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1.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(2): 156-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798115

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 5 common hormones used as active pharmaceutical ingredients in Fagron Phytobase cream. The active pharmaceutical ingredients were tested using a bracketed format, as well as individually, and in one combination: estrone 0.1%, estrone 1%, estradiol 0.05%, estradiol 2%, estriol 0.05%, estriol 2%, progesterone 0.1%, progesterone 20%, testosterone 0.1%, testosterone 20%; combination (estradiol 0.05%, estriol 0.05%, progesterone 0.5%), and combination (estradiol 2%, estriol 1%, progesterone 20%). All creams were stored at controlled room temperature (20ÆC to 25ÆC) in a Topi-CLICK container-closure. Stability was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 180-day period. Active pharmaceutical ingredients' quantifications were performed by highperformance liquid chromatography via a stabilityindicating method. Antimicrobial effectiveness testing per United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <51> guidelines was carried out for each compounded formulation. Given the percent recovery of the active pharmaceutical ingredients within the cream base, the beyond-use date was determined to be 180 days in all samples except estrone, which was determined to be 150 days. This suggests that Phytobase cream is able to maintain the stability of various compounded hormones in the base over an extended time of storage.


Assuntos
Estriol , Estrona , Estradiol , Estrogênios , Progesterona
2.
Animal ; 15(2): 100132, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712218

RESUMO

Information on weaning techniques in the tropics is scarce, particularly regarding the long-term effect of temporary early cow-calf separation or restricted suckling. Therefore, we studied the effects of these two handling practices on well-being and performance at 150 days postpartum in fifteen zebu cow-calf pairs randomly assigned to three treatments. Continuous suckling (CS) where calves remained with their dams from birth to weaning; restricted suckling (RS) calves were allowed to suckle 30 min/day from Day 34 until weaning at Day 150 and kept separated the rest of the time; temporary separation (TS) calves were separated for 72 h from their dams from Day 33 to 36 but remained with their dams the rest of the time. Blood samples and behavioral data were collected on Days 32-36 (1st period) and 149-153 (2nd period). In the 1st period, a greater percentage of RS and TS calves were observed close to the fence line (<10 m) that separated them from their dams (P < 0.0001) and vocalized more than CS calves (P < 0.0001), while in the 2nd period, RS calves had the highest cortisol concentration and vocalization rate (P < 0.05). Similarly, during the 1st period, a greater percentage of RS and TS cows were observed close to the fence line than CS cows (P < 0.0001), with TS cows vocalizing the most (P = 0.001). In the 2nd period, RS cows had greater cortisol concentration than TS (P = 0.037) and CS cows (P = 0.003). More TS and CS cows than RS were observed close to the fence line (P = 0.03 and P = 0.05). On Day 150, TS calves and cows vocalized more than RS and CS animals (P < 0.0001). Before calf-cow separation, 27 out of 45 cows were cycling (CS = 10; RS = 6; TS = 11). After separation, 12 of the remaining 18 cows resumed ovarian activity (CS = 3; RS = 5; TS = 4), and all cows were cycling after estrous synchronization treatment. The pregnancy rate was similar between CS, RS, and TS (60, 53, and 60% respectively). In conclusion, temporary separation increased calf distress response to definitive weaning even four months later, while restricted suckling seemed to reduce it.


Assuntos
Estro , Período Pós-Parto , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Progesterona , Desmame
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670528

