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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 523-541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002944

RESUMO

Exposure therapy, a key treatment for anxiety disorders, can be modelled in the laboratory using Pavlovian fear extinction. Understanding the hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms underlying fear extinction in females, who are twice more likely than males to present with anxiety disorders, may aid in optimising exposure therapy outcomes in this population. This chapter will begin by discussing the role of the sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in fear extinction in females. We will also propose potential mechanisms by which these hormones may modulate fear extinction. The second half of this chapter will discuss the long-term hormonal, neurological and behavioural changes that arise from pregnancy and motherhood and how these changes may alter the features of fear extinction in females. Finally, we will discuss implications of this research for the treatment of anxiety disorders in women with and without prior reproductive experience.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/terapia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
Life Sci ; 242: 117190, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863773

RESUMO

The alteration of PTEN expression may be a vital part of the pathological and physiological mechanisms in infertility-related with endometriosis. However, the potential mechanisms underlying abnormal expression of PTEN and its role in progesterone-resistant endometriosis have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, our data showed the PTEN messenger RNA (mRNA) level and protein expression was reduced in progesterone-resistant endometriosis tissue and primary stomal cells. Low levels of PTEN in endometrial stromal cells led to higher cell proliferation and resistance to progesterone. In terms of PTEN suppression in progesterone-resistant endometriosis, the mRNA level of miR-92a was correlated negatively with PTEN level. Transfection of miR-92a mimic reduced PTEN expression and made the stromal cells more resistant to progesterone treatment. Inhibition of miR-92a by its antagomir had the opposite effects. Results of the luciferase reporter assay for the 3'-nontranslated region suggested that miR-92a directly modulated PTEN levels. Moreover, miR-92a inhibition by its antagomir enhanced the therapeutic effect of progesterone, which suppressed stromal cell proliferation, and reduced the formation of ectopic lesions in the mouse model of endometriosis. Hence, this study revealed that miR-92a contributed to the development of progesterone resistant endometriosis by suppression of PTEN expression, and modulation of miR-92a might be a potential medical method of treating endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência a Medicamentos , Endometriose/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Células Estromais/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109879, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677567

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant. Maternal Cd exposure throughout pregnancy caused fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, the pivotal time window of Cd-evoked FGR and its mechanism are unknown. Here, we will establish a murine model to explore the effects of maternal Cd exposure at different stages of gestation on fetal growth and placental progesterone biosynthesis. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups. For Cd groups, mice were given with CdCl2 (150 mg/L) through drinking water at early (GD0-GD6), middle (GD7-GD12) and late (GD13-GD17) gestation, respectively. The controls received reverses osmosis (RO) water. Results showed that maternal cadmium exposure only in late gestation lowered fetal weight and length. Correspondingly, placental Cd level in late gestational Cd exposure is the highest among three different gestational stages. Although gestational Cd exposure had few adverse effects in the weight and diameter of mouse placenta, placental vascular development, as determined by H&E staining and cluster of differentiation-34 (CD-34) immunostaining, was impaired in mice exposed to Cd during late pregnancy. Additionally, late gestational exposure to cadmium markedly reduced progesterone level in maternal serum and placenta. In line, the expression of key progesterone synthetases, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3ß-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), was obviously downregulated in placenta from mice was exposed Cd during late pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal Cd exposure during late pregnancy, but not early and middle pregnancy, induces fetal growth restriction partially via inhibiting placental progesterone synthesis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/biossíntese , Animais , Cádmio/sangue , Regulação para Baixo , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Camundongos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
Zool Res ; 41(1): 3-19, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840949

