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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-11-10. (PAHO/NMH/RF/20-0035).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53010

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the only risk factor common to the four leading noncommunicable diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease) and is the main cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Tobacco currently kills more than 7 million people each year globally and more than 900,000 in the Region of the Americas. Almost 80% of smokers live in low- or middle-income countries. In addition, smoking has become an obstacle to countries’ development. It is widely recognized that excise taxes on tobacco products are the single most powerful and cost-effective strategy for reducing consumption. In addition, such taxes generate revenues that can be used to finance development. There is compelling international evidence on the effectiveness of this measure, with a growing body of studies from the Region of the Americas. Nonetheless, increasing taxes on tobacco products remains one of the most underutilized tools to combat the tobacco epidemic. This is especially true in the Region of the Americas, where retail prices are still very low compared to the rest of the world, facilitating early initiation of smoking. Tobacco industry scare tactics have sown doubts about the viability of increasing excise taxes. As part of the activities to promote excise taxes on tobacco products as a control measure and to encourage the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the Pan American Health Organization, the FCTC Secretariat, the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, the American Cancer Society, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the International Development Research Centre of Canada jointly held a training on the economics of tobacco control for government officials, researchers, and advocates in Latin America and the Caribbean on 5-7 February 2018 in Washington D.C.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco , Tributação de Produtos Derivados do Tabaco , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Economia da Saúde , América Latina , Região do Caribe
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1736-1742, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211681

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among U.S. adults has declined over the past several decades, with a prevalence of 13.7% in 2018 (2). However, a variety of combustible, noncombustible, and electronic tobacco products are available in the United States (1,3). To assess recent national estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2019 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2019, an estimated 50.6 million U.S. adults (20.8%) reported currently using any tobacco product, including cigarettes (14.0%), e-cigarettes (4.5%), cigars (3.6%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes* (1.0%).† Most current tobacco product users (80.5%) reported using combustible products (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes), and 18.6% reported using two or more tobacco products.§ The prevalence of any current tobacco product use was higher among males; adults aged ≤65 years; non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults; those whose highest level of educational attainment was a General Educational Development (GED) certificate; those with an annual household income <$35,000; lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adults; uninsured adults and those with Medicaid; those with a disability; or those with mild, moderate, or severe generalized anxiety disorder. E-cigarette use was highest among adults aged 18-24 years (9.3%), with over half (56.0%) of these young adults reporting that they had never smoked cigarettes. Implementing comprehensive, evidence-based, population level interventions (e.g., tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free policies, high-impact antitobacco media campaigns, and barrier-free cessation coverage), in coordination with regulation of the manufacturing, marketing, and sale of all tobacco products, can reduce tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1,4). As part of a comprehensive approach, targeted interventions are also warranted to reach subpopulations with the highest prevalence of use, which might vary by tobacco product type.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47941

RESUMO

Modismo entre os jovens, o Narguilé e o cigarro eletrônico podem ser mais atrativos, mas os riscos também são altos para a saúde


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Produtos do Tabaco , Risco à Saúde Humana
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21743, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak was designated a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The relationship between vaping and contracting COVID-19 is unclear, and information on the internet is conflicting. There is some scientific evidence that vaping cannabidiol (CBD), an active ingredient in cannabis that is obtained from the hemp plant, or other substances is associated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19. However, there is also inaccurate information that vaping can aid COVID-19 treatment, as well as expert opinion that CBD, possibly administered through vaping, can mitigate COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is necessary to study the spread of inaccurate information to better understand how to promote scientific knowledge and curb inaccurate information, which is critical to the health of vapers. Inaccurate information about vaping and COVID-19 may affect COVID-19 treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Using structural topic modeling, we aimed to map temporal trends in the web-based vaping narrative (a large data set comprising web-based vaping chatter from several sources) to indicate how the narrative changed from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We obtained data using a textual query that scanned a data pool of approximately 200,000 different domains (4,027,172 documents and 361,100,284 words) such as public internet forums, blogs, and social media, from August 1, 2019, to April 21, 2020. We then used structural topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence and semantic structures within topics around vaping before and after December 31, 2019, when COVID-19 was reported to the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Broadly, the web-based vaping narrative can be organized into the following groups or archetypes: harms from vaping; Vaping Regulation; Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment; and Vaping Lifestyle. Three archetypes were observed prior to the emergence of COVID-19; however, four archetypes were identified post-COVID-19 (Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment was the additional archetype). A topic related to CBD product preference emerged after COVID-19 was first reported, which may be related to the use of CBD by vapers as a COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our main finding is the emergence of a vape-administered CBD treatment narrative around COVID-19 when comparing the web-based vaping narratives before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are key to understanding how vapers respond to inaccurate information about COVID-19, optimizing treatment of vapers who contract COVID-19, and possibly minimizing instances of inaccurate information. The findings have implications for the management of COVID-19 among vapers and the monitoring of web-based content pertinent to tobacco to develop targeted interventions to manage COVID-19 among vapers.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Produtos do Tabaco
6.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47860

