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1.
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351796

RESUMO

We investigated the social representation of fair price of French and English-speaking photographers using the free association method. In two independent studies, we performed a factorial analysis of correspondence of the words provided by the participants as well as a similitude analysis. The results indicated that "fair price" was mainly associated with time, effort and experience level of photographers. Both French- and English-speaking samples made similar associations around the concept of fair price but the order of importance varied. We observed some gender-related differences in both samples, although the relative number of male and female participants must be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Comércio/ética , Fotografação/economia , Profissionalismo/economia , Adulto , Comércio/tendências , Feminino , França , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Marketing/ética , Marketing/métodos , Marketing/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profissionalismo/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Healthc Pap ; 19(3): 35-40, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337301

RESUMO

Miller and Xie (2020) issue a compelling and wide-ranging call to action for how healthcare systems, leaders and decision makers can and should mobilize to address the climate crisis. Issues of sustainability and the climate crisis are complex, wicked problems with no simple solutions. Sustainability considerations and the imperative to use healthcare system resources wisely are a motivator of the Choosing Wisely Canada campaign. These considerations are increasingly urgent in the context of fiscal and resource deficits due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The experience of Choosing Wisely campaigns can offer potential strategies for driving increased awareness and action from healthcare stakeholders on the climate crisis. This commentary explores some of the factors that have contributed to the spread of Choosing Wisely campaigns and the levers that have fostered campaign uptake. It will also consider the challenges faced by, and lessons learned, from Choosing Wisely campaigns, and how these could inform healthcare systems and individual clinicians in increasing awareness and taking leadership on the climate crisis.


Assuntos
Profissionalismo , Canadá , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(11): 819-827, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361689

RESUMO

Objective Healthcare support workers play an important role in team healthcare. The objective of this study was to develop scales for measuring feelings of difficulty among home healthcare support workers when in collaborative practice with medical professionals.Methods Scale drafts consisting of 10 questions were developed by an expert panel, using qualitative data from previous studies. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 220 healthcare workers in a certain city using the developed scales, and reliability and validity of the scale were examined.Results An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, after which two factor structures and six questions were selected. The factors were "feelings of disrespect from medical professionals" and "communication barriers between home healthcare support workers and medical professionals". Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.77-0.81 for the scale and its two subscales, which demonstrated good internal consistency. Correlation coefficients between the scale and the face-to-face cooperative confidence questionnaire (FFCCQ) and interdisciplinary collaborative practice scales (ICPS) were estimated to examine the criterion-related validity. As a consequence, the score of the scale had a significant negative correlation with FFCCQ and ICPS (r=-0.36--0.42). The two subscales also had negative correlations with FFCCQ and ICPS (r=-0.17--0.42).Conclusion The scales we developed were reliable and valid for measuring home healthcare support workers' feelings of difficulty in collaborative practice with medical professionals.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Emoções , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Visitadores Domiciliares/psicologia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Profissionalismo , Psicometria/métodos , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Postgrad Med ; 66(4): 200-205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037168

RESUMO

With the introduction of competency-based undergraduate curriculum in India, a paradigm shift in the assessment methods and tools will be the need of the hour. Competencies are complex combinations of various attributes, many of which being not assessable by objective methods. Assessment of affective and communication domains has always been neglected for want of objective methods. Areas like professionalism, ethics, altruism, and communication-so vital for being an Indian Medical Graduate, can be assessed longitudinally applying subjective means only. Though subjectivity has often been questioned as being biased, it has been proven time and again that a subjective assessment in expert hands gives comparable results as that of any objective assessment. By insisting on objectivity, we may compromise the validity of the assessment and deprive the students of enriched subjective feedback and judgement also. This review highlights the importance of subjective assessment in competency-based assessment and ways and means of improving the rigor of subjective assessment, with particular emphasis on the development and use of rubrics.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Profissionalismo , Estudantes de Medicina
6.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1488-1491, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006868