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relation of automatically determined body condition score (BCS) and inline biomarkers such as ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), milk yield (MY), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and progesterone (mP4) with the pregnancy success of cows. The cows (n = 281) had 2.1 ± 0.1. lactations on average, were 151.6 ± 0.06 days postpartum, and were once tested with "Easy scan" ultrasound (IMV imaging, Scotland) at 30-35 d post-insemination. According to their reproductive status, cows were grouped into two groups: non-pregnant (n = 194 or 69.0% of cows) and pregnant (n = 87 or 31.0% of cows). Data concerning their BCS, mP4, MY, BHB, and LDH were collected each day from the day of insemination for 7 days. The BCS was collected with body condition score camera (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden); mP4, MY, BHB, and LDH were collected with the fully automated real-time analyzer Herd Navigator™ (Lattec I/S, Hillerød, Denmark) in combination with a DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden). Of all the biomarkers, three differences between groups were significant. The body condition score (BCS) of the pregnant cows was higher (+0.49 score), the milk yield (MY) was lower (-4.36 kg), and milk progesterone in pregnant cows was (+6.11 ng/mL) higher compared to the group of non-pregnant cows (p < 0.001). The pregnancy status of the cows was associated with their BCS assessment (p < 0.001). We estimated that cows with BCS > 3.2 were 22 times more likely to have reproductive success than cows with BCS ≤ 3.2.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Leite , Progesterona , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , L-Lactato Desidrogenase , Lactação , Gravidez , Suécia
4.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645583

RESUMO

Recording of the electrical activity from one of the smallest cells of a mammalian organism- a sperm cell- has been a challenging task for electrophysiologists for many decades. The method known as "spermatozoan patch clamp" was introduced in 2006. It has enabled the direct recording of ion channel activity in whole-cell and cell-attached configurations and has been instrumental in describing sperm cell physiology and the molecular identity of various calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and proton ion channels. However, recording from single spermatozoa requires advanced skills and training in electrophysiology. This detailed protocol summarizes the step-by-step procedure and highlights several 'tricks-of-the-trade' in order to make it available to anyone who wishes to explore the fascinating physiology of the sperm cell. Specifically, the protocol describes recording from human and murine sperm cells but can be adapted to essentially any mammalian sperm cell of any species. The protocol covers important details of the application of this technique, such as isolation of sperm cells, selection of reagents and equipment, immobilization of the highly motile cells, formation of the tight (Gigaohm) seal between a recording electrode and the plasma membrane of the sperm cells, transition into the whole-spermatozoan mode (also known as break-in), and exemplary recordings of the sperm cell calcium ion channel, CatSper, from six mammalian species. The advantages and limitations of the sperm patch clamp method, as well as the most critical steps, are discussed.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular , Dissecação , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flagelos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flagelos/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Perfusão , Progesterona/farmacologia , Soluções , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 338: 109402, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587916

RESUMO

Cisplatin is an important antineoplastic drug used in multiple chemotherapeutic regimens but unfortunately causes serious toxic effects as ovarian and uterine toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) against cisplatin-induced ovarian and uterine toxicity in female rats. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 8 in each). Control group received oral normal saline for 28 days; RSV group received RSV (10 mg/kg; daily) via oral gavage; CIS group received a single dose of CIS (7 mg/kg; i.p.) on the 21st day; (CIS + RSV) group received both RSV and CIS by the same schedules and doses of RSV and CIS groups, respectively. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in MDA level and a significant increase in both glutathione content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes GPx, SOD, and CAT in the tissues of the ovary and uterus of CIS + RSV group in comparison to that of CIS group (P<0.05), also there are significantly decreased tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes (NF-κB, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS), increased estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and decreased FSH serum levels in CIS + RSV group compared to CIS group (P < 0.05). Moreover, there is downregulation of tissues Cleaved Caspase-3, NF-κB and Cox-2 proteins as shown in Western blot analysis, also apoptosis was significantly inhibited, evidenced by downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Bcl-2 proteins, and the ovarian and uterine histological architecture and integrity were maintained in CIS + RSV group compared to CIS group. In conclusion, these findings indicate that RSV has beneficial effects in ameliorating cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the ovarian and uterine tissues of female rats.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Útero/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 89-95, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631879

