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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061729, 2022 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2014, Canada implemented end-demand sex work legislation that criminalises clients and third parties (eg, managers, security personnel, etc) involved in sex work. The focus of this analysis is to explore how the criminalisation of clients shapes the occupational health and safety of sex workers. DESIGN: As part of a longstanding community-based study (An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access), this analysis draws on 47 in-depth qualitative interviews with indoor sex workers and third parties. Informed by an intersectional lens and guided by a structural determinants of health framework, this work seeks to characterise the impact of client criminalisation in shaping the occupational health and safety of indoor sex workers. SETTING: Indoor sex work venues (eg, massage parlour, in-call, brothel, etc) operating in Metro Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 47 predominately racialised sex workers and third parties working in indoor environments between 2017 and 2018. RESULTS: While participants highlighted that the majority of their client interactions were positive, their narratives emphasised how end-demand criminalisation impeded their occupational safety. The criminalisation of clients was linked to reduced ability to negotiate the terms of sexual transactions, including type of service, price and sexual health. Client preference for cash payments to maintain anonymity led to increased risk of robbery and assault due to knowledge of high cash flow in sex work venues and a reluctance to seek police protection. Workers also noted that client fear of being prosecuted or 'outed' by police enhanced feelings of shame, which was linked to increased aggression by clients. CONCLUSION: Policies and laws that criminalise clients are incompatible with efforts to uphold the occupational health and safety and human rights of sex workers. The decriminalisation of sex work is urgently needed in order to support the well-being and human rights of all those involved in the Canadian sex industry.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Profissionais do Sexo , Humanos , Trabalho Sexual , Canadá , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(11): e26022, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Developing effective targets, policies and services for key populations requires estimations of population sizes and HIV prevalence across countries and regions. We estimated the relative and absolute HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and men, and male and transgender sex workers (MSW and TGSW) in sub-Saharan African countries using peer-reviewed literature. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies assessing HIV prevalence in MSM, transgender women and men, MSW and TGSW in sub-Saharan Africa between 2010 and 2021, following PRISMA guidelines. We searched Embase, Medline Epub, Africa Index Medicus, Africa Journal Online, Web of Science and Google Scholar. We calculated HIV prevalence ratios (PRs) between the study prevalence, and the geospatial-, sex, time and age-matched general population prevalence. We extrapolated results for MSM and transgender women to estimate HIV prevalence and the number living with HIV for each country in sub-Saharan Africa using pooled review results, and regression approximations for countries with no peer-reviewed data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found 44 articles assessing HIV prevalence in MSM, 10 in transgender women, five in MSW and zero in transgender men and TGSW. Prevalence among MSM and transgender women was significantly higher compared to the general population: PRs of 11.3 [CI: 9.9-12.9] for MSM and 8.1 [CI: 6.9-9.6] for transgender women in Western and Central Africa, and, respectively, 1.9 [CI: 1.7-2.0] and 2.1 [CI: 1.9-2.4] in Eastern and Southern Africa. Prevalence among MSW was significantly higher in both Nigeria (PR: 12.4 [CI: 7.3-21.0]) and Kenya (PR: 8.6 [CI: 4.6-15.6]). Extrapolating our findings for MSM and transgender women resulted in an estimated HIV prevalence of 15% or higher for about 60% of all sub-Saharan African countries for MSM, and for all but two countries for transgender women. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among MSM and transgender women throughout sub-Saharan Africa is alarmingly high. This high prevalence, coupled with the specific risks and vulnerabilities faced by these populations, highlights the urgent need for risk-group-tailored prevention and treatment interventions across the sub-continent. There is a clear gap in knowledge on HIV prevalence among transgender men, MSW and TGSW in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Prevalência , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , África Austral
3.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(2): 37-45, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407408

RESUMO

Background: Kenya's Key and Affected Populations (KAP) - men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers, people who inject drugs (PWID), and young women aged 18-24 - often experience stigma and discrimination in Kenyan health care settings due to their identity and/or behaviors, which can deter facility-based testing for HIV. Kenya has promoted self-testing as a means to reach these communities. Objectives: To identify KAP perspectives on self-testing and place our findings within Kenya's human rights and legal context. Methods: We conducted 4 focus group discussions (FGD) and 16 in-depth interviews (IDI). One FGD was conducted with each of the following communities: MSM, female sex workers, PWID, and young women aged 18-24. 1-4 IDI were conducted with each KAP community, and 1-3 IDI were conducted with health professionals working on HIV care in each study site. The semi-structured question guideline included one question soliciting opinions on self-testing. Results: KAP support self-testing in concept, however prevailing concerns among participants included access to pre- and post-test counseling services, as well as risk for harms (self-inflicted and otherwise) that might result from a positive result. Conclusion: Kenya should ensure that human rights are promoted and respected through implementing rights-based policies and practices for HIV self-testing, including pre- and post-test counseling.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Autoteste , Homossexualidade Masculina , Quênia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1018724, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388309