RESUMO

Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure can cause serious brain injury as well as life-threatening cerebral edema in severe cases. Previous studies on the mechanisms of HH-induced brain injury have been conducted primarily using non-primate animal models that are genetically distant to humans, thus hindering the development of disease treatment. Here, we report that cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) exposed to acute HH developed human-like HH syndrome involving severe brain injury and abnormal behavior. Transcriptome profiling of white blood cells and brain tissue from monkeys exposed to increasing altitude revealed the central role of the HIF-1 and other novel signaling pathways, such as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathway, in co-regulating HH-induced inflammation processes. We also observed profound transcriptomic alterations in brains after exposure to acute HH, including the activation of angiogenesis and impairment of aerobic respiration and protein folding processes, which likely underlie the pathological effects of HH-induced brain injury. Administration of progesterone (PROG) and steroid neuroprotectant 5α-androst-3ß,5,6ß-triol (TRIOL) significantly attenuated brain injuries and rescued the transcriptomic changes induced by acute HH. Functional investigation of the affected genes suggested that these two neuroprotectants protect the brain by targeting different pathways, with PROG enhancing erythropoiesis and TRIOL suppressing glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the pathology induced by acute HH and provides potential compounds for the development of neuroprotectant drugs for therapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Androstanóis/farmacologia , Hipóxia/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Progesterona/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Androstanóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatias/veterinária , Cálcio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pressão , Progesterona/administração & dosagem
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 92-101, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oyster polypeptides have various biofunctions, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress, but whether it has the protective effects to primary ovarian failure (POF) remains poorly understand. To address this issue, daily gavage of oyster polypeptides was performed to investigate their protective effect, basing on d-galactose-induced POF model in C57BL/6 female mice. RESULTS: Oyster polypeptides restored the irregular estrous cycles and the abnormal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P) levels as well as the decreased mRNA expression level of Amh that were induced by d-galactose. The follicle development of POF mice was improved by increasing the primordial follicle ratio and decreasing the atretic follicle number after oral administration of oyster polypeptides. Moreover, in the oyster polypeptides treated mice, the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity was significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased. The mRNA expression levels of stress-related genes (SOD2, SIRT1 and FOXO3a) were remarkably up-regulated after d-galactose induction, but the up-regulation was weakened or disappeared by the gavage of oyster polypeptides. In addition, oyster polypeptides treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the ovarian granulosa cells and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bad but not Bcl-2). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that oyster polypeptides may protect ovary against d-galactose-induced POF by their anti-oxidative stress activity to rescue d-galactose-induced ovarian oxidative damage and therefore to prevent ovarian cells apoptosis, thereby tipping the abnormality trigged by POF to get close to the normal levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ostreidae/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134930, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726410

RESUMO

Natural and synthetic progestogens in livestock environments have become a concern due to the frequent presence and potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Here we investigated the biotransformation of progestogens by wastewater-borne bacteria in the field and laboratory under oxic and anoxic conditions. The results showed that all progestogens dissipated faster under oxic conditions than under anoxic conditions, and natural progesterone transformed faster than synthetic progestogens. Meanwhile, dozens of bacterial strains capable of degrading progestogens were successfully isolated from the swine wastewater, and Bacillus sp. P19 and Bacillus sp. DGT2 were found the best for progesterone and dydrogesterone transformation, respectively. In the degradation experiments using a single bacterial strain, progesterone and dydrogesterone dissipated under oxic conditions with half-lives of 11.6 h and 18.2 h, respectively. The transformation pathways were proposed based on the identified transformation products. The findings from this study showed that progestogens can be biotransformed, but not fully mineralized in the environment.


Assuntos
Didrogesterona/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cinética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(6): 1107-1117, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799954

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the levels and distribution of progesterone in receiving waters and wastewaters in Arusha, a fast-growing urban area and the third largest city in Tanzania. Specifically, the study was conducted along the Themi River and the adjacent waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). Progesterone was detected and quantified by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. For Themi River samples, the level of progesterone obtained ranged from 'no detection' to 439 ng/L with a mean value of 120.3 ng/L. The levels detected were significantly higher in the midstream than the upstream and downstream sections of the river (P<0.05). The higher values at the midstream were attributable to livestock, WSPs and household effluents; agricultural activities; and sewage infiltration. Progesterone levels in the present study, although not extremely high, correspond to those associated with harmful effects in other studies. Results for samples collected from the WSPs indicated a release of 215 ng progesterone per L of the receiving waters. Although progesterone removal efficiency by the WSPs was 75%, the amount released was still high enough to cause harm to aquatic organisms. Thus, more efficient techniques are required to adequately remove progesterone to the recommended levels.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Progesterona , Tanzânia
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4426-4432, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872628

