Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.902
Filtrar
3.
Pneumologie ; 74(1): 39-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756736

RESUMO

AIM: The aim was to investigate whether e-cigarette use predicts later experimentation with conventional cigarettes. METHODS: During the 2016/2017 school year, 2,388 children and adolescents from Baden-Württemberg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 2-year period (mean age 11.8 years, SD = 1.21; 49.6 % female). RESULTS: At baseline, 85 pupils (3.6 %) reported that they had already tried e-cigarettes at least once. By the end of the observational period, 430 of the sample had tried conventional cigarettes (18.0 %). After statistical control for age, sex, migration background, type of school, socioeconomic status, sensation-seeking, alcohol use, and school performance, the adjusted relative risk of experimentation with conventional cigarettes was 85 % higher (adjusted relative risk = 1.85, 95 % CI [1.34 - 2.56]) for pupils who had used e-cigarettes at baseline. Further analyses revealed that the risk was higher among adolescents with low sensation-seeking scores. CONCLUSION: Among young never-smokers, experimentation with conventional cigarettes is more common in those who used e-cigarettes before than among those who have not tried e-cigarettes before. This effect seems to be stronger among adolescents who, in general, have a lower risk of starting to smoke.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760067

RESUMO

Fritillaria cirrhosa bulbus is a Chinese folk herb famous for its antitussive, expectorant, anti-asthma and anti-inflammatory properties, and is widely used to treat respiratory diseases. However, the impacts of F. cirrhosa bulbus on oxidative stress are still unkown. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect and mechanism of six isosteroid alkaloids with different chemical structures from F. cirrhosa bulbus on protection against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress in RAW264.7 macrophages. The results showed that six isosteroid alkaloids reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, elevated glutathione (GSH) level and promoted heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression, which is in association with induction of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and up-regulation of Nrf2 expression. Among these alkaloids, verticinone, verticine, imperialine-3-ß-D-glucoside, delavine and peimisine exhibited more potent effect against CSE-induced oxidative stress than that of imperialine. These findings for the first time demonstrated that F. cirrhosa bulbus may play a protective role in cellular oxidative stress by activating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathway. Furthermore, the differences in antioxidant effects of these alkaloids were compared, as well as the corresponding structure-activity relationships were preliminarily elucidated. This suggested that F. cirrhosa bulbus might be a promising therapeutic treatment for the prevent of oxidative stress-related diseases.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Fritillaria/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Produtos do Tabaco
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134377, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671305

RESUMO

This study evaluated the chemical and microbiological properties of the compost obtained from the tobacco of smuggled cigarettes (SCT) and industrial sewage sludge (ISS). The composting was carried out in three reactors from different combinations of residues. The compost was analyzed to verify the percentage of nicotine removal, heavy metals, nutrient content and the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. The concentration of heavy metals: Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in the composts obtained from the three reactors was below the values set for their use in soils. The NPK content ranged between 8.31% and 12.43%, indicating that the compost produced can add nutritional benefits to the plants. The nicotine removal, 72.6% (R1), 96.4% (R2) and 99.6% (R3) indicated efficiency of the composting process in reactors in the degradation of this substance. The results of pathogenic microorganism analysis showed that the three composts obtained from reactors R1, R2 and R3 met the sanitation standards for agricultural use according to the normative of maximum limits of contaminants allowed in organic compounds. These results show that the treatment of SCT and ISS by the process of composting in reactors may be an ecologically viable alternative.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Metais Pesados/análise , Nicotina/análise , Nutrientes , Compostos Orgânicos
6.
Ambio ; 49(1): 17-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852780

RESUMO

Growing research and public awareness of the environmental impacts of tobacco present an opportunity for environmental science and public health to work together. Various United Nations agencies share interests in mitigating the environmental costs of tobacco. Since 2000, transnational tobacco industry consolidation has accelerated, spotlighting the specific companies responsible for the environmental and human harms along the tobacco production chain. Simultaneously, corporate social responsibility norms have led the industry to disclose statistics on the environmental harms their business causes. Yet, independent and consistent reporting remain hurdles to accurately assessing tobacco's environmental impact. This article is the first to analyze publicly available industry data on tobacco manufacturing pollution. Tobacco's significant environmental impact suggests this industry should be included in environmental analyses as a driver of environmental degradation influencing climate change. Countries aiming to meet UN Sustainable Development Goals must act to reduce environmental harms caused by the tobacco industry.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Comércio , Humanos , Tabaco , Nações Unidas
7.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46934