RESUMO

Crescimento, que foi ainda mais significativo entre mulheres e pessoas com escolaridade mais baixa, está associado a quadros de depressão e insônia


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Pandemias , Uso de Tabaco
7.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47861

RESUMO

Adultos de 18 a 25 anos podem dobrar vulnerabilidade ao novo coronavírus por causa do tabaco


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47869

RESUMO

No Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco, médico alerta para a associação entre o cigarro e disfunção erétil, câncer de bexiga e complicações do coronavírus


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Disfunção Erétil , Neoplasias
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47852

RESUMO

Além de vários tipos de câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes e envelhecimento precoce são alguns dos efeitos do cigarro, que causa 156 mil mortes anuais no Brasil


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Neoplasias , Produtos do Tabaco
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1282-e1294, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, smoking tobacco causes 7 million deaths annually, and this toll is expected to increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. In Latin America, smoking is a leading risk factor for death and disability, contributes to poverty, and imposes an economic burden on health systems. Despite being one of the most effective measures to reduce smoking, tobacco taxation is underused and cigarettes are more affordable in Latin America than in other regions. Our aim was to estimate the tobacco-attributable burden on mortality, disease incidence, quality of life lost, and medical costs in 12 Latin American countries, and the expected health and economic effects of increasing tobacco taxes. METHODS: In this modelling study, we developed a Markov probabilistic microsimulation economic model of the natural history, medical costs, and quality-of-life losses associated with the most common tobacco-related diseases in 12 countries in Latin America. Data inputs were obtained through a literature review, vital statistics, and hospital databases from each country: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The main outcomes of the model are life-years, quality-adjusted life-years, disease events, hospitalisations, disease incidence, disease cost, and healthy years of life lost. We estimated direct medical costs for each tobacco-related disease included in the model using a common costing methodology for each country. The disease burden was estimated as the difference in disease events, deaths, and associated costs between the results predicted by the model for current smoking prevalence and a hypothetical cohort of people in each country who had never smoked. The model estimates the health and financial effects of a price increase of cigarettes through taxes, in terms of disease and health-care costs averted, and increased tax revenues. FINDINGS: In the 12 Latin American countries analysed, we estimated that smoking is responsible for approximately 345 000 (12%) of the total 2 860 921 adult deaths, 2·21 million disease events, 8·77 million healthy years of life lost, and $26·9 billion in direct medical costs annually. Health-care costs attributable to smoking were estimated to represent 6·9% of the health budgets of these countries, equivalent to 0·6% of their gross domestic product. Tax revenues from cigarette sales cover 36·0% of the estimated health expenditures caused by smoking. We estimated that a 50% increase in cigarette price through taxation would avert more than 300 000 deaths, 1·3 million disease events, gain 9 million healthy life-years, and save $26·7 billion in health-care costs in the next 10 years, with a total economic benefit of $43·7 billion. INTERPRETATION: Smoking represents a substantial health and economic burden in these 12 countries of Latin America. Tobacco tax increases could successfully avert deaths and disability, reduce health-care spending, and increase tax revenues, resulting in large net economic benefits. FUNDING: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Econômicos , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105150, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992223

RESUMO

Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world and their environmental impact is related to both persistence and potential toxic effects for chemical composition. The objective of this study was to assess the acute toxicity (LC50-48 h) of human-smoked cigarette butts leachate on 3 cultured genera of benthic foraminifera: the calcareous perforate Rosalina globularis, the calcareous imperforate Quinqueloculina spp., and the agglutinated Textularia agglutinans. The specimens were exposed to 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 cigarette butts/L concentrations that prove to be acutely toxic to all taxa. Starting from 4 cigarette butts/L, both calcareous genera showed shell decalcification, and death of almost all the individuals, except for the more resistant agglutinated species. These results suggest the potential harmfulness of cigarette butts leachate related to pH reduction and release of toxic substances, in particular nicotine, which leads to physiology alteration and in many cases cellular death.


