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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191731

RESUMO

One of the key challenges in real-time systems is the analysis of the memory hierarchy. Many Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis methods supporting an instruction cache are based on iterative or convergence algorithms, which are rather slow. Our goal in this paper is to reduce the WCET analysis time on systems with a simple lockable instruction cache, focusing on the Lock-MS method. First, we propose an algorithm to obtain a structure-based representation of the Control Flow Graph (CFG). It organizes the whole WCET problem as nested subproblems, which takes advantage of common branch-and-bound algorithms of Integer Linear Programming (ILP) solvers. Second, we add support for multiple locking points per task, each one with specific cache contents, instead of a given locked content for the whole task execution. Locking points are set heuristically before outer loops. Such simple heuristics adds no complexity, and reduces the WCET by taking profit of the temporal reuse found in loops. Since loops can be processed as isolated regions, the optimal contents to lock into cache for each region can be obtained, and the WCET analysis time is further reduced. With these two improvements, our WCET analysis is around 10 times faster than other approaches. Also, our results show that the WCET is reduced, and the hit ratio achieved for the lockable instruction cache is similar to that of a real execution with an LRU instruction cache. Finally, we analyze the WCET sensitivity to compiler optimization, showing for each benchmark the right choices and pointing out that O0 is always the worst option.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Heurística , Programação Linear , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Waste Manag ; 105: 211-222, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087539

RESUMO

Long-term planning of municipal solid waste management systems is a complex decision making problem which includes a large number of decision layers. Since all different waste treatment and disposal processes will show different responses to each municipal solid waste component, it is necessary to separately evaluate all waste components for all processes. This obligation creates an obstacle in the programming of mass balances for long-term planning of municipal solid waste management systems. The development of an ideal mixed integer linear programming model that can simultaneously respond to all essential decision layers including waste collection, process selection, waste allocation, transportation, location selection, and capacity assessment has not been made possible yet due to this important modeling obstacle. According to the current knowledge of the literature, all mixed integer linear programming studies aiming to address this obstacle so far have had to restrict many different possibilities in their mass balances. In this study, a novel mixed integer linear programming model was formulated. ALOMWASTE, the new model structure developed in this study, was built to take into consideration different process, capacity, and location possibilities that may occur in complex waste management processes at the same time. The results obtained from a case study showed the feasibility of new mixed integer linear programming model obtained in this study for the simultaneous solution of all essential decision layers in an unrestricted mass balance. The model is also able to provide significant convenience for the multi-objective optimization of financial-environmental-social costs and the solution of some uncertainty problems of decision-making tools such as life cycle assessment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Modelos Teóricos , Programação Linear , Resíduos Sólidos
3.
Neural Netw ; 122: 152-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683143

RESUMO

This paper mainly focuses on the filter design with ℓ1-gain disturbance attenuation performance for a class of discrete-time positive neural networks. Discrete and distributed time-varying delays occurring in neuron transmission are taken into account. Especially, the probabilistic distribution of distributed delays is described by a Bernoulli random process in the system model. First, criteria on the positiveness and the unique equilibrium of discrete-time neural networks are presented. Second, through linear Lyapunov method, sufficient conditions for globally asymptotic stability with ℓ1-gain disturbance attenuation performance of positive neural networks are proposed. Third, using the results obtained above, criteria on ℓ1-gain stability of the established filtering error system are presented, based on which a linear programming (LP) approach is put forward to design the desired positive filter. Finally, two examples of applications to water distribution network and genetic regulatory network are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the derived results.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Biológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Simulação por Computador , Programação Linear , Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134231, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677472