RESUMO

A nicotina do cigarro causa dependência extrema. Por isso não é fácil deixar de fumar. O tabagismo resulta em vários problemas de saúde. A boca é uma das áreas mais afetadas


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Produtos do Tabaco
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 566-571, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air pollution is one of the most important issues of our times. Air quality assessment is based on the measurement of the concentration of substances formed during the combustion process and micro-particles suspended in the air in the form of an aerosol. Microscopic atmospheric particulate matters (PM) 2.5 and 10 are mixtures of organic and inorganic pollutants smaller than 2.5 and 10 µm, respectively. They are the main cause of negative phenomena in the earth's atmosphere of Earth and human health, especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Particulates have the ability to cause permanent mutations of tissue, leading to neoplasms and even premature deaths. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main pollutants which arises mainly during the burning of fossil fuels. Based on numerous scientific researches, it has been proved that long-term exposure to NO2 could increase morbidity of cancer due to inflammatory processes increasing abnormal mutations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data available in the Polish National Cancer Registry, Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection and Map of Health Needs in the Field of Oncology for Poland, WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2005 were analyzed. Air pollution was also evaluated: PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and compared with lung cancer morbidity. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available data and literature, it can be concluded that in 2009-2017, on average, each Pole smoked ten cigarettes a day +/- 2. Therefore, it can be estimated that after 60 years everyone had 30 package-years of smoking, leading to a high risk of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. Additionally air quality in Poland is not satisfactory, exceeding the standards presented in the WHO Guidelines 2005. It can be assumed that this may translate into an additional, independent continuous increase in morbidity and mortality dependent on smoking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/análise
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 661-664, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885242

RESUMO

Introduction. Before cigarettes became popular, lung cancer was an extremely rare disease, but currently it is the most common cause worldwide of cancer death in both genders. Therefore, it constitutes a huge epidemiological, diagnostic and socio-economic challenge around the world. In Poland, lung cancer is the second most common carcinoma in both men and women, and it is also the most prevailing cause of carcinous death. Undoubtedly, although smoking classical cigarettes is the strongest risk factor of developing the cancer, unfortunately it is not the only one. Objective. The aim of this study was to present smoking-related factors, e.g. cigars, pipes, e-cigarettes or marijuana smoking, etiologically related to lung cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1013-1019, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725711

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). The prevalence of adult cigarette smoking has declined in recent years to 14.0% in 2017 (2). However, an array of new tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, has entered the U.S. market (3). To assess recent national estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2018, an estimated 49.1 million U.S. adults (19.7%) reported currently using any tobacco product, including cigarettes (13.7%), cigars (3.9%), e-cigarettes (3.2%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes* (1.0%). Most tobacco product users (83.8%) reported using combustible products (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes), and 18.8% reported using two or more tobacco products. The prevalence of any current tobacco product use was higher in males; adults aged ≤65 years; non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives; those with a General Educational Development certificate (GED); those with an annual household income <$35,000; lesbian, gay, or bisexual adults; uninsured adults; those with a disability or limitation; and those with serious psychological distress. The prevalence of e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use increased during 2017-2018. During 2009-2018, there were significant increases in all three cigarette cessation indicators (quit attempts, recent cessation, and quit ratio). Implementing comprehensive population-based interventions in coordination with regulation of the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of all tobacco products can reduce tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1,4).