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical outcomes of different treatment options on singleton short cervix and its influence factors. Methods: Totally 435 cases of singleton pregnancies who were diagnosed with short cervix (≤25 mm) between 12 to 33+6 gestational weeks in Peking University First Hospital from January 2018 to December 2018 were enrolled, including 21 cases with cervical length <10 mm, 414 cases with cervical length between 10 to 25 mm. The onset time was <24 gestational weeks in 106 cases, while 104 cases were at 24-29+6 gestational weeks and 225 cases of ≥30 gestational weeks. Gestational outcomes including delivery before 37 weeks, delivery before 34 weeks, neonatal birth weight (NBW) and adverse neonatal outcome (ANO) were compared among three treatment groups: rest group, progesterone group and cerclage group. Influence factors were also investigated. Results: (1) The incidence of short cervix in pregnancy was 7.07% (435/6 155), while 106 cases were at <24 gestational weeks (1.72%, 106/6 155), 104 cases (1.69%, 104/6 155) at 24-29+6 gestational weeks and 225 cases (3.66%, 225/6 155) at ≥30 gestational weeks. (2) In the group of cervical length <10 mm, rate of delivery before 37 and 34 weeks were 62% (13/21) and 57% (12/21) respectively. One case of progesterone treatment underwent miscarriage. Compared with rest group (n=8), delivery weeks [28.5 (25.0-40.0) vs 37.0 (28.0-40.0), P=0.020] and NBW [1 245 g (630-3 830 g) vs 2 648 g (1 560-3 830 g), P=0.028] were higher in cerclage group (n=9), while ANO was not statistically different (P>0.05). (3) In the group of cervical length ≥10 mm before 24 gestational weeks, the delivery weeks, incidence of delivery before 34 weeks, adjusted incidence of delivery before 37 weeks, NBW and ANO were not statistically different (P>0.05) among rest group (n=36), progesterone group (n=26) and cerclage group (n=34). In vitro fertilization (OR=11.97, 95%CI: 1.88-76.44, P=0.009), infection (OR=46.03, 95%CI: 5.12-413.58, P=0.001), sludge on sonography (OR=9.87, 95%CI: 1.69-57.60, P=0.011) and history of short cervix (OR=7.24, 95%CI: 1.04-50.24, P=0.045) were independent risk factors of preterm birth. (4) In the group of cervical length ≥10 mm and gestational weeks between 24-29+6, the delivery weeks, incidence of delivery before 37 weeks, incidence of delivery before 34 weeks, NBW and ANO were not statistically different (P>0.05) among rest group (n=52), progesterone group (n=34) and cerclage group (n=9). Infection was an independent risk factor of preterm birth (OR=56.40, 95%CI: 4.67-680.61, P=0.002). (5) Outcomes of 223 cases were relatively good in the group of cervical length ≥10 mm beyond 30 gestational weeks. The incidence of delivery before 34 weeks was 6.3% (14/223). The delivery weeks, incidence of delivery before 37 and 34 weeks, NBW and ANO were not statistically different (P>0.05) among 3 groups. Infection (OR=10.91, 95%CI: 2.21-53.96, P=0.003) and history of preterm birth (OR=8.63, 95%CI: 1.25-59.65, P=0.029) were independent risk factors of preterm birth. Conclusions: Short cervix is a common complication of pregnancy. Cervical cerclage is related with better outcome for patients with cervical length <10 mm. Neither progesterone nor cervical cerclage improves pregnancy outcome for >10 mm cervical length patients comparing with rest. Infection, sludge, in vitro fertilization, history of short cervix and history of preterm birth are independent risk factors of preterm birth in short cervix pregnancies.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Complicações na Gravidez/cirurgia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cerclagem Cervical/efeitos adversos , Colo do Útero/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Sutura
7.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 108-113, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631882