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Association of American Medical Colleges has called for a temporary suspension of clinical teaching activities for medical students. Planning for the continued involvement of learners in patient care during this pandemic should include teaching learners professional formation. The authors provide an ethical framework to guide such teaching, based on the ethical principle of beneficence and the professional virtues of courage and self-sacrifice from professional ethics in medicine. The authors show that these concepts support the conclusion that learners are ethically obligated to accept reasonable, but not unreasonable, risk. Based on this ethical framework, the authors provide an account of the process of teaching professional formation that medical educators and academic leaders should implement. Medical educators and academic leaders should embrace the opportunity that the COVID-19 pandemic presents for teaching professional formation. Learners should acquire the conceptual vocabulary of professional formation. Learners should recognize that risk of infection from patients is unavoidable. Learners should become aware of established ethical standards for professional responsibility during epidemics from the history of medicine. Learners should master understandable fear. Medical educators and academic leaders should ensure that didactic teaching of professional formation continues when it becomes justified to end learners' participation in the processes of patient care; topics should include the professionally responsible management of scarce medical resources. The COVID-19 pandemic will not be the last major infectious disease that puts learners at risk. Professional ethics in medicine provides powerful conceptual tools that can be used as an ethical framework to guide medical educators to teach learners, who will bear leadership responsibilities in responses to future pandemics, professional formation.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/ética , Ética Médica/educação , Pandemias/ética , Profissionalismo/educação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Profissionalismo/ética , Faculdades de Medicina , Sociedades Médicas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021985

RESUMO

COVID-19 has highlighted an opportunity for medical professionals to engage in online Public Engagement with Science (PES). Currently a popular platform for PES is Reddit. Reddit provides an Ask Me Anything (AMA) format for subject matter experts to answer questions asked by the public. On March 11, 2020, from 2:00 to 4:00pm EST, two Emergency Department physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital hosted an AMA session on coronavirus. We retroactively conducted an analysis of the questions and answers from this AMA session in order to better understand the public's concerns around coronavirus and identify future opportunities for medical experts to leverage the Reddit AMA format in communicating with the general public. Results suggested that participants sought not only to obtain information, but to engage in discussion, and did so with each other in the absence of expert responses. The majority of bi-directional discussion occurred between participants. Due to the volume of questions and ratio of experts to participants, not all questions were answered. More posts provided facts or opinions, than posts that providing resources or requesting resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profissionalismo , Opinião Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 38(3): [e02], Octubre 20 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1128913

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is spreading quickly. Despite scientists' best efforts all over the world, there is not a vaccine or definite treatment for it and the novel coronavirus remains a threat to humanity with far-reaching, and in many cases, irredeemable consequences for the economic, political, social-psychological , and cultural aspects of humans' lives.(1)The quick transmission and fatality of the disease, absence of herd immunity, lack of or inequitable distribution of resources, e.g. Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE), and the existing challenges in the implementation of social distancing result in a daily increase in the number of victims and, consequently, an ever-expanding workload in healthcare systems worldwide. Moreover, the increasing mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 and lack of hospital beds and ventilators have led to healthcare provider's exhaustion and burnout.(1,2) Healthcare providers, especially nurses are the most vulnerable group in the face of the current disaster. Unfortunately, In the world, many front-line experts have lost their lives.(3)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Profissionalismo , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros
11.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(5): 328-337, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196877

RESUMO

El aprendizaje del residente se realiza a través del trabajo que desarrolla en diferentes contextos laborales como: la planta del hospital, el quirófano, el centro de salud, la participación en congresos o en comisiones, etc. Aun así, este desempeño tiene que complementarse con metodologías que conlleven actividades específicas para desarrollar aquellas competencias que no se pueden trabajar de forma planificada y explícita en el día a día como el pensamiento crítico, el trabajo cooperativo, la gestión de las emociones, etc. Más allá de las clásicas sesiones clínicas de casos o bibliográficas, existen otras metodologías activas dirigidas a favorecer estos aprendizajes para alcanzar una formación integral, como el aprendizaje basado en problemas, el método de caso y de proyectos, los incidentes críticos, la gamificación, los juegos de rol o el libro del residente. Destacamos las competencias que cada una de ellas ayudan a adquirir. Dedicamos un apartado a las actividades profesionales confiables (APROC) o entrustable professional activities (EPAs), por tratarse de un enfoque metodológico operativo que facilita la puesta en práctica de la formación y evaluación basada en competencias a través de tareas o actividades complejas. La combinación de metodologías complementarias con las actividades clínicas completa el mapa para adquirir las competencias requeridas en los programas de formación especializada. De este modo, se pretende ayudar al formador a planificar la formación del residente de acuerdo a su perfil competencial


The resident's learning is developed through the work in different settings such as: the hospital ward, the primary health center, the operating room, the participation in congresses or in committees, etc. Even so, this performance has to be complemented with methodologies that involve specific activities to develop those competencies that cannot be worked on a day-to-day basis (critical thinking, cooperative work, emotion management, etc.). We present other methodologies aimed to achieve those competencies, such as problem-based learning, the projects method, the case method, and the critical incidents, gamification, role-playing games or the resident's logbook, highlighting the competencies that each of them help to acquire. We dedicate a section to entrustable professional activities (EPAs), an operational methodological approach that facilitates the implementation of competency-based medical education and evaluation through clinical activities. The combination of complementary methodologies with clinical activities completes the map to acquire the competencies required in specialized training and guide the tutor in order to plan the training of the specialist


