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2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(12): 4945-4956, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295513

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic revealed a concrete and immediate threat to food and nutrition security (FNS), especially for vulnerable groups. This study aimed to identify government strategies implemented in Brazil to provide the Human Right to Adequate and Healthy Food in high social vulnerability contexts during the Covid-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out, with analysis of official documents published between March 20 and July 30, 2020, by the Federal Government, Federal District, Brazilian states, and capitals, focusing on measures to ensure availability and physical or financial access to food. Strategies implemented mainly involve food distribution and minimum income assurance. The following were implemented: Basic Emergency Income (Federal Government); Food Acquisition Program (PAA), and emergency financial aid (states); emergency food donation programs (states and municipalities). Existing measures were adapted to the pandemic, such as the National School Food Program (PNAE), the National Food Acquisition Program (PAA), and the distribution of food and staple food baskets. While essential, these strategies have limited scope and are insufficient to ensure FNS.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Emergências , Financiamento Governamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Alimentar/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Alimentar/organização & administração , /legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Renda , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Áreas de Pobreza
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was motivated by the need to understand the high number of deaths caused by COVID-19 in the global pandemic declared since December 2019, and how it impacted differently in European countries. The hypothesis was that less investment in the public health system, the number of doctors per inhabitant and the number of hospital beds available to the population led to a higher number of deaths after the arrival of COVID-19 in each country studied. The objective was to analyze the relationship between the number of deaths from COVID-19 in the global pandemic declared since December 2019 and health policies and investment in European countries. METHODS: A research study was conducted in which a total of six variables were analyzed with official and contrasted data: public health expenditure per capita; doctors per 1,000 inhabitants; number of beds per 1,000 people; deaths from COVID-19 per million inhabitants; number of tests to detect COVID-19 per 1,000 inhabitants; and GINI Coefficient to measure the degree of social inequality in each country. It was carried out in 30 European countries. Frequency and correlation analyses were carried out (Pearson). RESULTS: Five countries were found, which gave values above 300 deaths per million (data from April 27, 2020): United Kingdom; (305.39), France (350.16), Italy (440.67), Spain (495.99) and Belgium (612.1). Precisely, in the countries that recorded the most deaths (United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain and Belgium) on April 27, we did not find high values of TEST performance. In our analysis, we found that the lower the investment of public spending in health (per capita), the higher the number of deaths per COVID-19 per million inhabitants, the lower the coverage of hospital beds, and the lower the number of doctors. Finally, we found that the lower the expenditure on public health, the higher the GINI coefficient (thus greater social inequality). CONCLUSIONS: A negative effect in terms of deaths was detected when investment in public health was lower; the higher number of deaths from COVID-19 was correlated (p<0.005) with greater social inequality (GINI coefficient) and with lower investment in public health (p<0.001); this had an impact on the lower number of available beds and low physician coverage per 1,000 inhabitants.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Política de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Política , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Financiamento Governamental , Política de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública/economia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving access and quality in health care is a pressing issue worldwide and pay for performance (P4P) strategies have emerged as an alternative to enhance structure, process and outcomes in health. In 2011, Brazil adopted its first P4P scheme at national level, the National Programme for Improving Primary Care Access and Quality (PMAQ). The contribution of PMAQ in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals related to maternal and childcare remains under investigated in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of PMAQ with the provision of maternal and childcare in Brazil, controlling for socioeconomic, geographic and family health team characteristics. METHOD: We used cross-sectional quantile regression (QR) models for two periods, corresponding to 33,368 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in the first cycle and 39,211 FHTs in the second cycle of PMAQ. FHTs were analysed using data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (SIAB and CNES) and the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE). RESULTS: The average number of antenatal consultations per month were positively associated with PMAQ participating teams, with larger effect in the lower tail (10th and 25th quantiles) of the conditional distribution of the response variable. There was a positive association between PMAQ and the average number of consultations under 2 years old per month in the 10th and 25th quantiles, but a negative association in the upper tail (75th and 90th quantiles). For the average number of physician consultations for children under 1 year old per month, PMAQ participating teams were positively associated with the response variable in the lower tail, but different from the previous models, there is no clear evidence that the second cycle gives larger coefficients compared with first cycle. CONCLUSION: PMAQ has contributed to increase the provision of care to pregnant women and children under 2 years at primary healthcare level. Teams with lower average number of antenatal or child consultations benefited the most by participating in PMAQ, which suggests that PMAQ might motivate worse performing health providers to catch up.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Reembolso de Incentivo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/economia , Recém-Nascido , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
7.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(12): 2127-2135, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051176

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has generated a need to rapidly increase online consulting in secondary care, an area in which it has previously been underutilised. We sought to review the guidance on conducting remote consultations and found that while there is a large amount of information about the implementation of remote consultations at an organisation level, there is a paucity of high-quality papers considering the guidelines for online consultations alongside practical advice for their implementation at the individual level. We reviewed guidelines from reputable medical sources and generated practical advice to assist practitioners to perform safe and effective video consultation. Additionally, we noted reports in the literature of a lack of transparency and resulting confusion regarding the choice of telemedicine platforms. We, therefore, sought to summarise key characteristics of a number of major telemedicine platforms. We recognised a lack of clarity regarding the legal status of performing remote consultations, and reviewed advice from medico-legal sources. Finally, we address the sources of these individual uncertainties, and give recommendations on how these might be addressed systematically, so the practitioners are well trained and competent in the use of online consultations, which will inevitably play an increasingly large role in both primary and secondary care settings in the future.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Contraindicações , Médicos Hospitalares , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Consulta Remota/legislação & jurisprudência , Consulta Remota/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963679

RESUMO

The developing world is facing a serious problem of tuberculosis (TB) since ages. The condition is really profound in resource-constrained countries. The situation in some of the high TB burden countries is so grave that there are huge numbers of TB patients and deaths due to TB. TB control in most of the countries is done by the national TB control programs. In India, this is popularly known as the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). The RNTCP comes under the umbrella of the national health mission. The main components of RNTCP are directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and DOTS-Plus. The effective and adequate implementation of the RNTCP is the most effective solution to control the ever growing cases of TB. The present situation, as detailed in the WHO global annual TB report, with ever-rising cases of various categories of TB is really scary and demands prompt attention. In this paper, the authors highlight the important issues related to the RNTCP in India. The main motto of writing this paper was to address the challenges associated with the organizational structure of the national TB control program of India and to suggest solutions for the same. The authors believe that these challenges could pose a serious threat to the efforts aimed at TB elimination from India. Besides, this paper will serve as a tool to modify and/or to formulate new guidelines for the betterment of the program. Also, the challenges detailed here are usually common in the other high TB burden countries of the world and this will help the program managers worldwide.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Humanos , Índia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3465-3474, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876270

RESUMO

This work aims to systematize a set of scientific evidence presented in international papers that identify the main problems affecting health professionals directly involved in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and point out actions and strategies for the protection and healthcare of these professionals. The risk of infection is the main issue and has led to absence from work, illness, death, and intense psychological distress, expressed in generalized anxiety and sleep disorders, fear of becoming ill and infecting colleagues and relatives. In the Brazilian reality, this work revives the analysis of the chronic problems affecting health workers, resulting from the underfinancing of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), the sector's spending freeze, the deterioration of services and workforce's insecurity, and points out the acute challenges of work management and staff training, given the expanded hospital bed infrastructure and reorganization of the work process in primary care to face the pandemic, emphasizing the necessary measures for the protection and promotion of the physical and mental health of health professionals and workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
11.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(12): 2121-2126, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978107

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented demand on healthcare resources globally. In the light of the arrival of a novel contagious and life-threatening virus, the NHS has responded by making difficult decisions to maintain care for patients and protect staff. The response has been frequently amended following updates in the UK Government policy as scientific understanding of the virus has improved. Our Plastic Surgery practice has adapted to mitigate risk to patients by reducing face-to-face contact, downgrading emergency procedures and deferring elective surgery where possible. This has inevitably resulted in a backlog in elective surgery and outpatient appointments. An assessment of the long-term health, social and economic impact of NHS wide service reconfiguration upon patient outcomes is yet to be seen. In this paper, we review the demonstrable early effects of service changes upon our unit and compare those to national and internationally published data. We also outline some of the considerations being made as we consider strategies to resume services in the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Can J Public Health ; 111(4): 473-476, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767269

