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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738865

RESUMO

This eleventh national annual immunisation coverage report focuses on data for the calendar year 2017 derived from the Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) and the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. This is the first report to include data on HPV vaccine course completion in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) adolescents. 'Fully immunised' vaccination coverage in 2017 increased at the 12-month assessment age reaching 93.8% in December 2017, and at the 60-month assessment age reaching 94.5%. 'Fully immunised' coverage at the 24-month assessment age decreased slightly to 89.8% in December 2017, following amendment in December 2016 to require the fourth DTPa vaccine dose at 18 months. 'Fully immunised' coverage at 12 and 60 months of age in Indigenous children reached the highest ever recorded levels of 93.2% and 96.9% in December 2017. Catch-up vaccination activity for the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella-containing vaccine was considerably higher in 2017 for Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous adolescents aged 10-19 years (20.3% vs. 6.4%, respectively, of those who had not previously received that dose). In 2017, 80.2% of females and 75.9% of males aged 15 years had received a full course of three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Of those who received dose one, 79% and 77% respectively of Indigenous girls and boys aged 15 years in 2017 completed three doses, compared to 91% and 90% of non-Indigenous girls and boys, respectively. A separate future report is planned to present adult AIR data and to assess completeness of reporting.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Imunização , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Relatórios Anuais como Assunto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Sistema de Registros
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738867

RESUMO

Introduction: Maternal influenza vaccination was introduced in 2010 due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with influenza in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the maternal influenza vaccination uptake in Northern Territory public hospitals and identify gaps to improve uptake. Methods: Birth data from Northern Territory (NT) public hospitals obtained from the Perinatal Register for deliveries in 2016 were merged with vaccination records from the NT immunisation register. Results: There were 3,392 viable pregnancies in NT public hospitals in 2016 with 45.6% vaccination coverage against influenza. There was a statistically significant difference in coverage with 68.5% in Indigenous vs 31.7% in non-Indigenous deliveries (p < 0.001), yielding an odds ratio of 4.67 (95% CI 4.02, 5.42) for maternal influenza vaccination across Indigenous status. Influenza vaccination coverage for preterm births (< 37 weeks) was low especially in non-Indigenous mothers at 27.2% vs 65.05% in Indigenous mothers (p < 0.001). A distinct immunisation administration pattern was noted for 2016 with 58.9% of vaccinations occurring between April and June regardless of Indigenous status and maternal gestational age. This correlated with the annual influenza immunisation campaign by the NT and Commonwealth. Conclusion: A year-round maternal influenza vaccination campaign is crucial to avoid missed opportunities and increase vaccination protection for mother and baby. Antenatal influenza vaccination campaign with health care workers education and increasing patient awareness should continue throughout the year.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Northern Territory , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692797

RESUMO

The number of children who survive to adolescence is increasing in Nigeria, significantly due to the success of child survival programs, with immunization as a major theme. However, the national immunization schedule in Nigeria is presently restricted to early childhood with no attention paid to immunization in adolescence. Presently, the vaccines that are readily available for adolescents include tetanus toxoid which is normally administered to pregnant women, so necessarily includes adolescent mothers; and a few research programs which offers hepatitis B vaccines. Also, there are few Nigerian adolescents who access immunization as a requirement for travelling outside the country or as a result of parental effort. Knowledge and awareness about adolescent immunization is generally poor. Nigerian adolescents have been shown to be poorly protected from tetanus, rubella and hepatitis B which are vaccine preventable. Neonatal, childhood and adult tetanus, congenital rubella syndrome, cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are just few of the diseases whose incidence can be reduced with an effective adolescent immunization program. This will also ensure that the gains of childhood immunization is concretized and socio-economic losses as a result of vaccine preventable diseases are eliminated to create a healthy and vibrant workforce. There is an urgent need to build a viable adolescent immunization program in Nigeria as adolescents represent a window of opportunity to prevent diseases which affect both the younger and older age group. This can be extended to other developing countries as well.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1029-1033, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725710