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabagismo/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(673): 2222-2223, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778062
15.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 1823636, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641360

RESUMO

Objective: This study documents the extent of tobacco ads in retail stores and evaluates its association with the comprehensiveness of local tobacco control policies in the state of Massachusetts, US. Methods: Using a two-stage cluster sampling method, we sampled 419 retail stores across 42 municipalities to assess the presence and count of nine mutually exclusive tobacco ad categories. Tobacco ads by store type and municipality were analyzed using summary statistics and contingency tables. Regression models tested the association between the extent of tobacco ads and local tobacco control policy comprehensiveness. Results: Overall, 86.6% (n = 363) of all the retail stores had tobacco ads. On average, there were 6.7 ads per retail store (SD = 6.61) and 2804 ads across all the retail stores (range = 0 : 32). Retail stores had an average of three different categories of tobacco ads (mean = 2.98, SD = 1.84). Across all retail stores, the most frequent ad categories were power walls (80.0%) and e-cigarette ads (55.8%). Retail stores in municipalities with more comprehensive local tobacco control policies were more likely to have fewer tobacco ads (IRR = 0.92, p < 0.01) and a lower number of tobacco ad categories (OR = 0.88, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Municipalities can adopt more comprehensive tobacco control policies to help limit the extent of tobacco retail advertising. This can ultimately reduce smoking in their jurisdiction.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Cidades , Humanos , Massachusetts , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência
17.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(10): 607-609, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657187

RESUMO

Timely warnings and examples of industry interference in relation to tobacco, alcohol, food and breast milk substitutes are given in the editorial by Tangcharoensathien et al. Such interference is rife at national levels and also at the global level. In an era of 'private public partnerships' the alcohol and food industries have succeeded in insinuating themselves into the global health environment and their influence is seen in key recommendations regarding non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in United Nations (UN) reports. The absence of legally binding health treaties in these areas facilitates this industry engagement and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides a valuable model to apply to control of other hazardous products.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Produtos do Tabaco , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indústrias
18.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 653-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626428

RESUMO

French governments only very recently introduced comprehensive tobacco control policies including several measures recommended by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, leading to a speeding-up of tobacco smoking decrease, but still with a high current level of use. In the meantime, research confirms that nicotine is highly addictive, that smoking just a cigarette a day is highly detrimental for health, and that health professionals are efficient in helping smokers to give up. These measures are such diverse as tobacco taxes increases, introducing plain packs, promoting November as month without tobacco, getting tobacco cessation medications paid for by health insurances, implementing a comprehensive advertising ban of tobacco products in retailor shops, and increasing protection of public health policies from tobacco industry intrusion. This industry via frenzied marketing reacts by promoting "heat not burn tobacco" as a harm reduction mean, which it is not, and invests in e-cigarettes, whose most recent ones are as addictive as classic tobacco cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , França , Humanos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Políticas de Controle Social , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(669): 1974-1978, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663697

RESUMO

Tobacco has not only negative effects on health; it also has an environmental impact. Each year, tobacco production requires 22 000 billion liters of water, mainly for cultivation. Thousands hectares of forestland are cleared annually, largely for the desiccation of tobacco leaves. Cigarette production is responsible for 84 million tons of CO2 equivalent. This paper reviews the environmental impact of the production and consumption of cigarettes from tobacco growing and manufacturing to consumption and waste production, and compares it with current consumption data.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Humanos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/metabolismo , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos
20.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 175-181, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is the leading cause of premature mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to provide the first national description of organizational capacity and involvement in tobacco control (TC) measures outlined by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) within the Czech Republic. METHODS: Data were collected in a national cross-sectional survey of all 14 organizations engaged in TC activities within the Czech Republic. Organizational capacity (defined as skills, supports, partnerships, resources, and leadership) to implement TC activities, and level of involvement in key FCTC measures were assessed and compared across organizations. RESULTS: Despite the high economic costs of tobacco use, few organizations were involved in TC activities. 50% of all organizations involved in TC activities were non-government or non-profit organizations. Less than one third of organizations reported having a sufficient number of staff or adequate funding to work effectively. Skills for chronic disease prevention (CDP) practice including assessment, identifying relevant practices, developing and implementing initiatives were rated more favourably than skills to evaluate these activities. Level of involvement was ranked highest for activities that focused on creation of smoke-free environments and lowest for activities that focused on raising taxes and sales to minors. Organizations tended to be more involved in individual, rather than population-level prevention strategies. Inadequate funding, insufficient number of staff dedicated to working on TC, and lack of political will were major barriers. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides the first national description of organizational capacity and level of involvement in FCTC measures within the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA