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2.
J Leg Med ; 39(3): 229-233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626576

RESUMO

Lapses in professionalism are a common cause of disciplinary action against physicians by U.S. medical boards. However, the exact definition of "professionalism" is unclear, making it likely that a physician will not train or practice under the same framing of professionalism and so may fail to develop certain skills. The goal of this study was to identify and compare the professionalism framings of medical boards. The medical board web pages for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and four territories were examined in June 2017 for use of the word "professionalism" or "professional" in their application, rules, or laws, which was then coded as a best fit to one of six core framings of professionalism. Of the 55 states and territories, integrity was the most common professionalism framing (40.0%), followed by excellence (23.6%), behavior (12.7%), mixed (9.1%), unclear (9.1%), and absent (5.5%). Although integrity was the most common framing, diversity exists among medical boards, which could lead to board misunderstandings of incidents labeled as professionalism violations and ineffective remediation of offenses. In order to best communicate the nature of the offense and thus best facilitate remediation, the incident should be called by its true name rather than the all-encompassing term "professionalism."


Assuntos
Papel do Médico , Médicos/normas , Prática Profissional/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Conselho Diretor/legislação & jurisprudência , Conselho Diretor/normas , Humanos , Má Conduta Profissional , Profissionalismo/tendências , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Estados Unidos
3.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 726-730, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539329

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, all medical students applying for residency in emergency medicine (EM) were required to participate in the Standardized Video Interview (SVI). The SVI is a video-recorded, uni-directional interview consisting of six questions designed to assess interpersonal and communication skills and professionalism. It is unclear whether this simulated interview is an accurate representation of an applicant's competencies that are often evaluated during the in-person interview. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether the SVI score correlates with a traditional in-person interview score. METHODS: Six geographically and demographically diverse EM residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education participated in this prospective observational study. Common demographic data for each applicant were obtained through an Electronic Residency Application Service export function prior to the start of any scheduled traditional interviews (TI). On each TI day, one interviewer blinded to all applicant data, including SVI score, rated the applicant on a five-point scale. A convenience sample of applicants was enrolled based on random assignment to the blinded interviewer. We studied the correlation between SVI score and TI score. RESULTS: We included 321 unique applicants in the final analysis. Linear regression analysis of the SVI score against the TI score demonstrated a small positive linear correlation with an r coefficient of +0.13 (p=0.02). This correlation remained across all SVI score subgroups (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that there is a small positive linear correlation between the SVI score and performance during the TI.


Assuntos
Acreditação/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Gravação em Vídeo/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16692, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain bereavement practices offered by hospitals and medical practitioners (MPs), factors that influence the likelihood of MPs' involvement in funeral attendance, the benefits and barriers to attendance to a patient's funeral as perceived by MPs and the rate of attendance to patients' funeral by MPs. DESIGN: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched with a systematic search structure for randomized controlled trials, comparative observational studies, case series, cross-sectional studies, editorials, and letters. The search was limited to English only. The study was registered with Prospero (Registration Number: CRD42018095368). RESULTS: A total of 381 articles were identified with 46 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 46, 16 were editorials and 12 were letters. Eighteen were cross-sectional studies conducted in the United States, Canada, Australia, Israel, and Ireland. Year of publication ranged from 1990 to 2017. Of these, 12 were quantitative, 3 were qualitative, and 3 were mixed-method studies. Two of the cross-sectional studies involved family members of deceased patients while others involved MPs. Bereavement practices offered by hospitals included memorial services, letters, and services provided by bereavement coordinators. Bereavement practices employed by MPs included answering or making phone calls, attending family meetings, and sending condolence letters. MPs' attendance at a patient's funeral was influenced by MPs' gender, age years of experience the medical specialty. Perceived benefits of MPs' attendance at a patient's funeral included providing support to the family, extending the professional relationship, illustrating respect to the patient and the family, resolving guilt and personal growth. Barriers to the attendance included a lack of time, blurring of professional boundaries, personal discomfort with death, emotional arousal, and discouragement by colleagues. General practice had an attendance rate of 71%. Attendance rates for palliative care, oncology, and psychiatrists ranged from 63% to 81%, 7.1% to 67%, and 15% to 67%, respectively. Intensivists had an attendance rate of 22%. CONCLUSION: Several bereavement practices are provided by hospitals and MPs. Funeral attendance is an uncommon bereavement practice. MPs' attitudes toward attending a patient's funeral are understudied in many specialties. Patient factors that influence MPs' participation in bereavement practices are poorly understood.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Luto , Rituais Fúnebres , Profissionalismo/normas , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(23-24): 4389-4399, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408561