RESUMO

Afghanistan and Pakistan are the only countries that continue to confirm ongoing wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission (1). During January 2018-September 2019 the number of WPV1 cases in Pakistan increased, compared with the number during the previous 4 years. This report updates previous reports on Pakistan's polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges (2,3). In 2018, Pakistan reported 12 WPV1 cases, a 50% increase from eight cases in 2017, and a 31% increase in the proportion of WPV1-positive sites under environmental surveillance (i.e., sampling of sewage to detect poliovirus). As of November 7, 2019, 80 WPV1 cases had been reported, compared with eight cases by the same time in 2018. An intensive schedule of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* implemented by community health workers in the core reservoirs (i.e., Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta) where WPV1 circulation has never been interrupted, and by mobile teams, has failed to interrupt WPV1 transmission in core reservoirs and prevent WPV1 resurgence in nonreservoir areas. Sewage samples have indicated wide WPV1 transmission in nonreservoir areas in other districts and provinces. Vaccine refusals, chronically missed children, community campaign fatigue, and poor vaccination management and implementation have exacerbated the situation. To overcome challenges to vaccinating children who are chronically missed in SIAs and to attain country and global polio eradication goals, substantial changes are needed in Pakistan's polio eradication program, including continuing cross-border coordination with Afghanistan, gaining community trust, conducting high-quality vaccination campaigns, improving oversight of field activities, and improving managerial processes to unify eradication efforts.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46835

RESUMO

A efetividade das vacinas contendo o componente sarampo é influenciada pela idade à vacinação, de tal forma que crianças vacinadas em idade menor do que 12 meses apresenta efetividade de 84% e aos 12 meses 92,5%


Assuntos
Vacinação , Programas de Imunização
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610771

RESUMO

Immunisation at the earliest appropriate age and high levels of vaccine coverage at milestone ages are important in preventing the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases. At the Central Coast Public Health Unit, the authors sought to determine if follow-up of children said by the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) to be overdue for vaccination improved both of these factors. In a quality improvement activity, monthly ACIR lists of overdue Central Coast children aged 9 to 10 months of age were examined. The study alternated three months of intervention with three months of no intervention. The intervention was designed to find evidence of vaccination, first from the last known provider, and then if this was unsuccessful, from the parent. If no information was available, a letter was sent to the parents. If the child was indeed vaccinated, the register was updated. If the child was missing any vaccinations, the parent(s) were encouraged to complete the schedule. On reviewing routinely-published quarterly ACIR data at three-monthly intervals for 24 months after the intervention (or non-intervention), timeliness of vaccination improved in the intervention cohort. Central Coast fully vaccinated rates diverged from NSW rates during the study. In addition, the ACIR quarters that contained two out of three months of intervention rather than one out of three months of intervention had the highest rates of fully vaccinated children. The authors concluded that the intervention improved both timeliness of vaccination and the proportion of fully vaccinated children.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Sistema de Registros
10.
Urologe A ; 58(11): 1353-1360, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659370

RESUMO

Effective vaccines against various urologically important diseases have been established for a long time, nevertheless, vaccination activities are generally underperformed in urology. Consistently low vaccination rates, e.g. for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and a widespread vaccination hesitancy characterize the situation especially in men. This article highlights the importance of various aspects of vaccinations in urology and focuses on the improvement of consultation techniques for vaccinations to increase the vaccination rate and acceptance in the future.


Assuntos
Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Urologia/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(42): 937-942, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647786

