throughout the day for 2 weeks. At each assessment, participants took a picture of their current environment and completed a questionnaire on smoking, craving, and the environmental setting. A convolutional neural network-based model was trained to predict smoking, craving, whether smoking was permitted in the current environment and whether the participant was outside based on images of participants' daily environments, the time since their last cigarette, and baseline data on daily smoking habits. Prediction performance, quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and average precision (AP), was assessed for out-of-sample prediction as well as personalized models trained on images from days 1 to 10. The models were optimized for mobile devices and implemented as a smartphone app. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants completed the study, and 8008 images were acquired. The personalized models were highly effective in predicting smoking risk (AUC=0.827; AP=0.882), craving (AUC=0.837; AP=0.798), whether smoking was permitted in the current environment (AUC=0.932; AP=0.981), and whether the participant was outside (AUC=0.977; AP=0.956). The out-of-sample models were also effective in predicting smoking risk (AUC=0.723; AP=0.785), whether smoking was permitted in the current environment (AUC=0.815; AP=0.937), and whether the participant was outside (AUC=0.949; AP=0.922); however, they were not effective in predicting craving (AUC=0.522; AP=0.427). Omitting image features reduced AUC by over 0.1 when predicting all outcomes except craving. Prediction of smoking was more effective for participants whose self-reported location type was more variable (Spearman ρ=0.48; P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Images of daily environments can be used to effectively predict smoking risk. Model personalization, achieved by incorporating information about daily smoking habits and training on participant-specific images, further improves prediction performance. Environment-associated smoking risk can be assessed in real time on a mobile device and can be incorporated into device-based smoking cessation interventions.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco
17.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 585434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744557

RESUMO

Objectives: Cigarette packs are relevant to branding strategies, designed to appeal to specific groups. There is little research on how pack features increase product appeal among key constituents such as youth in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) with adolescents and 5 FGDs with young adult smokers in Mexico City, separated by age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Participants separated 23 cigarette packs into "appealing" and "unappealing" groups, and were asked to explain their decisions, describing the features that supported their views. FGDs were video-recorded, transcribed in Spanish, translated into English, and subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Pack groupings did not differ greatly across FGDs; bold, contrasting colors and elements communicating flavor and promotion increased cigarette pack appeal and desire to try. Participants perceived packs with these features to be used by and designed for youth, like themselves. Conclusion: Our findings reinforce the importance of packaging design in attracting new consumers and maintaining current ones. Mexico should consider stronger tobacco advertising policies that include packaging color and depiction of flavor to reduce product appeal.


Assuntos
Percepção , Embalagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the risks associated with the use of new forms of tobacco consumption, such as electronic cigarettes or heated tobacco products such as IQOS (I Quit Ordinary Smoking), few studies have estimated the prevalence of use at the population level. The aims of this study were to describe, in Galicia, the evolution of the prevalence of the use of electronic cigarettes and the reasons for its use in the period 2014-2018, and, the use and knowledge of IQOS in 2018. METHODS: The information analyzed comes from 4 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014 (n=7,874), 2015 (n=7,908), 2017 (n=7,841) and 2018 (n=7,853) within the framework of the Information System on Risk Behaviors (SICRI), being the target population Galicians aged 16 and over. Estimates of prevalence of consumption, the devices knowledge and reasons for use are shown accompanied with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), globally, by gender, age group and tobacco consumption. RESULTS: In the period under study, the prevalence of electronic cigarette use remained stable. In 2018 it was estimated at 0.7% (0.5-0.9). In 2017, the only year in which changes were observed, it fell to 0.3% (0.2-0.4). Prevalence of electronic cigarette use among the population aged 16 to 24 increased from 0.8% in 2014 to 2.1% in 2018. The main reason for using electronic cigarettes was to quit smoking. The prevalence of the IQOS use at the time study (2018) was 0.1% (0.01-0.15) and 4.2% (3.7-4.7) of the Galicians knew what the IQOS was. CONCLUSIONS: In Galicia, the prevalence of electronic cigarette and IQOS use is low, although an increase was observed among the population aged 16-24 between 2014 and 2018. Surveillance of use at the population level should not be neglected.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740476, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646806

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco consumption produces a heavy disease burden worldwide, and tobacco price increase, an advertisement for tobacco-induced harm, graphic warning labels on cigarette packages and advice of physicians for quitting are policies that have been proved as effective smoking cessation measures. But evidence on the estimated effect of advice of physicians for quitting and assumed tobacco retail price increase on smoking cessation intention among smokers is still limited in China. Methods: From January to April of 2021, we recruited 664 current smokers in Songjiang district of Shanghai by a multistage sampling design. We implemented a logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to explore how smoking cessation intention would be influenced by the assumed tobacco retail price increase as well as advice of physicians for quitting, and used the paired tabulation method to identify the salient tobacco control measures among smokers as well. Results: A total of 664 current smokers included 548 males (82.53%), with an average smoking duration of 22.50 years (SD: 11.52 years). About 68.79 and 43.67% of current smokers reported smoking cessation intention due to advice of physicians for quitting and the assumed tobacco retail price increase, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that female smokers (OR = 2.85 and 4.55), smokers with previous smoking cessation attempt (OR = 3.71 and 3.07), longer smoking duration (OR = 2.26 and 2.68), lower smoking intensity (OR = 1.82 and 1.69), and heavier tobacco burdens (OR = 1.67 and 2.22) had the higher intention of smoking cessation both due to advice of physicians for quitting and due to assumed tobacco price increase, respectively. Meanwhile, the advice of physicians for quitting was more effective and acceptable (over 80%) than the assumed tobacco price increase for inducing smokers to consider quitting in Shanghai. Conclusions: Smokers have a high intention of smoking cessation in Shanghai, and the advice of physicians for quitting is a potentially more salient tobacco control measure than the assumed tobacco retail price increase. Incorporating smoking duration, intensity, personal burden as well as noncommunicable disease (NCD) status of smokers into the implementation of tobacco control measures is beneficial for descending smoking prevalence.


Assuntos
Médicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Rotulagem de Produtos , Fumantes , Tabaco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use has been identified as a behaviour of concern among adolescents, and ever and daily use among this population has increased recently. The purpose of this review was to summarize the relevant studies investigating the frequency and intensity of e-cigarette use in adolescents and the factors associated with these patterns of use. METHODS: A scoping search of two databases was conducted to identify longitudinal studies examining escalating e-cigarette use among adolescents. Escalating e-cigarette use could refer to an increasing frequency or intensity of use over time. Articles were screened for relevance. Studies that met inclusion criteria were included for synthesis. RESULTS: Five articles were included for synthesis. All five articles were longitudinal studies taking place in the United States between 2013 and 2017. Age, gender, cost of e-cigarettes, use of cigarettes, polysubstance use, and e-liquid nicotine concentration were associated with escalation of e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: A paucity of information exists regarding the escalation of e-cigarette use among adolescents. Given the changing popularity of devices, additional updated evidence is needed to understand the factors associated with the escalation of e-cigarette use among adolescents, which can be used to inform local and national programs and policies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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