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical features of infertile women with non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Methods: The study enrolled 21 infertile women with non-classic 21-OHD in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2009 to December 2018. The clinical presentation, endocrine hormone, glucolipid metabolism and treatment outcome were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis of non-classic 21-OHD was comprehensively based on clinical and hormonal characteristics. Results: Among 21 cases, the age was (29.9±2.9) years, the mean age at menarche was (13.6±2.0) years, body mass index was (22.1±2.9) kg/m2, and 38% (8/21) had oligomenorrhea. Hirsutism was diagnosed in 3 cases (14%, 3/21). Clitoromegaly was seen in 14% (3/21) and polycystic ovarian morphology was found in 33% (7/21) of the patients. The mean serum level of basal progesterone was (11.3±21.0) nmol/L, with 48% (10/21) having high basal progesterone level; after therapy by glucocorticoid, the level of progesterone was (1.9±2.0) nmol/L. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentration was (66.4±123.6) nmol/L; after therapy by glucocorticoid, it was (2.4±1.8) nmol/L. In the study increased testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were present in 62% (13/21), 52% (11/21) and 43% (9/21), respectively; and 52% (11/21) of patients manifested androgen excess and basal progesterone elevation; androgen levels decreased after therapy by glucocorticoid. The pregnancy rate was 76% (16/21). Out of 19 pregnancies, 6/19 ended in spontaneous miscarriages. Conclusions: Infertile women with non-classic 21-OHD are characterized by hyperandrogenism and basal progesterone elevation, whereas gonad axis disorder is not apparent. After no response to conventional therapy, adult infertile women with non-classic 21-OHD could achieve a desirable pregnancy outcome with proper treatment of glucocorticoid.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Adolescente , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1300: 113-136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523431

RESUMO

Anovulatory disorder comprises around 30% of female infertility. The origin of ovulatory failure is rooted in pituitary FSH secretion. Any factor or process that disrupts the finely tuned interactions of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis can potentially lead to anovulation. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified anovulatory disorders into three categories: hypothalamic-pituitary failure, hypothalamic-pituitary dysregulation, and ovarian failure. Due to industrial development, environmental pollution, and global warming, the human living environment has undergone tremendous changes. Industrial waste, noise, pesticides, fertilizers, and vehicular emission are visible pollutants responsible for environmental contamination and ill effects on health of all living systems. A considerable body of research suggests that chemical exposures in the environment or workplace may be associated with endocrine disruption of the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, or elimination of natural hormones. For instance, some advanced biological mechanisms suggest that heavy metals may affect progesterone production, which possibly disturbs endocrine function in pregnant women. On the other hand, our lifestyle factors have also changed accordingly, which greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as nutrition, weight, exercise, and psychological stress can have substantial effects on female ovulation.


Assuntos
Anovulação , Infertilidade Feminina , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progesterona
9.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(2): 171-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy development may have a strong relationship with hormone treatments during in vitro fertilization and hormonal changes during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the frequency of papules and plaques of pregnancy and related factors in in vitro fertilization pregnancies and spontaneous pregnancies. METHODS: In this study, 517 in vitro fertilization pregnancies and 1253 spontaneous pregnancies were retrospectively reviewed for papules and plaques of pregnancy frequency. The diagnosis of papules and plaques of pregnancy was performed by referral to the dermatology department and according to the typical clinical manifestations of the disease. RESULTS: The papules and plaques of pregnancy was more common in all in vitro fertilization pregnancies (including single pregnancies) than in spontaneous pregnancies. Age, Rh positivity, mother weight gain, onset of disease during gestation, duration of disease, birth weight and the frequency of male fetus were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). The rate of multiple pregnancies was higher in in vitro fertilization pregnancies with papules and plaques of pregnancy than in vitro fertilization pregnancies without papules and plaques of pregnancy (p<0.001). Duration of progesterone treatment was also significantly longer in in vitro fertilization pregnancies with papules and plaques of pregnancy compared to in vitro fertilization pregnancies without papules and plaques of pregnancy (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: The limitations of the study were the retrospective and single-centered design. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that increased progesterone dosage or prolonged treatment may play a role in the pathogenesis papules and plaques of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fase Luteal , Urticária , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(3): E453-E466, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427050