RESUMO

The improvement of diets from a nutritional and health perspective has been a critical policy objective in developing nations for the past few decades. However, the current stress that human populations are exerting on the planet has made it important to assess diets using environmental indicators, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to propose a methodology in which Life Cycle Assessment results linked to dietary patterns in Peru were combined with nutritional and economic data to optimize diets. For this, a linear programming model was built in which the environmental, nutritional and economic information on a set of 25 dietary patterns in Peru were optimized in order to achieve the environmentally best-performing diet that complies with economic and nutritional standards. The result of the proposed linear program allowed understanding the amount of each individual food product that should be consumed in each city that satisfies all the restrictions included in the model in order to attain the lowest GHG emissions possible. Results demonstrated that GHG reductions in food diets can be attained through optimization. For instance, in the case of Lima the obtained reduction was 6%, lowering the annual per capita footprint linked to food diets to 690 kg CO2eq, as compared to the current value of 736 kg CO2eq. From an economic perspective, results show that there are important disparities between cities in terms of increasing or decreasing prices of the market basket. Considering that in most areas of the country food purchase accounts for approximately 50% of household expenditure, it is plausible to assume that food choice is a main carrier to achieve GHG emission mitigations. In this context, the method constitutes a useful tool for policy-makers to push forward joint regulations to improve health-related issues linked to the food diet and food choice together with recommendations to lower the climatic impact of diets.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Humanos , Peru , Programação Linear
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 697-706, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855603

RESUMO

This study develops an input-output linear programming (IO-LP) model to identify a cost-effective strategy to reduce the economy-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China from 2020 to 2050 through a shift in the electricity generation mix. In particular, the fixed capital formation of electricity technologies (FCFE) is endogenized so that the capital-related CO2 emissions of various generation technologies can be captured in the model. The modeling results show that low-carbon electricity, e.g., hydro, nuclear, wind, and solar, is associated with lower operation-related CO2 emissions but higher capital-related CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired electricity. A scenario analysis further reveals that a shift in the electricity generation mix could reduce the accumulated economy-wide CO2 emissions in China by 20% compared to the business-as-usual (BAU) level and could help peak China's CO2 emissions by 2030. The emission reduction is mainly due to a drop in operation-related CO2 emissions of electricity, contributing to a decrease in accumulated economy-wide emissions by 21.4%. The infrastructure expansion of electricity, on the other hand, causes a rise in the accumulated emissions by 1.4%. The proposed model serves as an effective tool to identify the optimal technology choice in the electricity system with the consideration of both direct and indirect CO2 emissions in the economy.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Programação Linear , China , Carvão Mineral , Eletricidade , Centrais Elétricas
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 9, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802257

RESUMO

Solid waste is one of the important causes of the environmental crisis that negatively impacts human health throughout the world and is fast approaching a disaster level that will pose a direct threat to human life. As with all other environmental problems, the increase in solid waste production that goes hand in hand with growing population and rising consumption has become a focus of great concern. Along with these rising levels, the investment, management and maintenance of solid waste collection and transport vehicles is seeing a continual increase in financial outlay. It is clear from the budgets of local authority solid waste management systems, 65 to 80% of which are accounted for by domestic waste, that the collection and transport of solid waste is a high-cost process and that this expenditure can be significantly reduced by the reorganisation of solid waste collection routing schedules and the minimization of collection frequency. This study demonstrates a linear programming model in order to develop an optimal routing schedule for solid waste collection and transportation, thereby reducing costs to a minimum. The neighbourhood of Veysel Karani in the Haliliye District of Sanliurfa Province, Turkey, was specifically selected for this case study, having the suitable socio-economic and demographic variables to be representative of a metropolitan urban area. Firstly, the data regarding the municipal solid waste collection and transport routes were obtained from the local authority. Analysis and verification of these data were then performed. With the field study, these data were verified on-site, and the missing data were completed. Linear programming and geographic information system (GIS) analysis were used to determine the best route. Consequently, it is concluded that it is possible to save the route by 28% with GIS analysis and 33% with linear programming analysis according to the existing municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Programação Linear , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Cidades , Custos e Análise de Custo , Desastres/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/normas , Transportes , Turquia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/economia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783474

RESUMO

Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant women in rural or suburban households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be difficult. Usage of a linear programming approach can effectively generate diet optimization models that incorporate local and culturally acceptable menus. This study aimed to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves recommended nutrient intakes for pregnant women could be formulated from locally available foods in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the dietary intake of 78 pregnant women using a 24-h dietary recall and a 3-day food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost of raw foods that are frequently consumed. All linear programming analyses were done using Excel Solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that the menus designed from diet optimization models using locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for the seven food groups based on the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010 (MDG 2010) and the 14 nutrients based on Recommended Nutrient Intake 2017 (RNI 2017) in pregnant women. However, inadequacies remained for iron and niacin, indicating that these nutrients may require supplementation.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Gestantes , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Necessidades Nutricionais , Gravidez , Programação Linear , Recomendações Nutricionais
8.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 5: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728204