RESUMO

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered highly vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but available data on the prevalence of STIs among FSWs in China is limited at a provincial level. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of STIs and risk factors among FSWs in Jiangsu, China. Methods: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study in seven cities of Jiangsu to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV and other STIs. Blood and urine were collected to test for HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis C (HCV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections. Results: We enrolled 3,580 FSWs. The overall prevalence of bacterial STIs was 6.2% (5.4%-7.0%). The prevalence of HIV, syphilis infection, HCV, NG and CT were 0.1% (95%CI, 0.0-0.2), 1.8% (95%CI, 1.4-2.3), 0.3% (95%CI, 0.1-0.5), 0.3% (95%CI, 0.2-0.5) and 4.3% (95%CI, 3.6-5.0), respectively. Most FSWs (85.6%) reported consistent condom use with clients in the past month. Only 10.6% of FSWs reported group sex, and 68.3% self-reported HIV testing in the previous year. According to the multivariable model, having group sex in the past year (aOR, 2.521, 95%CI: 1.366-4.651) and HIV infection (aOR, 26.260, 95%CI: 2.432-283.563) were associated with a higher risk of syphilis infection. Migrants (aOR, 1.669, 95%CI: 1.163-2.395), having a history of STIs in the past year (aOR, 4.601, 95%CI: 1.003-21.118), and NG infection (aOR, 38.549, 95%CI: 11.214-132.514) were associated with a higher risk of CT infection. On the contrary, FSWs aged older than 25 were associated with lower risk of syphilis infection (25-34: aOR, 0.339, 95%CI: 0.151-0.763) and CT infection (25-34: aOR, 0.503, 95%CI: 0.316-0.802; ≥35: aOR, 0.578, 95%CI: 0.362-0.925). Conclusion: This study's prevalence rates of syphilis and CT infections show the need to promote comprehensive STIs control and prevention strategies, including behavioral intervention and STIs screening, especially in younger high-risk populations. With the increasing coverage of HIV testing, integrating other STIs screening with HIV testing may be a reasonable way to implement comprehensive STIs control and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Profissionais do Sexo , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0271988, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate, using an HIV Recent Infection Testing Algorithm (RITA), the HIV incidence and its associated factors among female sex workers (FSW) in Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016-2017 in Abidjan and San Pedro's region among FSW aged ≥ 18 years. In addition, a sociodemographic questionnaire, HIV screening was carried out by two rapid tests. In the event of a positive result, a dried blood spot sample was taken to determine, using a RITA adapted to the Ivorian context, if it was a recent HIV infection. RESULTS: A total of 1000 FSW were surveyed with a median age of 25 years (interquartile range: 21-29 years). 39 (3.9%) tested positive for HIV. The incidence of HIV was estimated to be 2.3 per 100 person-years, with higher incidence rates among those 24 years old or less (3.0% vs. 1.9%), non-Ivorian FSW (3.2% vs. 1.9%) and those with the lowest education level (4.6% in FSW who never went to school vs. 2.6%). The incidence seemed to be associated with the sex work practice conditions: higher incidence among FSW whose usual price was less than 3.50$ (4.3% vs.1.0%), FSW who had a larger number of clients on the last day of work (6.1% in those with 7 clients or more vs. 1.8%), FSW who reported not always using condoms with their clients (8.5% vs. 1.5%) and FSW who reported agreeing to sex without a condom in exchange for a large sum of money (10.1% vs. 1.2%). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that FSW remain highly exposed to HIV infection. Exposure to HIV is also clearly associated with certain sex-work factors and the material conditions of sex work. Efforts in the fight against HIV infection must be intensified to reduce new infections among FSW.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estudos Transversais , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) in Uganda are at high risk of HIV infection. Scaling up oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will reduce HIV incidence if high levels of adherence are maintained. This study evaluates PrEP adherence using clinic-based pill counts and self-reported measures, and factors associated with protective levels of adherence. METHODS: Participants were sex workers who had been taking PrEP for at least 5 months and were attending routine follow-up visits for PrEP care in fishing communities and along the Trans-African Highway. Participants who had a pill count showing at least 85% use since their last clinic visit and those who reported taking their PrEP every day in the last 5 months were categorised as having 'protective adherence'. Spearman's correlation and weighted kappa assessed the relationship between pill count and self-reported measures. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with protective adherence as measured by pill count. RESULTS: We recruited 524 FSWs, with a median age of 29 years (IQR 23-35). Participants were recruited from fishing communities and Trans-African Highway towns (n = 297, 56.7%, and n = 227, 43.0%). Nearly three quarters (n = 372, 71.0%) of women were estimated to have protective adherence based on pill count (i.e., a pill count of >85%) and 50.4% by self-report in last 3 months. There was a strong positive association between self-reported measures and pill count measures (rest = 0.6453, 95% CI = 0.5924-0.6927) and a moderate agreement between self-reported measures and pill count measures, κ = 0.544 (95%CI = 0.4869-0.6011, p < 0.001). Factors associated with protective adherence included being aged 35 years or older (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.17-4.86), living in a fishing community (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.62-3.38), and having an STI in last 3 months (aOR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.07-2.49). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that PrEP-experienced FSWs attending clinical follow-up visits reported high protective levels of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, as measured by both pill count and self-reported measures, and a moderate agreement between pill count and self-reported measures.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Autorrelato , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277550, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most sex worker population studies measure population at discrete points in time and very few studies have been done in industrialized democracies. The purpose of this study is to consider how time affects the population dynamics of contact sex workers in Canada using publicly available internet advertising data collected over multiple years. METHODS: 3.6 million web pages were collected from advertising sites used by contact sex workers between November, 2014 and December, 2016 inclusive. Contacts were extracted from ads and used to identify advertisers. First names were used to estimate the number of workers represented by an advertiser. Counts of advertisers and names were adjusted for missing data and overcounting. Two approaches for correcting overcounts are compared. Population estimates were generated weekly, monthly and for the two year period. The length of time advertisers were active was also estimated. Estimates are also compared with related research. RESULTS: Canadian sex workers typically advertised individually or in small collectives (median name count 1, IQR 1-2, average 1.8, SD 4.4). Advertisers were active for a mean of 73.3 days (SD 151.8, median 14, IQR 1-58). Advertisers were at least 83.5% female. Respectively the scaled weekly, monthly, and biannual estimates for female sex workers represented 0.2%, 0.3% and 2% of the 2016 Canadian female 20-49 population. White advertisers were the most predominant ethnic group (53%). CONCLUSIONS: Sex work in Canada is a more pervasive phenomenon than indicated by spot estimates and the length of the data collection period is an important variable. Non-random samples used in qualitative research in Canada likely do not reflect the larger sex worker population represented in advertising. The overall brevity of advertising activity suggests that workers typically exercise agency, reflecting the findings of other Canadian research.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Canadá , Publicidade , Trabalho Sexual
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 462, 2022 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a global public health problem & is the fourth leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Abnormal cervical lesion is common in commercial sex workers and is at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer due to multiple sexual partners besides other factors. Intention is an important predictor of behavior and is an initiative to transform their desire into action. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the predictors of intention to receive cervical cancer screening among commercial sex workers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 27 to May 25, 2021, in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 425 commercial sex workers selected using convenience sampling techniques were included in the study. Linear regression with robust standard errors was carried out to identify predictors of intention to receive cervical cancer screening. A 95% confidence interval and a p-value of less than 0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 393 commercial sex workers participated in the study with a response rate of 92.4%. The mean age of the participants was 27.68 ± 6.62. The median (interquartile range) of intention was 4 (3-4.25). The theory of planned behaviour variables explained 38.51% of the variance in intention to receive cervical cancer screening. Direct subjective norm (ß = 0.09), 95% CI (0.05, 0.13)), direct Attitude (ß = 0.09, 95% CI (0.04, 0.13)), past behaviour (ß = 0.27; 95% CI (0.09, 0.46), and positive HIV status (ß = 0.26; 95% CI (0.06, 0.46) were significant predictors of intention. CONCLUSIONS: Commercial sex workers' intention to undergo cervical cancer screening was high. The theory of planned behavior showed adequate utility in predicting commercial sex workers' intention to receive cervical cancer screening. Participant's attitudes, subjective norm, past behavior, and positive HIV status were important factors affecting their intention to receive cervical cancer screening. Thus, interventions aimed at enhancing commercial sex workers' cervical cancer screening behavior should target creating positive social pressure and attitudinal change towards cervical cancer screening.