RESUMO

The fear, grief, social isolation, and financial and occupational losses from COVID-19 have created a mental health crisis. Ontario's response highlights the shortcomings of its physician-only public healthcare system that limits public access to appropriate and sustainable mental healthcare. Specifically, Ontario's attempt to rapidly expand mental healthcare access in response to COVID-19 includes new Ontario Health Insurance Program (OHIP) billing codes that enable physicians to provide telephonic trauma counselling and patient self-serve online tools while psychologist and other registered mental health provider services have been largely left out of the provincial response. Why? Non-physician mental health providers operate outside of the provincial healthcare infrastructure, including the provincial payer (i.e., OHIP) that facilitated the provincial physician response. A physician-centric mental healthcare system limits public access to quality, sustainable, evidence-based mental health services because most physicians do not have the capacity, training, or desire to provide mental health services. To improve public access to needed mental health services, provinces should integrate psychologists and other registered mental health providers directly into their public health insurance systems. Integrated providers can be strategically and sustainably mobilized to respond to COVID-19 and future mental health crises.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 739, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Responding to stagnating neonatal mortality rates in Ghana, a five-year collaboration called Making Every Baby Count Initiative (MEBCI) was undertaken to improve the quality of newborn care provided around the time of birth. A multi-pronged approach was used to build health worker (HW) capacity in resuscitation, essential newborn care, and infection prevention using a curriculum built on the American Academy of Pediatric's (AAP) Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) and Essential Care for Every Baby (ECEB) modules with an added section on infection prevention (IP). METHODS: MEBCI used a training of trainer's approach to train 3688 health workers from district-level facilities in four regions in Ghana between June 2015 and July 2017. Prior to training, HWs familiarized themselves with the learning materials. Concurrently, MEBCI worked to improve enabling environments that would sustain the increased capacity of trained health workers. Knowledge and skills gained were tested using AAP's Knowledge checklist and validated single-scenario Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) tools. FINDINGS: Majority of HWs trained were midwives (58.8%) and came from district-level hospitals (88.4%). Most HWs passed the HBB OSCE (99.9%, 3436/3440). Age of doctors was negatively associated with HBB scores (r = - 0.16, p = 0.0312). Similarly, older midwives had lower HBB scores (r = - 0.33, p value < 0.001). Initiating ventilation within the Golden Minute was challenging for HWs (78.5% passed) across all regions. Overall, the pass rate for ECEB OSCEs was 99.9% in all regions. Classify newborn for further care and communicate plan to family were frequent challenges observed in Volta Region (69.5% and 72.0% pass rate respectively). HWs less than 40 years of age performed significantly better than health workers older than 40 years (p = 0.023). Age of only paediatricians was positively associated with ECEB scores (r = 0.77, p < 0.001) while age of midwives was negatively associated with ECEB scores (r = - 0.08, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: MEBCI's integrated HBB-ECEB-IP training resulted in significant mastery of the clinical knowledge and skills of HWs. Harmonization and standardization of the course delivery by trainers and having a core team to ensure training fidelity are essential to maintaining high quality while scaling a program nationally. FUNDING: Children's Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF).


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Tocologia/educação , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ressuscitação/educação
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 759, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One way to optimize the adoption and use of technological innovations is to understand how those involved perceive, assess and decide to use them. This study aims to analyze the attributes that influence the adoption and use of the Brazilian National Immunization Program Information System (NIPIS) from the perspective of vaccination room workers. METHODS: This is a mixed method research, and a quantitative cross-sectional analytical study, with concomitant triangulation of data, carried out in a region of Brazil by using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory. We used a questionnaire with 183 nursing professionals who work at vaccination rooms in 12 municipalities. To test the research model, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and SmartPLS 2.3.0 have been applied to estimate the model. The qualitative research had a descriptive-exploratory character, using interviews (n = 18) analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: The model proposed showed a mean correlation between the perceived attributes in the adoption and use of NIPIS. The results of the multiple regression indicated that the attributes "relative advantage" and "image" have a significant effect at 5% level (T > 1.97), positively influence the adoption and use of NIPIS; the attribute "voluntary use" negatively influences the adoption and use of the system; the attributes "experimentation", "compatibility", "profitability", and "ease of use" did not influence the adoption and use of NIPIS. Emphasis has been placed on aspects that weaken the adoption and use of NIPIS such as lack of good quality internet and resistance to use the technology by some professionals. Workers perceive the importance of NIPIS for the municipality and point out that technological innovation provides data at an individual level, inserted in real time, which makes it possible to assess vaccination coverage. Lack of an unstable internet compromises data release due to system slowness. CONCLUSIONS: The mixed method allowed an in-depth analysis of the adoption and use of NIPIS in the Western Health Macroregion of Minas Gerais State, and similarities were observed in the results. The attribute "relative advantage" is the one that most influences the adoption and use of NIPIS, which is the strongest predictor of innovation adoption rate.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Invenções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780775