RESUMO

While gene expression profiling is commonly used to gain an overview of cellular processes, the identification of upstream processes that drive expression changes remains a challenge. To address this issue, we introduce CARNIVAL, a causal network contextualization tool which derives network architectures from gene expression footprints. CARNIVAL (CAusal Reasoning pipeline for Network identification using Integer VALue programming) integrates different sources of prior knowledge including signed and directed protein-protein interactions, transcription factor targets, and pathway signatures. The use of prior knowledge in CARNIVAL enables capturing a broad set of upstream cellular processes and regulators, leading to a higher accuracy when benchmarked against related tools. Implementation as an integer linear programming (ILP) problem guarantees efficient computation. As a case study, we applied CARNIVAL to contextualize signaling networks from gene expression data in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a condition that can lead to chronic kidney disease. CARNIVAL identified specific signaling pathways and associated mediators dysregulated in IgAN including Wnt and TGF-ß, which we subsequently validated experimentally. These results demonstrated how CARNIVAL generates hypotheses on potential upstream alterations that propagate through signaling networks, providing insights into diseases.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Programação Linear , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Software , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11504-11522, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587901

RESUMO

Water is essential in livestock production systems. In typical dairy production systems, 90% of the total water used by a dairy farm is attributed to feed production. Theoretically, ration manipulation is a method to potentially reduce the irrigation water needed for feed crops without dramatically increasing diet costs. However, published quantitative studies on the relationship between feed production and water use that are integrated with linear programming models are scarce. The overall objective of this study was to develop an optimization framework that could achieve a balance between minimization of dietary costs and dietary irrigation water usage, and that could be used as a framework for future research and models for various livestock production systems. Weighted goal programming models were developed to minimize the dietary costs and irrigation water usage for a hypothetical cow under 8 different environmental scenarios. The environmental conditions used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, including 2 atmospheric CO2 concentrations (400 and 550 ppm), 2 water years (dry and wet), and 2 irrigation methods (furrow and drip). A systematic weighting scheme was used to model the trade-off between minimizing diet cost and minimizing irrigation water use for feedstuffs. Each environmental condition generated a set of distinct diets, which each met the same nutrient requirements of the hypothetical cow but had a different water usage when the weighting scheme was changed from weighting minimum diet costs to minimum irrigation water usage. For water resource planning in areas of dairy production, this set of unique solutions provides the decision maker with different feeding options according to diet cost, water usage, and available feeds. As water was more constrained, dietary dry matter intake increased, concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, ether extract, and energy decreased, and the concentration of lignin increased because less nutritive but more water-saving feedstuffs were included in the diet. Mitigation costs of water usage were calculated from goal programming results and indicated that the potential value of water under water-limited conditions (e.g., in a drought region) was higher than that under water-sufficient conditions. However, a smaller increase in feed costs can initially significantly reduce water usage compared with that of a least-cost diet, which implies that the reduction of water usage through ration manipulation might be possible. This model serves as a framework for the study of irrigation water usage in dairy production and other livestock production systems and for decision-making processes involved in water resources planning in the broader area of animal production.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/economia , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Água Potável , Animais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Dieta/economia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Lactação , Necessidades Nutricionais , Programação Linear
10.
Waste Manag ; 100: 219-229, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546182

RESUMO

The mining industry is one of the world's massive scrap off-the-road (OTR) tire generators. Reverse logistics (RL) allows for a cost-effective treatment of residual items with environmentally friendly practices. This paper aims to design a RL network for large OTR tires discarded from scattered mining sites, which requires a substantial initial investment in tire downsizing equipment. Therefore, the on-site use of a single shared shredding resource set is proposed with a schedule of visits between mines. Our contribution is a mixed-integer linear programming model set to determine the OTR tires optimal network, including decisions regarding a tire-fuelled power plant location, tire shredding and transport amounts, and a shredding resource set schedule to maximize the profits of the RL network while considering whole waste tire stockpile limits per year. Results showed that the proposed RL network starting from mine shredding tires and supplying a power generation plant might be a profitable solution that could help mines to comply with the legal regulations and turn this waste into a positive economic value good. Environmental and social implications are the mitigation of scrap tires, an increased job demand triggered by power plants, and public health improvement in the vicinity of the mining sites.