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276330, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the magnitude of the HIV epidemic among children and youth living with HIV (CYHIV) aged 0-25 years in Thailand, projecting forward from 2005 to 2025, and identified underreported input parameters that influence epidemic projections, in order to inform future public health and research priorities. METHODS: We developed a focused multi-state transition model incorporating perinatally-acquired HIV and non-perinatally-acquired HIV, stratified by population, including men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID), and the remainder of the population ("other"). We populated the model with published and programmatic data from the Thai national AIDS program when available. We projected the period from 2005-2025 and compared model results to programmatic data and projections from other models. In a scenario analysis, we projected the potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for MSM from 2018-2025. RESULTS: The initial 2005 cohort was comprised of 66,900 CYHIV; 8% CYHIV were <5 years, 21% were 5-14 years, and 71% were 15-25 years of age. By 2020, 94% were projected to be >15 years and infections among MSM constituted 83% of all new HIV infections. The numbers of CYHIV decreased over time, projected to reach 30,760 by 2020 (-54%) and 22,640 by 2025 (-66%). The proportion of all CYHIV aged 0-25 who were diagnosed and on ART increased from 37 to 60% over the 2005-2025 period. Projections were sensitive to variations in assumptions about initial HIV prevalence and incidence among MSM, PWID, and "other" youth. CONCLUSIONS: More data on incidence rates among sexual and gender minority youth and PWID are needed to characterize the role of specific exposures and key populations in the adolescent HIV epidemic. More accurate estimates will project shifts in population and inform more targeted interventions to prevent and care for Thai CYHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064037, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Male clients (MCs) are integral to sex work-driven HIV transmission dynamics as sexual partners of female sex worker (FSW). MCs contribute disproportionately to incident HIV globally and in sub-Saharan Africa, with 27% of new infections attributed to MCs of FSW and other partners of key populations. Gaps in coverage of HIV testing and prevention services for men, including MCs, are well-documented, yet research and innovative interventions to improve MC uptake of effective prevention services, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are scarce. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MPrEP+ is a cohort study designed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a PrEP-focused HIV prevention strategy providing daily oral tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in combination with three adherence self-management interventions: (1) use of a validated point-of-care urine drug-level assay with real-time feedback and tailored self-management counselling; (2) frequent HIV self-testing; and (3) weekly one-way text messaging. This package of interventions is being delivered to 120 MCs enrolled in the study in Kisumu, Kenya over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is PrEP adherence at 6 months as measured by PrEP drug levels. Bivariate and multivariable regression models will be used to identify predictors of PrEP adherence. We will also explore associations of sociodemographic characteristics and PrEP beliefs with PrEP adherence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Columbia University Irving Medical Center Institutional Review Board and the Maseno University Ethical Review Committee. Study enrolment was initiated in November 2021 with participant follow-up planned through August 2022. Study results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Summaries and infographics of study findings will be developed and distributed to MC, FSW and stakeholders working in HIV prevention and support for people who sell and buy sex, including Kenya's Ministry of Health. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04898699; Registered on 24 May 2021.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Quênia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(11): e26030, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zambia has made tremendous progress towards HIV epidemic control; however, gaps remain among key populations (KPs), such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and people in prisons and enclosed settings due to cultural, social and legal barriers. The University of Maryland, Baltimore Zambia Community HIV Epidemic Control for Key Populations (Z-CHECK) project aimed to improve HIV case-finding, linkage and treatment adherence at the community level for KPs in Zambia. We describe Z-CHECK strategies and examine HIV positivity yield and antiretroviral therapy (ART) linkage among KPs to inform ongoing programme improvement. METHODS: Z-CHECK recruited, trained and deployed peer community health workers (CHWs) for KP groups, with ongoing mentorship in community engagement. CHWs offered HIV testing in safe spaces and escorted newly HIV-diagnosed clients for same-day ART initiation. Z-CHECK also reached out to KP community leaders and gatekeepers for KP mobilization and trained healthcare workers (HCWs) on KP services and sensitivity. We conducted a retrospective observational review of routinely collected aggregate data for KPs aged ≥15 years at high risk for HIV transmission across five districts in Zambia from January 2019 to December 2020. RESULTS: Z-CHECK provided HIV testing for 9211 KPs, of whom 2227 were HIV positive (positivity yield, 24%). Among these, 1901 (85%) were linked to ART; linkage for MSM, FSW, PWID and people in prisons and enclosed settings was 95%, 89%, 86% and 65%, respectively. Programme strategies that contributed to high positivity yield and linkage included the use of peer KP CHWs, social network testing strategies and opportunities for same-day ART initiation. Challenges to programme implementation included stigma and discrimination among HCWs, as well