RESUMO

AIM: To explore general hospital ward nurses' experiences with the National Early Warning Score and to determine its impacts on their professionalism. BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score has broad appeal; it is a patient safety initiative designed to ensure early identification of and response to deteriorating patients in hospitals. However, it is still unclear how the tool impacts nurses' professionalism. METHODS: A qualitative study with a hermeneutic design was conducted in autumn 2017; the study consisted of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 hospital nurses. The data were analysed thematically to understand and interpret the nurses' experiences. Methods are reported using COREQ guidelines (see Appendix S1). RESULTS: The study examined nurses' experience with the National Early Warning Score and its perceived impact on their professionalism. Four themes were identified: (a) the National Early Warning Score and clinical judgement in patient assessment, (b) responding to the National Early Warning Score standard, (c) involving the professional community and (d) adjusting the tool. CONCLUSION: The National Early Warning Score may impact nurses' professionalism in diverse ways. Nurses are aware of the importance of incorporating all of their professional competence, comprising clinical judgement, discretion and accountability, with the National Early Warning Score to accurately assess patients' conditions. Findings indicated that the National Early Warning Score was beneficial to nurses' professional practice; however, accountability to this standard alone does not ensure quality care and patient safety. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A greater understanding of the role of nurses' professional accountability when using the National Early Warning Score is needed to improve practice and ensure patient safety.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Hermenêutica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 222, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementing a patient safety curriculum for medical students requires to identify their needs and current awareness of the topic. Several tools have been developed to measure patient safety culture, but none of them have been developed in the French context. Our objective was to adapt and refine the psychometric properties of the MSSAPS, developed by Liao et al, to use it among general practice (GP) residents. METHODS: 1-We conducted a translation and transcultural adaptation of the MSSAPS questionnaire (28 items, 5 dimensions: safety culture, teamwork culture, experiences with professionalism, error disclosure culture and comfort expressing professional concerns) in accordance with the international recommendations. 2-We studied the new questionnaire' psychometric properties on a sample of GP residency students in 2016. This validation comprised 2 steps: a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each dimension of the MSAPPS to explore the adequacy of the structure of the questionnaire; an exploratory factor analysis to refine the instrument, using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's α-coefficients calculation. A final CFA examined the structure validity of the refined questionnaire. 3-We described the items and the safety cultural scores in our sample of residents. RESULTS: Among 391 eligible students, 213 responded (54%). The initial structure was not confirmed by CFAs, showing a poor fit for 3 of the 5 dimensions: safety culture, teamwork culture and professionalism. Exploratory PCA led to 3 dimensions: Safety culture (PVE: 18.5% and 7 of 8 initial items), Experiences with professionalism (PVE: 17.8% and 5 of 7 initial items) and Error disclosure culture (PVE: 13.6% and 3 of 4 original items). Cronbach's α-coefficients were 0.74, 0.78 and 0.76 respectively. The final CFA confirmed the existence of the 3 latent dimensions with a good fit to the and highly significant structural coefficients (P < 0.001). Mean scores were equal to 65.4 [63.6; 67.6] for the safety culture, 66.9 [63.8; 70.1] for the experience with professionalism, and 54.4 [51.6; 57.2] for the error disclosure culture. CONCLUSION: This study reports satisfactory psychometrics properties of the French version of the MSAPPS and provides evidence of important training needs for GP residents in the field of patient safety culture.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Gestão da Segurança , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Análise Fatorial , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Psicometria , Gestão da Segurança/normas
9.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(9): 1966-1975, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087561

RESUMO

AIMS: (a) To explore the meanings of master's education in the professionalization of nursing; and (b) to describe the core attributes that nurses gained through master's study. DESIGN: Narrative inquiry. METHODS: From June 2017 to June 2018, unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 master-prepared nurses at advanced nursing position with minimum 5 years of postregistration experience. Collaborative thematic narrative analysis was conducted on verbatim transcripts. Members checking, peer validation and audience validation assured verisimilitude and utility. RESULTS: There was a need to fit one's own assertion for professional growth in nursing career structure. Master's study equipped nurses with specialty skills and knowledge with enhanced reflexivity, which nurtured morality, problem-solving ability and capacity to collaborate inter-professionally. Master-prepared nurses demonstrated effective clinical leadership through acting as change agents. CONCLUSIONS: Master's level education and master-prepared nurses are instrumental to the professionalization of nursing by expanding the roles of nurses. Nursing career mentoring will maximize nurses' agency in healthcare system. Developing innovative inter-professional pedagogy will nurture the reflexivity of master-prepared nurses.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/educação , Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Competência Profissional/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia
11.
Acad Med ; 94(8): 1081-1083, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094726

RESUMO

This Invited Commentary highlights the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and the potential effect that such experiences can have in the medical education setting on trainees, colleagues, and faculty. The author draws on 20 years of experience working in organizations devoted to helping physicians with disruptive behavior learn new behavioral skills to enable them to function within the complex medical environment. A case example-an amalgam of individuals who have presented for remediation-is used to illustrate the issues that result from adverse childhood experiences. There is a broad and well-understood literature demonstrating a correlation between early life trauma and medical and mental health issues. Adverse early life experiences can also contribute to attachment-related difficulties including problems with boundaries, trust, and suspiciousness; lack of reciprocity; lack of attunement with others' emotional states; as well as regulation issues, including difficulties labeling and expressing feelings and internal states. Difficulties with self-concept, including a lack of continuous and predictable sense of self, low self-esteem, and shame and guilt, are also associated with exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Given the documented high proportion of health care workers, including physicians, who are trauma survivors, trauma-sensitive education must be a priority, not only in medical school but across the educational continuum.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/métodos , Profissionalismo/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/normas , Profissionalismo/educação
12.
Fam Med ; 51(4): 326-330, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: "Forward feeding" is defined as the sharing of information regarding learner behaviors and performance outside of formal institutional committee structures. The purpose of this study was to establish baseline opinions and policies of forward feeding in family medicine residency programs. METHODS: Data for this study were obtained as part of the 2015 CERA Program Directors Fall Survey. Program directors indicated whether they felt that faculty should and do engage in forward feeding. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of various types of information about learners (academic performance, clinical performance, professionalism, physical health, and mental health), reasons for promoting, and concerns regarding forward feeding on a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 49% (227/461). Most agreed that faculty should (87%) and do (83%) engage in forward feeding. Concerns regarding professionalism and clinical performance were reported as most important to share. The most important reason identified for forward feeding was the early identification of struggling residents, followed by the ability to direct teaching to the resident's specific needs, and improving the quality of feedback. Fear of creating bias was the most commonly cited concern for engaging in forward feeding, followed by fear of violating confidentiality and difficulty maintaining confidentiality. Fear of litigation was the least common concern. CONCLUSIONS: Despite concerns, the majority of program directors feel that faculty should and do engage in forward feeding. Our study confirms the importance of clinical performance and professionalism as two important themes of information shared by attendings about residents.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internato e Residência , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Diretores Médicos/tendências , Profissionalismo/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1586507, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical professionalism is often considered difficult to be clearly observed and learned. However, although most medical students or residents affirm the necessity of medical professionalism courses, few agree that those currently offered are adequate for a medical career. OBJECTIVE: To develop a curriculum for teaching professionalism by enabling students to share positive examples of professionalism in social media that reflects the authentic experience in clinical environment. DESIGN: Between October 2015 and June 2017, the authors developed a clerkship program to teach professionalism with the support of social media and appreciative inquiry. Medical students were required to write posts on the positive behaviors they observed during clinical practice in the Facebook group. Other students and course instructors commented or responded to the posted content. The content on Facebook analyzed by course instructors and was based on the definition of medical professionalism according to the 18 attributes proposed by Cruess et al. Results: In total, 103 medical students in their first clinical year participated and posted 435 records of role model learning in the Facebook group. The majority of students learned the most when the clinical instructors were passionate about their teaching and guidance in medical expertise; this accounted for 23.0% of all role model behaviors. Other attributes of professionalism that students appreciated most were being caring and compassionate (17.2%), competence (9.6%), openness (8.8%), and presence (7.7%). More than 90% of the students reported enjoying this type of course and would like to integrate their learning experiences into future behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This innovative training program was well accepted in the formal curriculum and the predesigned social media environment. Appreciative inquiry for medical professionalism should be integrated into the organizational culture and the culture of social media interaction.


Assuntos
Profissionalismo/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Competência Profissional , Redação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(4): 345-352, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously published work established the need for a specialty-specific definition of professionalism in pediatric anesthesiology. That work established a composite definition consisting of 11 domains and their component "defining themes" for professionalism in pediatric anesthesiology. As a next step toward assessing generalizability of our single-center findings, we sought to gain input from a national sample of pediatric anesthesiologists. AIMS: The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of our previously published multidimensional definition of professionalism in pediatric anesthesiology using a nationally representative sample of pediatric anesthesiologists. METHODS: A survey was distributed via snowball sampling to the leaders of every pediatric anesthesiology fellowship program and pediatric anesthesia department or clinical division in the United States. Survey items were designed to validate individual component themes in the working definition. For affirmed items, the respondent was asked to rate the importance of the item. Respondents were also invited to suggest novel themes to be included in the definition. RESULTS: A total of 216 pediatric anesthesiologists representing a variety of experience levels and practice settings responded to the survey. All 40 themes were strongly supported by the respondents, with the least supported theme receiving 71.6% approval. 92.8% of respondents indicated that the 11 domains previously identified formed a comprehensive list of domains for professionalism in pediatric anesthesiology. Four additional novel themes were suggested by respondents, including wellness/self-care/burnout prevention, political advocacy, justice within a practice organization, and respect for leadership/experienced partners. These are topics for future study. The survey responses also indicated a near-universal agreement that didactic lectures would be ineffective for teaching professionalism. CONCLUSION: This national survey of pediatric anesthesiologists serves to confirm the construct validity of our prior working definition of professionalism in pediatric anesthesiology, and has uncovered several opportunities for further study. This definition can be used for both curriculum and policy development within the specialty.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Pediatria/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesiologia/educação , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Pediatria/educação , Profissionalismo/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Physician Assist Educ ; 30(1): 47-53, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801557

RESUMO

The rapid expansion of physician assistant (PA) programs over the past decade has led to a shortage of experienced PA faculty. This has prompted many faculty development initiatives to help provide the skills needed by new faculty making the jump from clinical practice to academia. Faculty development is a key necessity in health professions education because many of the professionals attracted to the educator role are primarily trained as clinicians. Although this issue has been extensively evaluated by our colleagues in medical, nursing, and health education and various faculty development interventions have been implemented, this has not been done in the PA profession. In an effort to correct this, the Physician Assistant Education Association assembled a task force of experienced PA educators and charged them to evaluate the literature on faculty competencies in health professions education and to develop a set of PA educator competencies to help codify the essential knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors that faculty need to be successful in their academic roles.The task force met its charge by engaging in an extensive review of the literature, developing a competency framework and proposed competencies, and soliciting the input of a diverse panel of experts in PA education to vet the proposed competencies. Using the insights and recommendations from the expert panel, the task force refined the competencies-resulting in the framework of PA educator competencies presented in this document.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Guias como Assunto/normas , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Competência Profissional/normas , Certificação/normas , Comunicação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Liderança , Profissionalismo/normas , Ensino/normas
18.
J Dent Educ ; 83(1): 94-102, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600255