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Continuada , Aprendizagem , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Competência Profissional/normas , Internato e Residência , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Autoaprendizagem como Assunto , Profissionalismo
12.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e444-e448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teaching ethics in university courses may benefit from different didactic approaches; nonetheless, it still seems unclear whether ethics teaching can be best offered in stand-alone courses or integrated into other courses, or perhaps both. OBJECTIVE: We describe the experience derived from a structured teaching activity in the field of medical ethics, conducted during a lesson for the students of a rehabilitation university second-cycle degree course. METHODS: The participating students were healthcare professionals with different graduate training in rehabilitation. The aim of the lesson was to discuss the essentials of the relationship between patients and rehabilitation healthcare providers, from an inter-professional viewpoint, focused on the principles of trust, mutual respect, power and personal closeness, which are essential components of the therapeutic relationship between patients and physical therapists. RESULT: Shared moral norms guiding the professional conduct of healthcare professionals are a fundamental characteristic of these professions, promoting the public trust in these professions, tearing down barriers to inter-professional collaboration and communication. CONCLUSION: The results are remarkable, and there has been very positive feedback from the students concerning the production of the oath and its contents, as well as about the proposed teaching method, resulting in great interest in clinical ethics.


Assuntos
Ética Médica/educação , Profissionalismo/educação , Reabilitação/educação , Estudantes , Adulto , Pesquisa Empírica , Ética Clínica , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Reabilitação/ética , Universidades
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877412

RESUMO

Despite overwhelming evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, there has been a rise in vaccine hesitancy and refusal leading to increases in the incidence of communicable diseases. Importantly, providing scientific information about the benefits of vaccines has not been effective in counteracting anti-vaccination beliefs. Considering this, better identification of those likely to be vaccine hesitant and the underlying attitudes that predict these beliefs are needed to develop more effective strategies to combat anti-vaccination movements. Focusing on parents as the key decision makers in their children's vaccination, the aim of this study is to better understand the demographic and attitudinal predictors of parental vaccine hesitancy. We recruited 484 parents using Amazon MTurk and queried their attitudes on childhood vaccination, level of education, age, religiosity, political affiliation, trust in medicine, and disgust sensitivity. We found three main demographic predictors for parental vaccine hesitancy: younger age, lower levels of education, and greater religiosity. We also found vaccine hesitant parents to have significantly less trust in physicians and greater disgust sensitivity. These results provide a clearer picture of vaccine hesitant parents and suggest future directions for more targeted research and public health messaging.


Assuntos
Asco , Pais , Profissionalismo , Confiança , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 649-656, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand medical students' mental health, professional pride, and intention to work in the front-line during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and provide a reference for psychological intervention. METHODS: We used the depression-anxiety-stress scale and self-designed questionnaire on professional pride, intention to work in the front-line and the extent of family support. Medical students from 4 medical schools in Fujian and Hunan were investigated. Their mental health status, professional pride and first-line work willingness with different characteristics were compared, and the influential factors for professional pride and first-line work willingness were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected. During the pandemic, there were significant differences in the proportion of depressed students among different college and universities, majors and stages (P<0.05), and the professional pride was significantly different (P<0.001). Medical students with different mental health status showed significant differences in professional pride (P<0.01). Marriage, pressure and extent of family support were the influential factors for their professional pride (P<0.05). The latter two were also influential factors for their intention to work in the front-line (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, students from college and nursing have relatively better mental health and higher professional pride. The professional pride is low in medical students who married, with abnormal stress or low family support. The intention to work in front-line is decreased in students with abnormal stress or low family support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Família , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Profissionalismo , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 450-452, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880548