as KP CHW attrition, which may be explained by high mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Peer CHWs were highly effective at reaching KP communities, identifying persons living with HIV and linking them to care. Engaging KP community gatekeepers resulted in high diffusion of health messages and increased access to health resources. The mobility of CHWs and HCWs is a challenge for programme implementation. Innovative interventions are needed to support PWID and people in prisons and enclosed settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1431, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the face of health-system constraints, local policymakers and decision-makers face difficult choices about how to implement, expand and institutionalize antiretroviral therapy (ART) services. This scoping review aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators to the implementation and scale up of differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for HIV treatment in Africa. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Health, Google, and Google Scholar databases were searched. There was no start date thereby all references up until May 12, 2021, were included in this review. We included studies reported in the English language focusing on stable adult people living with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) on ART and the healthcare providers in Africa. Studies related to children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, and key populations (people who inject drugs, men having sex with men, transgender persons, sex workers, and prisoners), and studies about effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and pre or post-exposure prophylaxis were excluded. A descriptive analysis was done. RESULTS: Fifty-seven articles fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Several factors influencing DSD implementation and scale-up emerged. There is variability in the reported factors across DSD models and studies, with the same element serving as a facilitator in one context but a barrier in another. Perceived reduction in costs of visit for patients, reduction in staff workload and overburdening of health facilities, and improved or maintained patients' adherence and retention were reported facilitators for implementing DSD models. Patients' fear of stigma and discrimination, patients' and providers' low literacy levels on the DSD model, ARV drug stock-outs, and supply chain inconsistencies were major barriers affecting DSD model implementation. Stigma, lack of model adoption from providers, and a lack of resources were reported as a bottleneck for the DSD model scale up. Leadership and governance were reported as both a facilitator and a barrier to scaling up the DSD model. CONCLUSIONS: This review has important implications for policy, practice, and research as it increases understanding of the factors that influence DSD model implementation and scale up. Large-scale studies based on implementation and scale up theories, models, and frameworks focusing on each DSD model in each healthcare setting are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Masculino , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Lactação , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , África
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2158, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya are at an increased risk of violence, poverty, police arrest, and problematic alcohol and other substance use, all of which are linked to poor mental health and suicidal ideation. Despite the psychological stressors experienced by FSWs, there is no published qualitative methods research investigating their mental health experiences in Kenya. In this paper, we draw on data from in-depth interviews to examine FSWs' lifetime mental health experiences and perceived risk factors. METHODS: We used baseline in-depth interviews of the Maisha Fiti longitudinal study of FSWs in Nairobi. We randomly selected 40 FSWs from 1003 FSWs who attended a baseline behavioural-biological interview as part of the Maisha Fiti study. The interview guide was semi-structured, and participants were asked to detail their life stories, including narrating specific events such as entry into sex work, experiences of violence, mental health experiences, and use of alcohol and other substances. Interviews were recorded in Kiswahili/ English and transcribed in English. Data were coded and thematically analysed in Nvivo (v.12). RESULTS: Results indicated that the majority of participants understood 'mental health' as 'insanity', 'stress', 'depression', and 'suicide'; nevertheless, a number described mental health symptomatically, while a few believed that mental health problems were caused by witchcraft. Interestingly, poverty, low levels of education, poor job opportunities, a lack of family support, harmful gender norms, intimate partner violence and subsequent relationship breakdowns, and family bereavement all contributed to poor mental health and subsequent entry into sex work. In addition, the consequences of sex work such as sexual risks, and ongoing violence from police and clients, further exacerbated poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for both micro- and macro interventions to address poverty and violence against FSWs in Kenya, thereby reducing mental health problems. Addressing violence against women and girls may also reduce entry into sex work. Improving mental health literacy and providing mental health intervention services for 'at-risk' populations such as FSWs should enhance coping strategies and help-seeking efficacy.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Violência