RESUMO

Progesterone acts directly on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα)-dependent signaling to rapidly decrease cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations and induce muscle relaxation. However, it is not known whether this progesterone action involves uptake of Ca2+ by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) and increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity. The present results show that treatment of cultured human VSMCs with progesterone and the selective mPR agonist Org OD-02-0 (OD 02-0) but not with the nuclear PR agonist R5020 increased SERCA protein expression, which was blocked by knockdown of mPRα with siRNA. Moreover, treatments with progesterone and OD 02-0, but not with R5020, increased phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation, which would result in disinhibition of SERCA function. Progesterone and OD 02-0 significantly increased Ca2+ levels in the SR and caused VSMC relaxation. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a SERCA inhibitor, and by knockdown of SERCA2 with siRNA, suggesting that SERCA2 plays a critical role in progesterone induction of VSMC relaxation. Treatment with inhibitors of inhibitory G proteins (Gi, NF023), MAP kinase (AZD 6244), Akt/Pi3k (wortmannin), and a Rho activator (calpeptin) blocked the progesterone- and OD 02-0-induced increase in Ca2+ levels in the SR and SERCA expressions. These results suggest that the rapid effects of progesterone on cytosolic Ca2+ levels and relaxation of VSMCs through mPRα involve regulation of the functions of SERCA2 and PLB through Gi, MAP kinase, and Akt signaling pathways and downregulation of RhoA activity.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The rapid effects of progesterone on cytosolic Ca2+ levels and relaxation of VSMCs through mPRα involve regulation of the functions of SERCA2 and PLB through Gi, MAP kinase, and Akt signaling pathways and downregulation of RhoA activity.


Assuntos
Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptores de Progesterona/fisiologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Relaxamento Muscular/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Artérias Umbilicais/citologia , Artérias Umbilicais/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Umbilicais/metabolismo
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(4): 583-588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507346

RESUMO

This study was aimed at evaluating the possible interference of formulated glyphosate to the endocrine control of ovarian growth exerted by progesterone, in the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata. The addition of Roundup Ultramax® (0.2 mg/L of glyphosate in the incubation medium) was able to potentiate the stimulating effect of progesterone on total vitellogenic protein (Vg) content of ovarian pieces from crabs. Moreover, the sole addition of mifepristone (antagonist of progesterone receptors) was able to produce a decrement of the Vg content, which was not reverted by the addition of Roundup. A similar result was confirmed by means of histological analysis, which showed that mifepristone, both alone and in combination with Roundup, inhibited ovarian maturation, while Roundup alone increased it, in terms of a higher proportion of vitellogenic oocytes. We conclude that Roundup could stimulate the progesterone secretion exerted by the ovary and/or could act as a partial agonist of this hormone in the same tissue.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Herbicidas , Animais , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Ovário , Progesterona
12.
Animal ; 15(1): 100048, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516003

RESUMO

The roles of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the corpus luteum (CL) function and its modulatory effect on prostaglandin (PG) F2α during the bovine estrous cycle were studied using the following design of in vivo and in vitro experiments: (1) effects of FGF2 and FGF receptor 1 inhibitor (PD173074) on bovine CL function in the early (PGF2α-resistant) and mid (PGF2α-responsive) luteal stage in vivo, (2) the modulatory effect of FGF2 on PGF2α action during the luteal phase in vivo and (3) effects of FGF2 and PD173074 on bovine CL secretory function in vitro. Cows were treated by injection into the CL with: (1) saline (control), (2) FGF2, (3) PD173074, (4) FGF2 followed by intramuscular (i.m.) PGF2α, (5) PD173074 followed by i.m. PGF2α and (6) i.m. PGF2α as a positive control. For in vitro experiments, CL explants were treated with the aforementioned factors. Progesterone (P4) concentrations of blood samples or culture media were determined by radioimmunoassay. Relative mRNA expressions of the genes involved in angiogenesis and steroidogenesis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Although FGF2 treatment on day 4 of the estrous cycle did not change the cycle length, FGF2 with PGF2α decreased the P4 concentrations observed during the estrous cycle compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, FGF2 treatment on day 10 prolonged CL function as indicated by a significantly greater concentration of P4 on day 21 compared to the control group. In the in vitro study, FGF2 decreased cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (CYP11A1) and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) mRNA expression (P < 0.01) and decreased P4 production in the early-stage CL (P < 0.001). However, FGF2 + PGF2α or PGF2α alone resulted in an elevation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11A1 mRNA expression and P4 secretion in the early-stage CL (P < 0.01). In the mid-luteal phase, FGF2 upregulated CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 mRNA expression (P < 0.01), while FGF2 + PGF2α increased only HSD3B1 mRNA expression (P < 0.001). In conclusion, FGF2 seems to play a modulatory role in CL development or luteolysis, differentially regulating steroidogenesis and angiogenic factors as well as PGF2α actions.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Animais , Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Luteólise , Progesterona , Prostaglandinas F
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144570, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486178

RESUMO

The ever-increasing use of synthetic hormones, especially progestins, for medical applications has drawn growing concerns due to their potential endocrine disrupting effects that may diminish the reproductive outputs of aquatic organisms. Using mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a model species, we tested whether gestodene (GES), a commonly used progestin, can alter the expressions of genes associated with sex hormone synthesis and cause ensuing changes in morphological features, courtship behaviour and oocyte development. After exposing to GES at environmentally relevant concentrations (2.96, 32.9 and 354 ng L-1) for 40 days, we found that GES, especially at 354 ng L-1, induced masculinization of female fish, indicated by the reduced body weight to length ratio and development of gonopodia (i.e. anal fins of male fish). Thus, the males showed less intimacy and mating interest towards the GES-exposed females, indicated by the reduced time spent on attending, following and mating behaviours. While oocyte development was seemingly unaffected by GES, spermatogonia were developed in the ovary. All the aforementioned masculinizing effects of GES were associated with the increased testosterone level and decreased estradiol level, driven by upregulating androgen receptor genes (Arα and Arß). Overall, our findings suggest that progestins could undermine the reproductive potential of aquatic organisms and hence their persistence in the progestin-contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Corte , Ciprinodontiformes/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Masculino , Norpregnenos , Ovário , Progesterona
14.
Menopause ; 28(3): 247-254, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The perimenopause is associated with increased hormone fluctuations and an elevated risk of depression. A number of predictors of depressive symptoms in the menopausal transition have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate a set of biopsychosocial predictors of depressive symptoms in perimenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, investigating 114 perimenopausal women (according to the STRAW criteria) aged 40-56 years, was conducted within the scope of the Swiss Perimenopause Study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the most accurate model predicting perimenopausal depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the German version of the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Validated questionnaires were used to examine psychophysiological complaints, stress, self-esteem, self-compassion, body image, and social support. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were assessed through saliva samples, and follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were determined through dried blood spot samples. Seven saliva samples per participant were used to investigate absolute levels and fluctuations of sex steroids. All other variables were measured once. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses revealed that E2 fluctuations (ß=0.15, P = 0.015), history of depression (ß=0.14, P = 0.033), menopausal symptoms (ß=0.47, P < 0.0001), perceived stress (ß=0.17, P = 0.014), body image (ß= -0.25, P = 0.014) and self-esteem (ß=-0.35, P < 0.0001) were predictive of perimenopausal depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.60). P4 fluctuations and absolute levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormone were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: E2 fluctuations were shown to be predictive of depressive symptoms in the perimenopause. Moreover, the presence of burdensome complaints and chronic stress as well as a poor self-evaluation seem to promote depressive symptoms in perimenopausal women.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Suíça/epidemiologia
15.
Harefuah ; 160(1): 13-18, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm labor is defined as delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Up to 17% of twin pregnancy are preterm. Arabin cervical pessary has been proven as preventing preterm labor in singleton pregnancies. The benefit of it in twin pregnancy is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of preterm delivery in twin gestation with short cervical length in Israel- one center utilized the combined treatment of Arabin cervical pessary and vaginal progesterone (study group) and the others utilized vaginal progesterone approach (control group). METHODS: Multi-center retrospective cohort study, including "Shamir", "Wolfson", "Shaare Zedek" and "Galilee" medical centers, between the years 2012-2016. Inclusion criteria were twin gestations and short cervical length (<25mm) between 16-28 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: The study group included 68 women, the control group 78 women. The study group had shorter cervical length at intervention in comparison to the control group (13.6 ± 5.9 vs. 16.5 ± 5.7, respectively, p = .002). The treatment started later for the study group compared to the control group (23.2 +2.2 vs 22.6 +3.0). CONCLUSIONS: Despite having shorter cervical length at recruitment, the rate of spontaneous delivery < 34-weeks' gestation was similar in both groups (36.8 vs. 37.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION: Considering the conclusion in this research it seems that the combination of the mechanical effect of the pessary by embracing the cervix, keeping the cervical mucus, bending it in a way that the pressure is towards the anterior cervical wall together with the progestative effect which increases the estrogen/progesterone ratio, creating uterine quiescence and keeping the structural connective tissue of the cervix have an added benefit. It seems that the combined use of Arabin cervical pessary and vaginal progesterone in twin pregnancy with short cervical length have a synergic effect which may have a benefit in preventing preterm labor. The combination of cervical pessary and progesterone does not negatively affect twin pregnancy outcome and does not cause preterm birth.