Assuntos
Programação Linear , Custos e Análise de Custo
11.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505826

RESUMO

The high prevalence of undernutrition, especially stunting, in Ethiopia hampers the country's economic productivity and national development. One of the obstacles to overcome undernutrition is the relatively high cost of food for low economic groups. In this study, linear programming was used to (i) identify urban and rural nutritionally adequate food baskets (FBs) with the highest affordability for an Ethiopian family of five and (ii) create urban and rural FBs, optimized for cultural acceptability, which are affordable for a family with the lowest income. Nutritionally adequate rural and urban FBs with highest affordability cost as little as Ethiopian Birr (ETB) 31 and 38 (~USD 1.07 and 1.31), respectively, but have poor dietary diversity (16 and 19 foods). FBs that cost ETB 71.2 (~USD 2.45) contained 64 and 48 foods, respectively, and were much more similar to the food supply pattern reported by FAO (15% and 19% average relative deviation per food category). The composed FBs, which are affordable for the greater part of the Ethiopian population, may serve as a basis for the development of culturally acceptable food-based dietary guidelines. These guidelines would recommend a diet composed of approximately up to 60% cereals, up to 20% roots and tubers, 10% legumes, and 10% fruits and vegetables by weight, plus only a small share from animal foods.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/economia , Dieta/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Desnutrição/economia , Política Nutricional/economia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza/economia , Programação Linear , População Rural , População Urbana
12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408506

RESUMO

Picture fuzzy sets (PFSs) are comparatively a new extension of fuzzy sets which describe the human opinions that has more answers like acceptance, rejection, neutral and desist, which cannot be correctly presented in fuzzy sets (FSs) and intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). The PFSs are categorized by three objects, the degree of belonging, the degree of neutral belonging and the degree of non- belonging such that the total of these three degrees must not be more than one. So far, there is no such work presented in the literature which deals with unknown weights of criteria based on PFSs. In the present work, we have developed a linear programming (LP) model to find the exact weights from the given constraints of weights for the criteria and construct a modified distance based on similarity measure between picture fuzzy sets. Then we have utilized this similarity measure to achieve the best option in the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. Lastly, two practical examples for the selection of alternatives are presented to compare the obtained results with the existing similarity measures.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Lógica Fuzzy , Programação Linear
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438517

RESUMO

There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.


Assuntos
Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cultura , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Política Nutricional/economia , Programação Linear , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Suécia
14.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 40, 2019 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meeting nutrient intake recommendations may demand substantial modifications in dietary patterns, and may increase diet cost. Incentives for modifying one's dietary intake that disregard prices are unlikely to be effective in the general population, especially among low-income strata, due to the high percentage of income committed to food purchases. The aim of this study is to evaluate how much the nutrient content can be increased through a modeled diet, without any cost increase, for low-income Brazilian households. METHODS: Low-income households were selected from the Household Budget Survey (24,688 households) and National Dietary Survey (6,032 households, 16,962 individuals), from where we obtained food prices and consumption data. Food quantities were modeled using linear programming to find diets that meet nutritional recommendations in two sets of models: cost-constrained (the cost should not be higher than the observed diet cost) and cost-free. Minimum and maximum amounts of each food in the modelled diets were allowed at three levels of food acceptability: rigorous (least deviance from the current observed diets), moderate, and flexible (higher deviance from the current observed diets). RESULTS: We found no feasible solution that would accommodate all the nutritional targets. The most frequent limiting nutrients were calcium; vitamins D, E, and A; zinc; fiber; sodium; and saturated and trans-fats. However, increases in nutrient contents were observed, especially for fiber, calcium, copper, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. In general, the best achievement was obtained with cost-free models. Fruits and beans increased in all models; large increase in whole cereals was observed only in the flexible models; large increase in vegetables was observed only in the cost-free models; and fish increased only in the cost-free models. Reductions were observed for rice, red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets. The mean observed cost was US$2.16 per person/day. The mean cost in the cost-free models was US$2.90 (moderate), US$2.70 (rigorous), and US$2.60 (flexible). CONCLUSION: The complete nutritional adequacy is unattainable, although feasible changes would substantially improve diet quality by improving nutrient content without additional costs.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Pobreza , Programação Linear , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238506