RESUMO

The objectives of study were to explore the effects of exogenous methyltestosterone( MT) on the growth and gonadal development of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 1,1. 0,10. 0,100. 0,150. 0 µg·L-1 of MT were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured after hibernate for 60 days. Then the tissue slice technique was used to observe the spermary( ovary) of Wh. pigra.The results showed that the body weight,survival rate and gonadal index increased first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous MT concentration; the male gland index was found the highest at the concentration of MT 10. 0 µg·L-1 and the female gland index was the highest at the concentration of MT 1. 0 µg·L-1. The survival rate of Wh. pigra peaked at the concentration of MT 10. 0 µg·L-1.The weight reaches a peak at a concentration of MT 100. 0 µg·L-1( P<0. 05). The number of primary spermatocytes in the testis was negatively correlated with the concentration of exogenous MT. The number of secondary spermatocytes and sperm cells increased first and then decreased. The concentration of secondary spermatocytes was the highest when the concentration of MT was 100. 0 µg·L-1.The number and volume of oocytes in the ovary and the yolk granules increased first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous MT concentration,and the highest was observed at the MT concentration of 100. 0 µg·L-1. The endogenous steroid hormone of Wh.pigra increased first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous MT concentration. The concentration of androgen and progesterone was the highest in MT 100. 0 µg·L-1 treatment( P<0. 05),and the concentration of estrogen was found the highest in MT 10. 0 µg·L-1 treatment( P<0. 05). After adding exogenous MT,Wh. pigra moisture content,acid-insoluble ash content,p H and anti-thrombin activity met the quality criterion of medicinal Wh. pigra in Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). In conclusion,the short-term addition of 1. 0-100. 0 µg·L-1 exogenous MT before hibernation can promote the growth,the development of sperm cells and the antithrombin activity of Wh. pigra.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Metiltestosterona , Animais , Estrogênios , Feminino , Gônadas , Masculino , Ovário , Progesterona
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(11): 4879-4888, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854554

RESUMO

Steroid hormones have been continuously detected and well studied in freshwater bodies in recent years, although information regarding their contamination characteristics in seawater is rare. In this paper, samples were collected in Liusha Bay, South China Sea, and the contamination characteristics, as well as the spatial distribution of 33 steroid hormones, were studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that 7 steroid hormones occurred with concentrations ranging from 0.003 (medroxyprogesterone, MP) to 9.023 ng·L-1(dehydroprogesterone, DGT), and from 0.017 (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, ADD) to 9.281 ng·g-1 (4-androstene-3,17-dione, AED) in seawater and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of detected steroid hormones were higher during wet weather than during the dry weather, and higher in the aquaculture area compared to that in the non-aquaculture area. There were no significant differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of steroid hormones in sediment. Wastewater discharge and additives in aquaculture feeds were the main routes of steroid hormones entering the marine environment. The results of the ecological risk assessment indicated that the AED posed low risk to the marine environment, whereas other steroid hormones posed no risk. Correlation analysis indicated that the concentration distribution of steroid hormones was related to salinity, water temperature, particulate matter (SS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the marine environment. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the contamination characteristics of steroid hormones in the Liusha Bay area and provide a scientific basis for ecological risk assessment and control.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Glucocorticoides , Progesterona , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Água do Mar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
BMJ ; 367: l5721, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704711

RESUMO

The studyCoomarasamy A, Devall AJ, Cheed V, et al. A randomised trial of progesterone in women with bleeding in early pregnancy N Engl J Med 2019;380:1815-24.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/167/26).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000792/miscarriage-not-prevented-by-routine-use-of-progesterone.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Progesterona , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
11.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1244-1248, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732361

RESUMO

Before menopause, women are protected from the risk of hypertension and atherosclerosis by endogenous estrogens. Estrogens have a vasoprotective role, while progesterone seems to have a neutral effect. Exogenous estrogens used in menopausal treatment have vascular effects. These effects depend of type, dose and administration type, and with age and atherosclerosis stages. Synthetic progestins have varying clinical effects. Each drug must be evaluated separately.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pré-Menopausa , Progestinas/farmacologia , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Etinilestradiol/farmacocinética , Etinilestradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia
12.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e6, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714111

RESUMO

The Coat-A-Count® radioimmunoassay has been long and widely used to determine the concentration of progesterone in serum or plasma of bitches (progRIA), but was discontinued in 2014. The Immulite® 1000 LKPG1 chemiluminescence immunoassay has gained prominence since 2003 to determine the concentration of progesterone in serum of bitches, but the assay changed in 2012 (Immulite® 1000 LKPW1). This study assessed the feasibility of using Immulite® 1000 LKPW1 (progImm) to estimate the time of clinically relevant events during oestrus and compared progRIA and progImm 2 and 3 days after the first or only day of the luteinizing hormone surge (LH1). ProgImm first exceeded 5.1 nmol/L on the same day that progRIA first exceeded 6 nmol/L, a proxy for the occurrence of the LH surge, or the day before in 28 of 31 (90%) of oestrous periods. ProgImm first exceeded 13.6 nmol/L on the same day that progRIA first exceeded 16 nmol/L (a proxy for the day of ovulation) or the day before in 34 of 35 (97%) oestrous periods. ProgImm first exceeded 5.4 nmol/L on LH1 or the day before in 24 of 25 (95%) of oestrous periods. The median of progImm 2 days after LH1 was 1.2 nmol/L lower than the 10.7 nmol/L of progRIA (p = 0.001). The mean of progImm 3 days after LH1 was 2.2 nmol/L lower than the 19.0 nmol/L of progRIA (p 0.001). In conclusion, the days on which progImm first exceeded 5.1 nmol/L, 13.6 nmol/L and 5.4 nmol/L effectively estimate the days on which progRIA reached 6 nmol/L or 16 nmol/L or LH1.


Assuntos
Cães/sangue , Medições Luminescentes/veterinária , Detecção da Ovulação/veterinária , Progesterona/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estro/sangue , Feminino , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Detecção da Ovulação/métodos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Reprodução/fisiologia
13.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101337, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorder symptoms change in a predictable pattern over the menstrual cycle such that changes in symptoms are triggered by changes in the ovarian hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). To date, work in this area has focused exclusively on young adult women. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of E2 and P4 on eating disorder symptom change in midlife women during early perimenopause. METHOD: Participants included women aged 42-52 in early perimenopause (n=8). In-home self-assessments were completed for one menstrual cycle or 40-days, whichever occurred first. In-home self-assessments included collecting saliva samples each morning for E2 and P4 assays and completing online study questionnaires at the end of each day. Multilevel regression models examined the associations of E2 and P4 with daily symptoms of binge eating and body dissatisfaction. RESULTS: E2 was positively associated with binge eating when P4 was high, but not when P4 was low. E2 was inversely associated with body dissatisfaction when P4 was low, but positively associated with body dissatisfaction when P4 was high. However, the simple slopes for the effect of E2 at both high and low P4 were not significant for body dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the pilot nature of this study, results are broadly consistent with the young adult literature indicating that P4 levels shape the impact of E2 on eating disorder symptoms. Larger studies with the inclusion of key moderators to account for individual heterogeneity are needed to confirm and extend these findings.


Assuntos
Bulimia/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Menopausa/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3239-3245, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602878

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to explores the effects of short-term addition of 17ß-E2 on the growth,gonad development and internal quality of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 0,1. 0,10. 0,25. 0,50. 0,100. 0 µg·L~(-1) of 17ß-E2 were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks and then hibernated for 60 days. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,morphological structure of spermary( ovary),endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured. The results showed that the body weight,weight gain rate,specific growth rate,female gonad index,oocyte development and endogenous estrogen level of the leech increased first and then decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous 17ß-E2,which were higher than those of the control group. The body weight,weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the leech at the concentration of 25 µg·L~(-1)17ß-E2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups( P<0. 05),oocyte development and endogenous estrogen levels were significantly higher than those of other groups at the concentration of 50 µg·L~(-1)( P<0. 05). When the concentration of exogenous 17ß-E2 was higher than 50 µg·L~(-1),the levels of male gonad index,spermatocyte development,endogenous androgen and progesterone were significantly inhibited( P< 0. 05). There was no significant difference in endogenous corticosteroid levels among the groups. In conclusion,short-term addition of exogenous 17ß-E2 of 10-25 µg·L~(-1) could promote the growth of overwintering leeches,oocyte development and antithrombin activity without inhibiting the development of male gonads.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sanguessugas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sanguessugas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Androgênios/análise , Animais , Estrogênios/análise , Feminino , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hibernação , Masculino , Progesterona/análise
15.
Life Sci ; 238: 116979, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647947

RESUMO

AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to abnormal glucose metabolism in the central nervous system. Progesterone has been shown to have obvious neuroprotective effects in the pathogenesis of AD, but the specific mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of progesterone on the glucose metabolism of neurons in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mice and Aß-induced AD cell model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: APP/PS1 mice were treated with 40 mg/kg progesterone for 40 days and primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with 1 µM progesterone for 48 h.Then behavior tests,2-NBDG glucose uptake tests and the protein levels of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3), GLUT4, cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Progesterone increased the expression levels of GLUT3 and GLUT4 in the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, accompanied by an improvement in learning and memory. Progesterone increased the levels of CREB and PPARγ in the cerebral cortex of APP/PS1 mice. In vitro, progesterone increased glucose uptake in primary cultured cortical neurons, this effect was blocked by the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1)-specific blocker AG205 but not by the progesterone receptor (PR)-specific blocker RU486. Meanwhile, progesterone increased the expression of GLUT3, GLUT4, CREB and PPARγ, and AG205 blocked this effect. SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm that progesterone significantly improves the glucose metabolism of neurons.One of the mechanisms of this effect is that progesterone upregulates protein expression of GLUT3 and GLUT4 through pathways PGRMC1/CREB/GLUT3 and PGRMC1/PPARγ/GLUT4.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Presenilina-1/fisiologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Progestinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593290

RESUMO

Due to a low level of understanding of mechanisms involved in spontaneous preterm delivery there is a lack of reliable biomarkers. Existing biomarkers have a low positive predictive value but a high negative predictive value. Use of tests with high negative predictive value will reduce unnecessary interventions and hospitalization of women with threatening preterm delivery. When given to the right pregnant women, antenatal corticosteroid treatment are still the most important obstetrical intervention and reduces both neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity.Several ongoing national Swedish multicenter studies may increase the understanding of the roles of cervical length, preeclampsia screening and magnesium sulfate dosage in the context of preterm delivery in a Nordic setting. Major development has been achieved in prediction and prevention of preterm preeclampsia at the cost of a 10% screen positive rate.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/análise , Cerclagem Cervical , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Pessários , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Suécia , Tocolíticos/administração & dosagem
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10514-10529, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521363

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate the carryover effects of differing pre- and postweaning planes of nutrition on prepubertal reproductive tract development and postpubertal estrous cycle characteristics in Holstein heifers. Heifer calves (n = 36) were randomly assigned to receive either a low or a high (5 or 10 L of whole milk/d, respectively) preweaning diet from 1 to 7 wk of age and either a low or a high (70 or 85% of concentrate dry total mixed ration, respectively) postweaning diet from 11 to 25 wk of age. Starting at wk 26 of age, heifers were subjected to weekly transrectal ultrasonography until wk 33 or until first ovulation to assess endometrial thickness and ovarian follicular count and size in the prepubertal phase. In a subset of heifers (n = 28), ovarian ultrasonography continued weekly until at least the second ovulation was confirmed; thereafter, ovarian dynamics (through ultrasonography) and blood progesterone (P4) were assessed every 2 d throughout 1 complete estrous cycle in the postpubertal phase. In the prepubertal phase, endometrial thickness (12.0 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.3 mm) and largest follicle size (11.8 ± 0.3 vs. 10.9 ± 0.2 mm) were greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet. Furthermore, the number of class 2 (6-9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high preweaning diet than in those fed the low preweaning diet (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1), whereas the number of class 3 (>9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1). In the postpubertal phase, overall corpus luteum and P4 dynamics did not differ among pre- or postweaning treatments; however, P4 at 4 d preceding luteolysis was lesser in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (6.1 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.4 ng/mL). In addition, compared with heifers fed the low postweaning diet, those fed the high postweaning diet had a greater number of antral follicles (31.4 ± 2.2 vs. 21.4 ± 2.3) and tended to have more class 3 follicles (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 2.7 ± 0.3). Results indicate positive carryover effects of increasing the preweaning plane of nutrition from 5 to 10 L of whole milk/d on prepubertal follicular growth in Holstein heifers. Furthermore, an increased postweaning plane of nutrition (85 vs. 70% of concentrate dry total mixed ration) advanced reproductive development through greater endometrial thickness and follicular growth in the prepubertal phase and increased the population of antral follicles in the postpubertal estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Lúteo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estado Nutricional , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Progesterona/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10573-10586, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521364

RESUMO

Prostaglandin (PG) F2α and its analogs (aPGF2α) are used to induce regression of the corpus luteum (CL); their administration during the middle stage of the estrous cycle causes luteolysis in cattle. However, the bovine CL is resistant to the luteolytic actions of aPGF2α in the early stage of the estrous cycle. The mechanisms underlying this differential luteal sensitivity, as well as acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity by the CL, are still not fully understood. Therefore, to characterize possible differences in response to aPGF2α administration, we aimed to determine changes in expression of genes related to (1) angiogenesis-fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2); and (2) steroidogenesis-steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (P450scc), and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 ß- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B) in early- and middle-stage CL that accompany local (intra-CL) versus systemic (i.m.) aPGF2α injection. Cows at d 4 (early stage) or d 10 (middle stage) of the estrous cycle were treated as follows: (1) systemic saline injection, (2) systemic aPGF2α injection (25 mg), (3) local saline injection, and (4) local aPGF2α injection (2.5 mg). Progesterone (P4) concentration was measured in jugular vein blood samples during the entire set of experiments. After 4 h of treatment, CL were collected by ovariectomy, and mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Local and systemic aPGF2α injections upregulated FGF2 expression but decreased expression of VEGFA in both CL stages. Both aPGF2α injections increased the expression of STAR in early-stage CL, but downregulated it in middle-stage CL. In the early-stage CL, local administration of aPGF2α upregulated HSD3B, whereas systemic injection decreased its mRNA expression in early- and middle-stage CL. Moreover, we observed a decrease in the P4 level earlier after local aPGF2α injection than after systemic administration. These results indicate that aPGF2α acting locally may play a luteotrophic role in early-stage CL. The systemic effect of aPGF2α on the mRNA expression of genes participating in steroidogenesis seems to be more substantial than its local effect in middle-stage CL.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Corpo Lúteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Esteroides/biossíntese , Indutores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos/veterinária , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções/métodos , Injeções/veterinária , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfoproteínas , Progesterona/sangue
19.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(10): 931-942, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize physical examination, plasma biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings in aquarium-housed, managed semiwild, and wild southern stingrays (Hypanus americanus) with and without reproductive disease. ANIMALS: Southern stingrays from aquarium (n = 48), lagoon (managed semiwild; 34), and wild (12) habitats. PROCEDURES: Limited, opportunistic prosections were performed of presumed anatomically normal wild southern stingrays and compared with findings for aquarium-housed stingrays with reproductive disease. Ultrasonographic video data from both groups were used to assign a score (1 to 5) indicating increasing severity of ovarian and uterine reproductive disease. Plasma total 17ß-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone concentrations were measured with enzyme immunoassays validated for use in southern stingrays. RESULTS: Ultrasonographic ovarian scores were significantly correlated with uterine scores. No reproductive disease was detected in semiwild or wild stingrays, but 65% (31/48) of aquarium-housed stingrays had developing or advanced reproductive disease (ie, ultrasonographic ovarian or uterine score of 4 or 5). Significant correlations were identified between ovarian and uterine disease status and plasma concentrations of all steroid hormones except testosterone. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that ultrasonography and plasma hormone concentrations may be useful in the identification of reproductive disease and determination of disease severity in southern stingrays.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ovarianas/veterinária , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Pesqueiros , Doenças Ovarianas/sangue , Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Progesterona/sangue , Reprodução , Saúde Reprodutiva , Testosterona/sangue , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças Uterinas/sangue , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 481-488, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505456

RESUMO

Background: HLA-G is an immune checkpoint molecule, naturally expressed during pregnancy, playing a critical role in the tolerance of the fetal semi-allograft from the maternal immune system. While HLA-G expression levels are associated with progesterone, the influence of other hormones is still unclear. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) represents an adequate model to study the hormonal influence on biomarkers as it leads to impaired cortisol biosynthesis and increased progesterone and androgens production due to 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of CAH patients matched on sex and age with healthy control, the association between circulating levels of soluble HLA-G and hormones was assessed by use of non-parametric analyses tests. Multivariable linear regressions were performed on normalized data. Results: Overall, 83 CAH patients and 69 healthy controls were included. Among CAH patients, all were under glucocorticoid and 52 (62.6%) were under mineralocorticoid supplementation. Compared to controls, CAH patients had increased HLA-G levels (15 vs 8 ng/mL, P = 0.02). In controls, HLA-G level was independently associated with progesterone and estradiol (ß = 0.44 (0.35-1.27) and -0.44 (-0.94, -0.26) respectively, both P values = 0.001). In CAH patients, HLA-G level was independently associated with mineralocorticoid supplementation dosage (ß = 0.25 (0.04-0.41), P = 0.001) and estradiol (ß = -0.22 (-0.57, -0.02), P < 0.001). Conclusion: CAH patients had higher HLA-G levels than healthy controls. HLA-G level was positively associated with progesterone and corticosteroid supplementation, and negatively with estradiol. The association between mineralocorticoid, renin and HLA-G levels may suggest a role of the renin-angiotensin system in the expression of soluble HLA-G.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-G/sangue , Hormônios/sangue , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mineralocorticoides/sangue , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Renina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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