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e053218, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of lifetime-induced abortion in female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya was previously estimated between 43% and 86%. Our analysis aimed at assessing lifetime prevalence and correlates, and incidence and predictors of induced abortions among FSWs in Kenya. METHODS: This is a secondary prospective cohort analysis using data collected as part of the WHISPER or SHOUT cluster-randomised trial in Mombasa, assessing effectiveness of an SMS-intervention to reduce incidence of unintended pregnancy. Eligible participants were current FSWs, 16-34 years and not pregnant or planning pregnancy. Baseline data on self-reported lifetime abortion, correlates and predictors were collected between September 2016 and May 2017. Abortion incidence was measured at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess correlates of lifetime abortion and discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess predictors of abortions during follow-up. RESULTS: Among 866 eligible participants, lifetime abortion prevalence was 11.9%, while lifetime unintended pregnancy prevalence was 51.2%. Correlates of lifetime abortions were currently not using a highly effective contraceptive (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.76 (95% CI=1.11 to 2.79), p=0.017) and having ever-experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) (AOR=2.61 (95% CI=1.35 to 5.06), p=0.005). Incidence of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion were 15.5 and 3.9 per 100 women-years, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between hazard of abortion and age, sex work duration, partner status, contraceptive use and IPV experience. CONCLUSION: Although experience of unintended pregnancy remains high, lifetime prevalence of abortion may have decreased among FSW in Kenya. Addressing IPV could further decrease induced abortions in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000852459.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Profissionais do Sexo , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and predictors of underage initiation of selling sex among female sex workers (FSW) in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: 505 adult FSW recruited using respondent-driven sampling were surveyed in 2017. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics associated with initiation of selling sex while underage (<18 years). RESULTS: A total of 26.3% (133/505) of FSW started selling sex before age 18. Underage initiation of selling sex was associated with experiencing forced sex before age 18 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-22.13), and never being tested for HIV (aOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.20-0.91). Despite having lower odds of wanting to have children or more children (aOR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.17-0.56), FSW who started selling sex while underage had lower odds of using highly effective contraception such as implants (aOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.24-0.77). Among those who were ever pregnant, a lower percentage of FSW who started selling sex while underage accessed antenatal care (56.6% vs. 74.7%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that early initiation of selling sex among adult FSW in Guinea-Bissau is common. Social services for youth and integrated HIV and reproductive health services are critical to address the persisting sexual and reproductive health needs of FSW who started selling sex while underage.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Profissionais do Sexo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(10): e34555, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria has the fourth largest burden of HIV globally. Key populations, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs, are more vulnerable to HIV than the general population due to stigmatized and criminalized behaviors. Reliable key population size estimates are needed to guide HIV epidemic response efforts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to use empirical methods for sampling and analysis to improve the quality of population size estimates of female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs in 7 states (Akwa Ibom, Benue, Cross River, Lagos, Nasarawa, Rivers, and the Federal Capital Territory) of Nigeria for program planning and to demonstrate improved statistical estimation methods. METHODS: From October to December 2018, we used 3-source capture-recapture to produce population size estimates in 7 states in Nigeria. Hotspots were mapped before 3-source capture-recapture started. We sampled female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs during 3 independent captures about one week apart. During hotspot encounters, key population members were offered inexpensive, memorable objects unique to each capture round. In subsequent rounds, key population members were offered an object and asked to identify objects received during previous rounds (if any). Correct responses were tallied and recorded on tablets. Data were aggregated by key population and state for analysis. Median population size estimates were derived using Bayesian nonparametric latent-class models with 80% highest density intervals. RESULTS: Overall, we sampled approximately 310,000 persons at 9015 hotspots during 3 independent captures. Population size estimates for female sex workers ranged from 14,500 to 64,300; population size estimates for men who have sex with men ranged from 3200 to 41,400; and population size estimates for people who inject drugs ranged from 3400 to 30,400. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first implementation of these 3-source capture-recapture methods in Nigeria. Our population size estimates were larger than previously documented for each key population in all states. The Bayesian models account for factors, such as social visibility, that influence heterogeneous capture probabilities, resulting in more reliable population size estimates. The larger population size estimates suggest a need for programmatic scale-up to reach these populations, which are at highest risk for HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Teorema de Bayes , Densidade Demográfica , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