RESUMO

Nutrient adequacy of young children's diet and best possible strategies to improve nutrient adequacy were assessed. Data from the Ethiopian National Food Consumption Survey were analysed using Optifood (software for linear programming) to identify nutrient gaps in diets for children (6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months), and to formulate feasible Food-Based Dietary Recommendations (FBDRs) in four regions which differ in culture and food practices. Alternative interventions including a local complementary food, micronutrient powders (MNPs), Small quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement (Sq-LNS) and combinations of these were modelled in combination with the formulated FBDRs to compare their relative contributions. Risk of inadequate and excess nutrient intakes was simulated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method and the full probability approach. Optimized local diets did not provide adequate zinc in all regions and age groups, iron for infants <12 months of age in all regions, and calcium, niacin, thiamine, folate, vitamin B12 and B6 in some regions and age-groups. The set of regional FBDRs, considerably different for four regions, increased nutrient adequacy but some nutrients remained sub-optimal. Combination of regional FBDRs with daily MNP supplementation for 6-12 months of age and every other day for 12-23 months of age, closed the identified nutrient gaps without leading to a substantial increase in the risk of excess intakes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Programação Linear , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248096

RESUMO

The quality of dietary patterns can be optimized using a mathematical technique known as linear programming (LP). LP methods have rarely been applied to individual meals. The present LP models optimized the breakfast meal for those participants in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 who ate breakfast (n = 11,565). The Nutrient Rich Food Index (NRF9.3) was a measure of diet quality. Breakfasts in the bottom tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T1) were LP-modeled to meet nutrient requirements without deviating too much from current eating habits. Separate LP models were run for children and for adults. The LP-modeled breakfasts resembled the existing ones in the top tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T3), but were more nutrient-rich. Favoring fruit, cereals, and dairy, the LP-modeled breakfasts had less meat, added sugars and fats, but more whole fruit and 100% juices, more whole grains, and more milk and yogurt. LP modeling methods can build on existing dietary patterns to construct food-based dietary guidelines and identify individual meals and/or snacks that need improvement.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Ingestão de Energia , Valor Nutritivo , Programação Linear , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 546, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor dietary habits have been identified as one of the cancer risks factors in various epidemiological studies. Consumption of healthy and balance diet is crucial to reduce cancer risk. Cancer prevention food plan should consist of all the right amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients. Although dietary habits could be changed, affordability of healthy foods has been a major concern, as the price of healthy foods are more expensive the unhealthy counterparts. METHODS: Therefore, using linear programming, this study is aimed to develop a healthy and balanced menu with minimal cost in accordance to individual needs that could in return help to prevent cancer. A cross sectional study involving 100 adults from a local university in Kuala Lumpur was conducted in 3 phases. The first phase is the data collection for the subjects, which includes their socio demographic, anthropometry and diet recall. The second phase was the creation of a balanced diet model at a minimum cost. The third and final phase was the finalization of the cancer prevention menu. Optimal and balanced menus were produced based on respective guidelines of WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research) 2007, MDG (Malaysian Dietary Guidelines) 2010 and RNI (Recommended Nutrient Intake) 2017, with minimum cost. RESULTS: Based on the diet recall, most of subjects did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake for fiber, calcium, potassium, iron, B12, folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and beta-carotene. While, the intake of sugar (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%) and sodium (2585 ± 544 g) was more than recommended. From the optimization model, three menus, which met the dietary guidelines for cancer prevention by WCRF/AICR 2007, MDG 2010 and RNI 2017, with minimum cost of RM7.8, RM9.2 and RM9.7 per day were created. CONCLUSION: Linear programming can be used to translate nutritional requirements based on selected Dietary Guidelines to achieve a healthy, well-balanced menu for cancer prevention at minimal cost. Furthermore, the models could help to shape consumer food choice decision to prevent cancer especially for those in low income group where high cost for health food has been the main deterrent for healthy eating.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Programação Linear , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/economia , Dieta Saudável/economia , Fibras na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 300, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a considerable number of proteins operate as multiprotein complexes and not on their own, organism-wide studies so far are only able to quantify individual proteins or protein-coding genes in a condition-specific manner for a sizeable number of samples, but not their assemblies. Consequently, there exist large amounts of transcriptomic data and an increasing amount of data on proteome abundance, but quantitative knowledge on complexomes is missing. This deficiency impedes the applicability of the powerful tool of differential analysis in the realm of macromolecular complexes. Here, we present a pipeline for differential analysis of protein complexes based on predicted or manually assigned complexes and inferred complex abundances, which can be easily applied on a whole-genome scale. RESULTS: We observed for simulated data that results obtained by our complex abundance estimation algorithm were in better agreement with the ground truth and physicochemically more reasonable compared to previous efforts that used linear programming while running in a fraction of the time. The practical usability of the method was assessed in the context of transcription factor complexes in human monocyte and lymphoblastoid samples. We demonstrated that our new method is robust against false-positive detection and reports deregulated complexomes that can only be partially explained by differential analysis of individual protein-coding genes. Furthermore we showed that deregulated complexes identified by the tool potentially harbor significant yet unused information content. CONCLUSIONS: CompleXChange allows to analyze deregulation of the protein complexome on a whole-genome scale by integrating a plethora of input data that is already available. A platform-independent Java binary, a user guide with example data and the source code are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/complexchange/ .


Assuntos
Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Software , Benchmarking , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Feminino , Humanos , Programação Linear , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 279-287, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003705

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to improve sweet bread (R1) nutritionally by partially replacing the wheat flour with other non-traditional flours through linear programming. Chemical Score, lipid profile, microbiological quality and acceptability were determined. Both recipes, R2 and R3, were formulated according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and R3 according to the maximum amounts of flours that impart negative sensory attributes, as well. The resulting proportions were: wheat/broad bean/chia/ amaranth flours 64/22/13/0 (R2) and 83/2/4/11 (R3). The obtained products presented adequate contributions of proteins and lipids, while fiber increased significantly. The Chemical Score increased from 46% (R1) to 95% (R2) and to 91% (R3) respectively, and the fatty acids ratio ω3: ω6 improved. R2 was not sensorially accepted while R3 presented high acceptability in adults and school-aged children. Recipe R3 could be included in school menus to improve children's nutritional status.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue mejorar nutricionalmente un pan dulce (R1), reemplazando parcialmente la harina de trigo con otras harinas no tradicionales a través de la programación lineal. Se determinó la puntuación química, el perfil lipídico, la calidad microbiológica y la aceptabilidad. Ambas recetas enriquecidas nutricionalmente, R2 y R3, se formularon de acuerdo a pautas dietéticas estadounidenses; y para R3, además, se tuvieron en cuenta las cantidades máximas de harinas que imparten atributos sensoriales negativos. Las proporciones resultantes fueron harina de trigo/haba/chía/amaranto 64/22/13/0 (R2) y 83/2/4/11 (R3). Los productos obtenidos presentaron contenidos adecuados de proteínas y lípidos, mientras que la fibra aumentó significativamente. La puntuación química aumentó de 46% (R1) a 95% (R2) y a 91% (R3) respectivamente, y la relación de ácidos grasos ω3: ω6 mejoró. R2 no fue aceptado sensorialmente, mientras que R3 presentó alta aceptabilidad en adultos y niños en edad escolar. La receta R3 podría incluirse en los menús escolares para mejorar el estado nutricional de los niños.


Assuntos
Programação Linear , Pão , Alimentos Fortificados , Farinha , Percepção Gustatória
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0213652, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042709

RESUMO

One of the primary concerns in investment planning is to determine the number of shares for asset with relatively high net value of share such as Berkshire Hathaway on Stock market. Traditional asset allocation methods like Markowitz theorem gives the solution as a percentage and this ratio may suggest allocation of half of a share on the market, which is impractical. Thus, it is necessary to propose a method to determine the number of shares for each asset. This paper presents a knapsack based portfolio selection model where the expected returns, prices, and budget are characterized by interval values. The study determines the priority and importance of each share in the proposed model by extracting the interval weights from an interval comparison matrix. The resulted model is converted into a parametric linear programming model in which the decision maker is able to determine the optimism threshold. Finally, a discrete firefly algorithm is designed to find the near optional solutions in large dimensions. The proposed study is implemented for some data from the US stock exchange.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Incerteza , Algoritmos , Programação Linear
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