Assuntos
Foraminíferos , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Fumar
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1313-1318, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941416

RESUMO

Since electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the U.S. marketplace in 2007, the landscape has evolved to include different product types (e.g., prefilled cartridge-based and disposable products) and flavored e-liquids (e.g., fruit, candy, mint, menthol, and tobacco flavors), which have contributed to increases in youth use (1,2). E-cigarettes have been the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youths since 2014; in 2019, 27.5% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use (3). To assess trends in unit sales of e-cigarettes in the United States by product and flavor type, CDC, CDC Foundation, and Truth Initiative analyzed retail scanner data during September 14, 2014-May 17, 2020, from Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). During this period, total e-cigarette sales increased by 122.2%, from 7.7 million to 17.1 million units per 4-week interval. By product type, the proportion of total sales that was prefilled cartridge products increased during September 2014-August 2019 (47.5% to 89.4%). During August 2019-May 2020, the proportion of total sales that was disposable products increased from 10.3% to 19.8%, while the proportion that was prefilled cartridge products decreased (89.4% to 80.2%). Among prefilled cartridge sales, the proportion of mint sales increased during September 2014-August 2019 (<0.1% to 47.6%); during August 2019-May 2020, mint sales decreased (47.6% to 0.3%), as menthol sales increased (10.7% to 61.8%). Among disposable e-cigarette sales during September 2014-May 2020, the proportion of mint sales increased (<0.1% to 10.5%), although tobacco-flavored (52.2% to 17.2%) and menthol-flavored (30.3% to 10.2%) sales decreased; during the same period, sales of all other flavors combined increased (17.2% to 62.1%). E-cigarette sales increased during 2014-2020, but fluctuations occurred overall and by product and flavor type, which could be attributed to consumer preferences and accessibility. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette sales and use is critical to inform strategies at the national, state, and community levels to minimize the risks of e-cigarettes on individual- and population-level health. As part of a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce youth e-cigarettes use, such strategies could include those that address youth-appealing product innovations and flavors.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Aromatizantes/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115286, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781211

RESUMO

Smoked cigarette filters a. k.a. "butts", composed of plastic (e.g. cellulose acetate) are one of the world's most common litter items. In response to concerns about plastic pollution, biodegradable cellulose filters are being promoted as an environmentally safe alternative, however, once smoked, both contain toxins which can leach once discarded. The impacts of biodegradable butts as littered items on the receiving environment, in comparison with conventional butts has not yet been assessed. A freshwater mesocosm experiment was used to test the effects of leachate from smoked cellulose acetate versus smoked cellulose filters at a range of concentrations (0, 0.2, 1 and 5 butts L-1) on the mortality and behaviour of four freshwater invertebrates (Dreissena polymorpha, Polycelis nigra, Planorbis planorbis and Bithynia tentaculata). Leachate derived from 5 butts L-1 of either type of filter caused 60-100% mortality to all species within 5 days. Leachate derived from 1 butt L-1 of either type resulted in adults being less active than those exposed to no or 0.2 butts L-1 leachate. Cigarette butts, therefore, regardless of their perceived degradability can cause mortality and decreased activity of key freshwater invertebrates and should always be disposed of responsibly.


Assuntos
Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Animais , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Fumaça
15.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 433-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769279

RESUMO

Introduction: Bidi, a leaf rolled cigarette, is the most popular form of smoking in India. Bidi cigarette contains higher tar, ammonia, and nicotine content than a conventional cigarette and is more hazardous. Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bidi smoking on periodontitis by assessing the interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-8 from a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were selected, which included 40 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (20 bidi smokers and 20 non-bidi smokers) and 20 periodontal healthy controls. Diseased and healthy sites were selected from each of the chronic periodontitis subjects. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Pooled GCF samples were taken from the same site and analyzed for IL-1ß and IL-8 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Bidi smokers displayed decreased levels of IL-1ß and IL-8 than non-bidi smokers for both healthy and diseased sites and significantly reduced IL-8 levels among bidi smokers when compared to controls. Among bidi smokers, the diseased site had significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the healthy site. Non-smoker subjects with chronic periodontitis especially diseased sites contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1ß and IL-8 than smokers and controls. The PI scores were highest among bidi smokers with reduced BOP and GI scores. Conclusions: Bidi smoking influenced the cytokine profile among periodontitis patients exhibiting decreased levels of IL-1ß and IL-8.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Índia , Interleucina-1beta , Interleucina-8
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The tobacco industry (TI) has used small cigarette pack sizes to encourage brand-switching and consumption, and to mitigate the impacts of tobacco tax increases. Since 2016, the European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) specifies a minimum pack size of 20 cigarettes. We examined cigarette pack sizes in the EU and whether pack size composition differed between cheap and expensive price segments, as well as the impact of the revised TPD. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of pricing data from 23 EU countries between 2006-2017. We examined pack sizes over time to assess the impact of the TPD, differences in pack size composition between cheap and expensive price segments, and compared gaps in median prices between products using actual and 'expected' prices (price if all packs contained 20 sticks). RESULTS: Cigarette pack sizes changed over time, across the EU. The distribution of pack sizes varied between price segments, with small pack sizes especially frequent in the cheap segment of the cigarette market, but this varied over time and across countries. Packs of <20 cigarettes almost disappeared from the data samples after implementation of the TPD. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the TPD appears to have virtually eliminated packs with <20 cigarettes, restricting their use by the TI. Our analysis suggests pack sizes have been used differentially across the EU. Country-level analyses on the industry's use of pack sizes, consumer responses, and evaluations of restricting certain pack sizes are needed to confirm our findings and strengthen policy.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Indústria do Tabaco/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , União Europeia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tobacco consumption continues to cause a huge burden of preventable diseases. Chile has been leading the tobacco burden ranking in the Latin American region for the last ten years; it has currently a 33. 3% prevalence of current smokers. METHODS: A microsimulation economic model was developed within the framework of a multi-country project in order to estimate the burden attributable to smoking in terms of morbidity, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and direct costs of care. We also modelled the impact of increasing cigarettes' taxes on this burden. RESULTS: In Chile, 16,472 deaths were attributable to smoking in 2017, which represent around 16% of all deaths. This burden corresponds to 416,445 DALYs per year. The country's health system spends 1.15 trillion pesos annually (in Dec 2017 CLP, approx. U$D 1.8 billion) in health care treatment of illnesses caused by smoking. If the price of tobacco cigarettes was to be raised by 50%, around 13,665 deaths and 360,476 DALYs from smoking-attributable diseases would be averted in 10 years, with subsequent savings on health care costs, and increased tax revenue collection. In Chile, the tobacco tax collection does not fully cover the direct healthcare costs attributed to smoking. CONCLUSION: Despite a reduction observed on smoking prevalence between 2010 (40.6%) and 2017 (33.3%), this study shows that the burden of disease, and the economic toll due to smoking, remain high. As we demonstrate, a rise in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant reduction of this burden, averting deaths and disability, and reducing healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Fumar/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110153, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763662