Assuntos
Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro , Administração Intravaginal , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel , Pessários , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503237

RESUMO

Blood sample collection from the caudal vena cava at the site of uterine-ovarian drainage provides a more exact evaluation of the concentration and pattern of secretion of uterine or ovarian secreted products for studies of reproductive processes in cyclic and pregnant cattle compared with samples collected from general circulation. This paper describes a thorough and updated procedure for cannulating the coccygeal vein into the caudal vena cava for the collection of serial blood samples at or near the site of uterine-ovarian drainage. Concentrations of progesterone were quantified in cows of different reproductive tract sizes with an active corpus luteum to assess the distance for proper catheter placement compared with circulating concentrations collected from the jugular vein. This procedure has a low risk for side effects, can be used effectively in pregnant animals with no major consequence to the viability of the pregnancy, and provides means for frequent collections up to 12 d.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo , Ovário , Animais , Cateterismo/veterinária , Bovinos , Drenagem/veterinária , Feminino , Gravidez , Progesterona
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 102, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417076

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at evaluating the differences of ovarian follicular dynamics and circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations between crossbred Holstein heifers that ovulated and did not ovulate after a P4-based synchronization protocol. Twenty-one crossbred (Holstein × Thai native) heifers with random stages of the oestrous cycle were subjected to the ovulation synchronization protocol, using an intravaginal P4-releasing device (Eazi-Breed CIDR®) for 7 days. Out of 21 CIDR-treated heifers, 14 ovulating heifers were classified as the ovulatory group and 7 non-ovulating heifers were considered the anovulatory group. The heifers having new wave emergence in ovulatory and anovulatory groups were 11/14 (78.6%) and 4/7 (57.1%), respectively. In ovulating heifers, the mean (± SEM) diameter of preovulatory follicle (PF, mm) was significantly larger, compared to non-ovulating heifers (7.21 ± 0.32 versus 4.04 ± 0.44; P = 0.001), while the mean (± SEM) follicular growth rates (mm/d) in non-ovulating heifers tended to be lower, compared to ovulating heifers (0.73 ± 0.17 versus 1.06 ± 0.08; P = 0.07). The mean (± SEM) circulating P4 concentration (ng/ml) throughout the CIDR protocol (0-10 days) in non-ovulating heifers was significantly higher, in comparison with ovulating heifers (2.82 ± 0.27 versus 1.83 ± 0.16; P = 0.02). However, no significant difference in the mean corpus luteum volume between groups was observed. In conclusion, the present results suggested that elevated circulating P4 concentrations and smaller PF diameters could cause ovulation failure in crossbred Holstein heifers, following a 7-day CIDR-based synchronization protocol.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 303(3): 615-630, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) is a new ovarian stimulation protocol that has been used over the last decade to enhance reproductive function. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether PPOS is as effective as conventional protocols (without GnRHa downregulation). METHOD: Search terms included "medroxyprogesterone", "dydrogesterone", "progestin-primed ovarian stimulation", "PPOS", "oocyte retrieval", "in vitro fertilization", "IVF", "ICSI", "ART", and "reproductive". The selection criteria were nonrandomized studies and randomized controlled studies. For data collection and analysis, the Review Manager software, Newcastle-Ottowa Quality Assessment Scale and GRADE approach were used. RESULTS: The clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different in either RCTs or NRCTs [RR 0.96, 95% CI (0.69-1.33), I2 = 71%, P = 0.81]; [RR 0.99, 95% CI (0.83-1.17), I2 = 38%, P = 0.88]. The live birth rates of RCTs and NRCTs did not differ [RCT: RR 1.08, 95% CI (0.74, 1.57), I2 = 66%, P = 0.69; NRCT: OR 1.03 95% CI 0.84-1.26), I2 = 50%, P = 0.79]. The PPOS protocol had a lower rate of OHSS [RR 0.52, 95% CI (0.36-0.75), I2 = 0%, P = 0.0006]. The secondary results showed that compared to the control protocol, the endometrium was thicker [95% CI (0.00-0.78), I2 = 0%, P = 0.05], the number of obtained embryos was higher [95% CI (0.04-0.65), I2 = 17%, P = 0.03] and more hMG was needed [in NRCT: 95% CI (307.44, 572.73), I2 = 0%, P < 0.00001] with the PPOS protocol. CONCLUSION: The PPOS protocol produces more obtained embryos and a thicker endometrium than the control protocol, with a lower rate of OHSS and an equal live birth rate. The PPOS protocol could be a safe option as a personalized protocol for infertile patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration at PROSPERO: CRD42020176577.