RESUMO

It is likely that the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will affect a large part of the world's population and will last for several years. Many critical ethical issues have arisen in the healthcare context. While response from healthcare professionals to participating in the care of patients in the era of COVID-19 has generally been positive, there have also been disturbing experiences on the ground. The practice of medicine is a social contract with humanity. Challenges have arisen because the patient is both a victim and a vector of the coronavirus. All humans should have a natural instinct to care for those in need. Ethically and legally, healthcare professionals cannot be expected to assume a significant and unreasonable risk of harm. While fear is understandable, altruism and interest in serving the sick exemplify the value of solidarity. Social harms like stigmatisation and discrimination can occur. Concerns have been raised regarding protection of privacy and respect for rights of infected individuals. In the era of COVID-19, fear, misinformation and a detachment from one's calling put professionalism strongly to the test.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Altruísmo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profissionalismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238658, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digitalisation affects 90% of healthcare. Digital health, however, does not only refer to technological transformation but also has considerable cultural and social consequences. It fundamentally reshapes the roles of physicians and patients, as well as their relationship. Moreover, from the second half of the 20th century, the growing number of chronic patients and the increase in life expectancy have posed new challenges to the medical workforce. OBJECTIVES: To explore the digitally engaged physician's knowledge and attitudes towards digital health technologies and the transformation of the doctor-patient relationship. METHODS: A qualitative interview study analysed with Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The study is based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 11 digitally engaged physicians from 9 countries. We identified four main themes emerging from e-physicians' responses and experience: 1) the past: intentions and experiences of change, 2) the present: the role of digital health and technology in the medical practice and their everyday challenges, 3) the present: the practical and ideal physician-patient relationship, and 4) the future: skills and competencies needed for working with e-patients and visions about the future of the medical practice. RESULTS: The interviewed physicians state that digital health solutions could create a deeper doctor-patient relationship: knowledgeable patients are a huge help in the joint work effort and technology is the main tool for creating a more involved and responsible patient. Medical professionals in the future might rather get a role as a translator between technical data and the patient; as a guide in the jungle of digital health. However, the interviewed physicians also noted that digital transition today is more beneficial to patients than to their doctors. CONCLUSIONS: We state that digitally engaged physicians are characterized by a kind of dichotomy: they use digital opportunities enthusiastically, but they also feel the difficulties related to digital health.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Transição Epidemiológica , Médicos , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Profissionalismo , Telemedicina , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overdose response has become an increasingly relevant component of paramedic practice, particularly in light of increased opioid overdose globally. Previous studies have noted gaps in our understanding regarding the unique challenges which paramedics face during this form of pre-hospital emergency care. The aim of this study is to explore and describe the ways in which paramedics experience overdose response, specifically within a community markedly affected by the overdose crisis. METHODS: Ten participants were recruited from a single ambulance station located in an urban center in Western Canada. Two rounds of semi-structured individual interviews were conducted, and data saturation was found to have been reached. Verbatim transcripts were produced and subject to two rounds of descriptive and pattern coding. A second researcher reviewed all of the codes, with disagreements being handled by discussion until agreement was obtained. Themes were identified, along with a Core Category which seeks to describe the underlying dynamics of overdose response represented in our data. The concept of a Core Category was borrowed from Grounded Theory methodology. FINDINGS: Five major themes were identified: Connecting with patients' lived experiences; Occupying roles as clinicians and patient advocates; Navigating on-scene hazards; Difficulties with transitions of care; and Emotional burden of the overdose crisis. A core category was identified as One's capacity to help. CONCLUSIONS: This research contributes to existing literature on overdose response by specifically examining paramedic experiences during this form of emergency care. While paramedics felt highly confident in providing clinical care, their capacity to address underlying causes of drug use was understood as much more limited. Participants found ways to address this lack of control, along with feelings of frustration, by trying to understand patient perspectives and adopting empathetic attitudes.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Auxiliares de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profissionalismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
19.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(4): 476, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988566
20.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 762-765, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916069

RESUMO

The response of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) to the COVID-19 pandemic was vigorous and effective because it had mature programs in surgical quality and health policy and advocacy, the legacy of decades of work by its officers and leaders and its current executive director, David Hoyt. Hoyt had the foresight to institute a digital communications platform upon which the College collected data for its clinical programs and conducted many of its meetings. Through internet portals, online communities, and social media it broadcasted news and information to the membership. When the global COVID-19 pandemic struck, the College was able to quickly mobilize its leaders and scientific experts to disseminate credible information, recommend protocols to maintain patient and provider safety in operating room environments, provide a rational scheme of prioritization of urgent surgical operations, and a sensible means of resumption of normal surgical practice. As the financial impact of the outbreak on surgical practice became apparent, the ACS represented the interests of surgeons in the White House, Capitol, federal agencies, and governors' mansions and statehouses. In an interview by Steven Wexner, a member of the ACS Board of Regents, Hoyt described the response of the ACS to an unprecedented threat to the surgical care of patients in the country and the world. His story demonstrates the legacy of credibility and professionalism built by decades of principled leadership of generations of officers and Regents of the College, and his own example of effective leadership in crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profissionalismo , Estados Unidos
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