RESUMO

Reports from various countries suggest that tobacco smoking might protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection, since the prevalence of smoking in COVID-19 hospitalized patients is lower than in the respective general population. Apart from nicotine or other chemicals contained in tobacco smoke, we propose that a single-stranded RNA virus that infects tobacco leaves, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), might be implicated in this effect. TMV, though non-pathogenic, is found in smokers' airways, and stimulates adaptive and innate immunity, with release of specific antibodies and interferons. The latter may have preventive and/or therapeutic effects against COVID-19. If confirmed by epidemiological and interventional studies, this might lead to the use of TMV as an immunological adjuvant against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fumantes , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/imunologia , Produtos do Tabaco/virologia , Fumar Tabaco , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Resistência à Doença , Humanos , Interferons/biossíntese , Camundongos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/isolamento & purificação , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 303-311, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783911

RESUMO

Current FDA regulations have resulted in a ban of flavored e-cigarette pods, with only menthol and tobacco flavored pods being exempted. Previous work using menthol and tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes have been shown to induce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that exposure to pod-based JUUL Menthol and Virginia Tobacco aerosols will alter mitochondrial respiration and electron transport chain protein levels. We determined mitochondrial respiration by using a Seahorse technique and electron transport chain complexes by total OXPHOS antibodies after exposing lung epithelial cells, Beas-2b, to pod-based Menthol and Virginia Tobacco flavored aerosols. Menthol pod exposure resulted in an immediate increase in proton leak and decrease in coupling efficiency, as well as a decrease in complex I, II, and IV. Menthol pod exposure twenty-four hour post-exposure resulted in a decrease in basal respiration, maximal respiration, and spare capacity, as well as a decrease in complex I. Tobacco pod exposure resulted in no significant alterations to mitochondrial respiration, but immediately post final exposure resulted in a significant increase in complex I, IV, and V. Our results indicate that exposure to Menthol flavored e-cigarette pods cause mitochondrial dysfunction in lung epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mentol/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos do Tabaco/toxicidade , Aerossóis , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756449

RESUMO

Heated tobacco products (HTPs) have been widely used in Korea since their introduction in 2017. In this study, we investigated the perceptions of their relative harmfulness and smoking cessation effects. We performed an online survey in 7000 Koreans in 2018 (2300 males and 4700 females aged 20-69 years) by matching their age, sex, and provincial distribution. To investigate the factors causing HTPs to be perceived as less harmful than combustible cigarettes (CCs) and helpful for smoking cessation, we used multivariable logistic regression analyses. HTPs were less harmful than CCs in 16.8% of participants, particularly among HTP-only users and dual and triple users of HTPs, electronic cigarettes (ECs), or CCs than among CC-only users, those who were aged ≤ 34 years, males, and those with higher incomes. HTPs were reportedly helpful for smoking cessation in 11.2% of participants. Similar perceptions were more likely among HTP-only users, as well as dual and triple users than among CC-only users and adults with higher education/incomes. Although Korean adults generally had negative perceptions of the harmfulness and smoking cessation effects of HTPs compared with CCs, dual and triple users were more likely to have positive perceptions. Monitoring the use of multiple tobacco products and HTPs is a new challenge for Korean policymakers.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
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