RESUMO

Ghana Health Service (GHS) has strengthened community-based surveillance (CBS) to facilitate early detection and rapid reporting of health events of all origins. Since June 2017, GHS has employed an event-based surveillance approach at the community level in a phased manner. CBS coverage has broadened from 2 to 30 districts across Ghana. Through this effort, capacity was built across all administrative levels in these districts to detect, report, triage, and verify signals, and to perform risk assessment and investigate events. Data were collected and analyzed during an evaluation of initial 2-district implementation in March 2018 and during expanded 30-district implementation in March 2019. Between September 2018 and March 2019, 317 health events were detected through CBS. These events included vaccine-preventable disease cases, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks, clusters of unexpected animal deaths, and foodborne illness clusters. Eighty-nine percent of the 317 events were reported to district-level public health staff within 24 hours of detection at the community level, and 87% of all detected events were responded to within 48 hours of detection. CBS detected 26% of all suspected vaccine-preventable disease cases that were reported from implementing districts through routine disease surveillance. GHS strengthened CBS in Ghana to function as an early warning system for health events of all origins, advancing the Global Health Security Agenda.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Saúde Global , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Hemorrágica Aguda/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Hemorrágica Aguda/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Gana , Humanos , Governo Local , Medição de Risco/métodos
16.
J Optom ; 13(4): 257-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711965

RESUMO

The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), had profound impact in many countries and their health care systems. Regarding Portugal, a suppression strategy with social distancing was adopted, attempting to break the transmission chains, bending the epidemy curve and reducing mortality. These measures seek to prevent an eventual National Health Service over-running, enforcing the suspension of all elective and non-urgent health care. Despite the success in so far, there is a consensus on the need to recover the previous level of health care provision and further enhance it. The Portuguese National Health Service, as a public, universal access, health care system funded by the State proved, in this context, its importance and relevance to the Portuguese population. However, long standing issues, such as the pre pandemic over long waiting lists for hospital ophthalmology attendance, whose determinants are fully identified but still unmet, emerge amplified from this pandemic. The lack of primary eye care in the National Health Service is a significant bottleneck, placing a huge stress on hospital-based care. An exclusive ophthalmologist's center care was over-runned before pandemic and will be even more so. The optometrist's exclusion from differentiated, multisectoral and multidisciplinary eye care teams remains the main hurdle to overcome and insure universal eye care in Portugal. National Health Service highlights the consequences of an overcome model. Universal eye care more than ever demands an evidence-based, integrated approach with primary eye care, in the community, on time and of proximity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Oftalmologistas , Optometristas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Portugal/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal
17.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 670-679, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has demanded enormous adjustments to National Health Service provisions. Non-urgent out-patient work was initially postponed or performed virtually, but is now being re-established. In ENT surgery, aerosol-generating procedures pose a particular challenge in out-patient settings. OBJECTIVE: A rapid restructuring of ENT out-patient services is required, to safely accommodate aerosol-generating procedures and increase in-person attendances, whilst coronavirus disease 2019 persists. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively over four consecutive cycles. Two surveys were conducted. Results were analysed and disseminated, with recommendations for service restructuring implemented at cycle end-points. RESULTS: Out-patient activity increased four-fold, associated with a significant rise in aerosol-generating procedures during the study period. Mean aerosol-generating procedure duration dropped weekly, implying a learning curve. Service restructuring occurred at cycle end-points. CONCLUSION: Iterative data gathering, results analysis and outcome dissemination enabled a swift, data-driven approach to the restructuring of ENT out-patient services. Patient and staff safety was ensured, whilst out-patient capacity was optimised.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Otolaringologia/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reestruturação Hospitalar/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(5): e00088920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-531095

RESUMO

COVID-19 has created enormous challenges for health systems worldwide, with the rapidly growing number of deaths and critical patients with pneumonia requiring ventilatory support. Alternative methods to control the spread of the disease such as social isolation, extreme quarantine measures, and contact tracing have been used around the world. However, these measures may not be totally effective to fight COVID-19, in step with the necessary national preparations to meet the new patient care demands. A wide range of digital technologies can be used to enhance these public health strategies, and the pandemic has sparked increasing use of telehealth. This field has grown considerably in Brazil in recent years. Still, despite the intense proliferation of recommendations and rules, until the current pandemic the country still lacked a fully consolidated regulatory framework. The emergence of COVID-19 marks a key moment in the expansion of applications and use of telehealth for improving the health system's response to the current crisis. The article discusses telehealth's contribution to the fight against COVID-19 and the recent initiatives triggered in Brazil as opportunities for the consolidation of telemedicine and improvement of the Brazilian Unified National Health System. The authors conclude that telehealth offers capabilities for remote screening, care and treatment, and assists monitoring, surveillance, detection, prevention, and mitigation of the impacts on healthcare indirectly related to COVID-19. The initiatives triggered in this process can reshape the future space of telemedicine in health services in the territory.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Consulta Remota/tendências , Telemedicina/legislação & jurisprudência , Telemedicina/métodos
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