17.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(5)2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Key population (KP) groups, such as female sex workers and men who have sex with men, in Nigeria rely on free HIV prevention commodities, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, provided through foreign aid. We investigated the willingness of KP groups to use and pay for HIV prevention commodities to support improved sustainable HIV prevention programming. METHODS: In 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 3 states with KP groups. The survey covered sociodemographic characteristics and willingness to use and pay for PrEP, HIVST, and condoms, and we used a bidding game iteration process to collect data on factors that influence willingness to use and pay for the commodities. We performed bivariate and multivariable regression analyses to explore factors that may determine willingness to pay and the maximum amount willing to pay. RESULTS: Of the participants surveyed, 73% were willing to pay for PrEP services, 81% were willing to pay for HIVST, and 87% were willing to pay for condoms. Willingness to pay varied between the commodities and was associated with, among other variables: age, KP group, marital status, level of education, employment status, place of residence, average monthly income, and familiarity with the commodity in question. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that KP groups are willing to pay for HIV prevention commodities, but there is a need to bridge the gap between the maximum amount they are willing to pay and retail prices. If prices are reduced, the willingness to pay may result in high consumption and positive returns for the private sector.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria , Grupos Populacionais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
19.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(3): 1449-1460, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245174

RESUMO

We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with the use of a dedicated HIV prevention, care, and treatment service for female sex workers (FSWs) in Kampala, Uganda. Between October 2017 to January 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study among FSWs at a dedicated clinic. We defined use as the use of the HIV prevention, care, and treatment services by FSWs at least once within the past six months. We used the log-binomial model to determine the factors associated with use of clinic services. Eight hundred and seventy-four women were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of use of clinic services was 81%. At adjusted analysis, use of clinic services was independently associated with being HIV positive and being treated for STIs in the past three months. The prevalence of use of clinic services was high. Dedicated services for FSWs are required to support their use of HIV and STI care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 237, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health research frequently relies on collaborations with community-based organizations, and these partnerships can be essential to the success of a project. However, while public health ethics and oversight policies have historically focused on ensuring that individual subjects are protected from unethical or unfair practices, there are few guidelines to protect the organizations which facilitate relationships with - and are frequently composed of - these same vulnerable populations. As universities, governments, and donors place a renewed emphasis on the need for community engaged research to address systematic drivers of health inequity, it is vital that the ways in which research is conducted does not uphold the same intersecting systems of gender, race, and class oppression which led to the very same health inequities of interest. METHODS: To understand how traditional notions of public health research ethics might be expanded to encompass partnerships with organizations as well as individuals, we conducted qualitative interviews with 39 staff members (executive directors and frontline) at community-based organizations that primarily serve people who use drugs, Black men who have sex with men, and sex workers across the United States from January 2016 - August 2017. We also conducted 11 in-depth interviews with professional academic researchers with experience partnering with CBOs that serve similar populations. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using emergent codes and a priori codes derived from the Belmont Report. RESULTS: The concepts of respect, beneficence, and justice are a starting point for collaboration with CBOs, but participants deepened them beyond traditional regulatory concepts to consider the ethics of relationships, care, and solidarity. These concepts could and should apply to the treatment of organizations that participate in research just as they apply to individual human subjects, although their implementation will differ when applied to CBOs vs individual human subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Academic-CBO partnerships are likely to be more successful for both academics and CBOs if academic researchers work to center individual-level relationship building that is mutually respectful and grounded in cultural humility. More support from academic institutions and ethical oversight entities can enable more ethically grounded relationships between academic researchers, academic institutions, and community based organizations.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ética em Pesquisa , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisadores , Estados Unidos
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