RESUMO

The Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) is a widely used instrument based on a personality framework measuring five dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experiences. The aim of this study was to establish a scale to assess dental students' professionalism by adding to the TIPI's five dimensions a set of descriptors that define professional behavior in dental students. The resulting Patient Management and Professionalism Scale (PMPS) was then tested with a cohort of graduating students at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. To develop the scale, one clinic director and a patient care coordinator from four clinics wrote descriptive statements for each of the five dimensions based on their observations of dental students in the context of their clinical experiences. These descriptors were compiled into a single scale. The PMPS demonstrated good scale reliability and interrater agreement and correlated significantly with students' patient management grade scores and cumulative GPA at the end of their fourth year. Exploratory factor analysis showed the presence of a single factor (professionalism) with all five dimensions loading highly on this factor, accounting for 66% of variance in scores. While a useful standardized measure to assess professionalism in dental students, the PMPS also has a flexible format that makes it easy for other schools to use.


Assuntos
Relações Dentista-Paciente , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Profissionalismo , Estudantes de Odontologia , Competência Clínica/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Profissionalismo/normas , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia
19.
J Int Med Res ; 47(3): 1154-1168, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Snizek-revised Hall's Professionalism Inventory Scale (C-SR-HPIS). METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate the construct validity of the C-SR-HPIS. The average variance extracted (AVE) and square root of the AVE were calculated and correlation analyses were performed to test the convergent validity and discriminant validity, respectively. Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient was used to test the internal consistency reliability. RESULTS: Data for 355 clinical nurses in mainland China were collected. Five factors were extracted, accounting for 58.86% of the total explained variance, and 20 items were selected for the C-SR-HPIS. The confirmatory factor analysis suggested good fitness of the modified model. The AVE was acceptable for convergent validity. The square roots of the AVE of the five factors were larger than their correlation coefficients with other factors, showing suitable discriminant validity. Cronbach's α coefficient of internal consistency reliability of the overall scale was 0.76, indicating good reliability of the scale. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated good reliability and validity of the C-SR-HPIS and provides a quantitative tool for the assessment of nursing professionalism in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Profissionalismo/normas , Psicometria/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/métodos
20.
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract ; 24(1): 185-194, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478106

RESUMO

Undergraduate clinical education follows the "bedside" tradition that exposes students to inpatients. However, the hospital learning environment has two main limitations. First, most inpatients require acute care, and students may complete their training without seeing patients with frequent non-emergent and chronic diseases that are managed in outpatient settings. Second, students rarely cope with diagnostic problems, because most inpatients are diagnosed in the community or the emergency room. These limitations have led some medical schools to offer longitudinal integrated clerkships in community settings instead of hospital block clerkship rotations. In this paper, I propose the hypothesis that the hospital learning environment has a third limitation: it causes students' distress and delays their development of reflectivity and medical professionalism. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that (a) the clinical learning environment, rather than students' personality traits, is the major driver of students' distress, and (b) the development of attributes, such as moral reasoning, empathy, emotional intelligence and tolerance of uncertainty that are included in the definitions of both reflectivity and medical professionalism, is arrested during undergraduate medical training. Future research may test the proposed hypothesis by comparing students' development of these attributes during clerkships in hospital wards with that during longitudinal clerkships in community settings.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estágio Clínico/organização & administração , Profissionalismo/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Empatia , Humanos , Mentores , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Personalidade
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