Assuntos
Didrogesterona/farmacologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Progestinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recuperação de Oócitos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Reprodução
19.
Microvasc Res ; 133: 104074, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949576

RESUMO

Angiogenesis, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critically involved, is an important factor in endometrial receptivity. Angio-miRNAs form a special class of microRNAs (miRNAs) that target angiogenic genes and regulate angiogenesis. Various studies have shown that ovarian stimulation and exogenous progesterone affect endometrial vascular density. The present research aimed to assess the impact of HMG/HCG and progesterone on miR-16-5p, VEGF protein expression, and angiogenesis in the mouse endometrium during the preimplantation period. Forty adult female mice were divided into four groups: 1) control, 2) ovarian stimulation (HMG and 48 h after HCG IP), 3) progesterone (progesterone IP for 3 days), 4) ovarian stimulation + progesterone (HMG and 48 h after HCG IP) + (progesterone IP for 3 days) groups.The mice were sacrificed 96 h following HCG administration. miR-16-5p, VEGF protein expression, and CD31-positive cell (Endothelial cell) density were specified.The results showed that endothelial cell density,VEGF protein, and miR-16-5p expression increased in all treatment groups, with the maximum increase belonging to the ovarian stimulation + progesterone group. This study provides evidence that ovarian stimulation and progesterone administration enhance endometrial angiogenesis through VEGF protein upregulation. Furthermore, except for miR-16-5p, other miRNAs and molecules appear to be involved in angiogenic pathways, thereby requiring further studies.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Endométrio/irrigação sanguínea , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Menotropinas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação , Progesterona/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111511, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254391

RESUMO

Decidualization, which endows the endometrium competency to adopt developing embryo and maintain appropriate milieu for following growth, is a pivotal process for human pregnancy. The delicate collaboration between ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone governs the process of decidualization and subsequent establishment of embryo implantation. Mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) is well known as endocrine disruptor due to its potent estrogenic activity. In this study, we investigated effects of ZEA on decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Results indicated that ZEA exhibited its inhibitory action through nuclear translocation of ERα. ZEA exposure led to dampened progress of decidualization, which could be attenuated by estrogen receptor antagonist. Notably, resveratrol (RSV) administration restored impaired decidualization process by induction of anti-oxidative gene glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3). This study provides novel insights into the mechanism underlying adverse effects of ZEA in human decidual stromal cells and suggests RSV a potential therapeutic candidate to alleviate ZEA-induced cytotoxicity during decidualization.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Decídua/efeitos dos fármacos , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Progesterona/farmacologia , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos
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