RESUMO

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1) calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage with all vaccines in the country's national immunization schedule by 2020. Building on previous analyses (2) and using the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates as of 2018, this report presents global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends, including vaccination dropout rates. According to these estimates, global coverage with the first dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP1) remained relatively unchanged from 2010 (89%) to 2018 (90%). Global coverage with the third DTP dose (DTP3) followed a similar global trend to that of DTP1, remaining relatively consistent from 2010 (84%) to 2018 (86%) (3). Globally, 19.4 million children (14%) were not fully vaccinated in 2018, and among them, 13.5 million (70%) did not receive any DTP doses. Overall, dropout rates from DTP1 to DTP3 decreased globally from 6% in 2010 to 4% in 2018. Global coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) remained between 84% and 86% during 2010-2018. Among countries that offer a second MCV dose (MCV2) during the second year of life, coverage increased from 19% in 2007 to 54% in 2018; among countries offering MCV2 to older age groups (children aged 3-14 years), coverage also increased, from 36% in 2007 to 69% in 2018 (3). Globally, the estimated difference in coverage with MCV1 and MCV2 in 2018 was 17%. However, among new and underused vaccines, global coverage increased from 2007 to 2018 for completed series of rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), and hepatitis B vaccine (HepB). To reach global vaccination coverage goals for vaccines recommended during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, tailored strategies that address local determinants for incomplete vaccination are needed, including targeting hard-to-reach and hard-to-vaccinate populations.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 813, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rubella is an RNA virus in the genus Rubivirus within the Matonaviridae family. Rubella remains a leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Most African countries including Liberia do not currently provide rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) in their immunization program. We analyzed the existing surveillance data to describe rubella cases and identify the at-risk population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive statistics on the suspected-measles case-based surveillance data that obtained from the national database. Suspected-measles cases who were negative and indeterminate for measles IgM and tested for rubella IgM were extracted from the database. We used only rubella IgM positive cases to calculate trends and percentages by person, place and time. The cumulative-percent curve was used to visually describe the age distribution of rubella cases. RESULTS: During 2017-2018, a total of 2027 suspected-measles cases with known laboratory results were reported; of which, 1307 were tested for rubella IgM. Among tested cases, 472 (36%) were positive, 769 (59%) were negative and 66 (5%) were indeterminate for rubella IgM. Female contributed 269 (57%) of the confirmed rubella cases respectively. The median age was 7 years with an interquartile range of 5-10 years. From the total rubella cases, 6 (1%) were under 1 year, 109 (23%) were 1-4 years, 207 (44%) were 5-9 years, 87 (18%) were 10-14 years and 56 (12%) were more than or equal to 15 years. Women in their reproductive-age contributed 23 (5%) of rubella cases with 17% positivity rate. Two-thirds or 307 (65%) of the cases were reported from February to May which is dry season in Liberia. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed that rubella was widely circulating in Liberia. Majority of the cases were reported among children < 15 years. However, rubella was also reported among women of reproductive age and infants < 1 year with no report of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Detail investigation of rubella cases among infants of < 1 year and women of reproductive age is important to uncover CRS. Establishment of CRS surveillance and the introduction of RCV in the immunization program are crucial to prevent rubella infection and avert the risk of CRS.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/diagnóstico , Vacina contra Rubéola/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/transmissão , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
14.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 496-503, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide insights into complexities of seeking access to state and federal cross-jurisdictional data for linkage with the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). We provide recommendations for improving access and receipt of linked datasets involving Australian Government-administered data. METHODS: We describe requirements for linking eleven federal and state data sources to establish a national linked dataset for safety evaluation of vaccines. The required data linkage methodology for integrating cross-jurisdictional data sources is also described. RESULTS: Extensive negotiation was required with 18 different agencies for 21 separate authorisations and 12 ethics approvals. Three variations of the 'best practice' linkage model were implemented. Australian Government approval requests spanned nearly four years from initial request for data, with a further year before ACIR data transfer to the linkage agency. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of immunisation registers with other data collections is achievable in Australia but infeasible for routine and rapid identification of vaccine safety concerns. Lengthy authorisation requirements, convoluted disparate application processes and inconsistencies in data supplied all contribute to delayed data availability. Implications for public health: Delayed data access for safety surveillance prevents timely epidemiological reviews. Poor responsiveness to safety concerns may erode public confidence, compromising effectiveness of vaccination programs through reduced participation.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/legislação & jurisprudência , Imunização , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistema de Registros , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Formulação de Políticas , Vacinas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522666

RESUMO

This tenth annual immunisation coverage report shows data for the calendar year 2016 derived from the Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) and the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. After a decade of being largely stable at around 90%, 'fully immunised' coverage at the 12-month assessment age increased in 2016 to reach 93.7% for the age assessment quarterly data point in December 2016, similar to the 93.4% for the age assessment quarterly data point in December 2016 for 60 months of age. Implementation of the 'No Jab No Pay' policy may have contributed to these increases. While 'fully immunised' coverage at the 24-month age assessment milestone decreased marginally from 90.8%, in December 2015, to 89.6% for the age assessment quarterly data point in December 2016, this was likely due to the assessment algorithm being amended in December 2016 to include four doses of DTPa vaccine instead of three, following reintroduction of the 18-month booster dose. Among Indigenous children, the gap in coverage assessed at 12 months of age decreased fourfold, from 6.7 percentage points in March 2013 to only 1.7 percentage points lower than non-Indigenous children in December 2016. Since late 2012, 'fully immunised' coverage among Indigenous children at 60 months of age has been higher than for non-Indigenous children. Vaccine coverage for the nationally funded seasonal influenza vaccine program for Indigenous children aged 6 months to <5 years, which commenced in 2015, remained suboptimal nationally in 2016 at 11.6%. Changes in MMR coverage in adolescents were evaluated for the first time. Of the 411,157 ten- to nineteen-year-olds who were not recorded as receiving a second dose of MMR vaccine by 31 December 2015, 43,103 (10.5%) of them had received it by the end of 2016. Many of these catch-up doses are likely to have been administered as a result of the introduction on 1 January 2016 of the Australian Government's 'No Jab No Pay' policy. In 2016, 78.6% of girls aged 15 years had three documented doses of HPV vaccine (jurisdictional range 67.8-82.9%), whereas 72.9% of boys (up from 67.1 % in 2015) had received three doses.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1286-1291, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489868

RESUMO

Background: By the end of 2017, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine had been introduced in 80 countries, but Nigeria proposes introducing the vaccine into her routine immunization program from late 2020 or early 2021. The current mode of HPV access in the country is through out-of-pocket purchase with only 1.4% of adolescent girls being vaccinated. Cervical cancer has remained the second highest cancer among women in Nigeria, and the incidence rate is significantly higher than the global rate. This study assessed the factors associated with HPV awareness and willingness to vaccinate daughters among mothers of female secondary school students in Abakaliki. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 290 mothers of female students selected through multistage sampling technique using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 42 ± 8 years, and 72.8% attained at least secondary education, while 37.2% were traders. Their awareness of HPV and uptake of cervical cancer screening were low, 42.8% and 9%, respectively. Although 89.1% were willing to vaccinate their daughters, only 6.9% of their daughters had ever received HPV vaccine. Lack of awareness on HPV vaccine and cost of purchase were the most cited reasons for low vaccine uptake. Education, screening status, mother-daughter vaccination status, and willingness to encourage others on HPV vaccine for daughters were significantly associated with HPV awareness. Conclusion: Most of the mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters with HPV vaccine, but they lack awareness and the financial resources for the access. There is an urgent need for vigorous enlightenment campaigns on HPV vaccine and cervical cancer screening. Adding HPV vaccine in the routine immunization program will improve universal access and address financial concerns.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46770

RESUMO

O sarampo é uma doença viral aguda, infecto-contagiosa, altamente transmissível que atinge com mais severidade populações de baixo nível sócio-econômico.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Epidemias , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola
19.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46762

RESUMO

Calendário de vacinação do SUS para cidadãos de todas as idades.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Sistema Único de Saúde , Vacinação
20.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46763

RESUMO

A imunização correta pode evitar essas doenças. A primeira dose da tríplice viral deve ser ministrada aos 12 meses de idade. Aos 15 meses, uma dose da vacina tetraviral (sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varíola), que corresponde à segunda dose da vacina tríplice e uma dose da varicela.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Vacinação , Programas de Imunização , Sistema Único de Saúde
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