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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-02-17. (OPS/FPL/IM/COVID-19/21-0001).
Não convencional em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53285

RESUMO

Le Groupe consultatif technique (GCT) de l’OPS sur les maladies évitables par la vaccination a tenu sa sixième réunion virtuelle spéciale le 16 novembre 2020 pour donner suite à la dernière réunion virtuelle spéciale tenue trois mois avant la pandémie de COVID-19. Les objectifs propres à cette réunion étaient de fournir une mise à jour épidémiologique concernant la COVID-19 et ses répercussions sur les programmes nationaux de vaccination dans les Amériques, d'examiner les recommandations du Groupe consultatif stratégique d’experts (SAGE) de l’OMS sur la vaccination relativement au cadre de valeurs et à la feuille de route visant à définir des groupes prioritaires pour l’utilisation des vaccins anti-COVID-19 dans un contexte d’offre limitée, d'informer les participants sur les derniers progrès réalisés via des éléments de planification de l’introduction des vaccins anti-COVID-19 et de discuter des principales activités prioritaires pour soutenir les pays de la Région.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Vacinação , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Epidemiologia , Pandemias , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(726): 353-357, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599412

RESUMO

Considerable efforts have been undertaken to quickly develop COVID-19 vaccines that protect vulnerable adults against severe disease and thus limit the socio-economic and public health impact of the current pandemic. To justify COVID-19 vaccination for the pediatric population, which rarely suffers from severe COVID-19, vaccines will need to have fully demonstrated safety and efficacy in preventing complications and viral transmission. This article summarizes the different vaccine platforms that are currently being tested and discusses practical and ethical aspects of childhood COVID-19 vaccination. It also examines the already deleterious effects of the pandemic on routine childhood vaccine coverage and insists on the imperative to vaccinate all children timely as recommended by national immunization programs.


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All countries are facing decisions about which population groups to prioritize for access to COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine products have been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Our objective is to define the key target populations, their size, and priority for a COVID-19 vaccination program in the context of China. METHODS: On the basis of utilitarian and egalitarian principles, we define and estimate the size of tiered target population groups for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, considering evolving goals as vaccine supplies increase, detailed information on the risk of illness and transmission, and past experience with vaccination during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. Sensitivity analyses considered higher vaccine coverages and scaled up vaccine delivery relative to the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: Essential workers, including staff in the healthcare, law enforcement, security, nursing homes, social welfare institutes, community services, energy, food and transportation sectors, and overseas workers/students (49.7 million) could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services in the early phase of a vaccination program. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. In later stages, the vaccination program could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (784.8 million), in order to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. Given 10 million doses administered per day, and a two-dose vaccination schedule, it would take 1 week to vaccinate essential workers but likely up to 7 months to vaccinate 70% of the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework is general but could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program. Additionally, this exercise could be generalized to inform other national and regional strategies for use of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Polícia , Adolescente , Idoso , /mortalidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Prioridades em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Transportes , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 174-177, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539333

RESUMO

In December 2020, two COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) were authorized for emergency use in the United States for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Because of limited initial vaccine supply, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) prioritized vaccination of health care personnel† and residents and staff members of long-term care facilities (LTCF) during the first phase of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination program (1). Both vaccines require 2 doses to complete the series. Data on vaccines administered during December 14, 2020-January 14, 2021, and reported to CDC by January 26, 2021, were analyzed to describe demographic characteristics, including sex, age, and race/ethnicity, of persons who received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine (i.e., initiated vaccination). During this period, 12,928,749 persons in the United States in 64 jurisdictions and five federal entities§ initiated COVID-19 vaccination. Data on sex were reported for 97.0%, age for 99.9%, and race/ethnicity for 51.9% of vaccine recipients. Among persons who received the first vaccine dose and had reported demographic data, 63.0% were women, 55.0% were aged ≥50 years, and 60.4% were non-Hispanic White (White). More complete reporting of race and ethnicity data at the provider and jurisdictional levels is critical to ensure rapid detection of and response to potential disparities in COVID-19 vaccination. As the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination program expands, public health officials should ensure that vaccine is administered efficiently and equitably within each successive vaccination priority category, especially among those at highest risk for infection and severe adverse health outcomes, many of whom are non-Hispanic Black (Black), non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN), and Hispanic persons (2,3).


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 35, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine measles immunisation and supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) in most countries including Kenya. We assessed the risk of measles outbreaks during the pandemic in Kenya as a case study for the African Region. METHODS: Combining measles serological data, local contact patterns, and vaccination coverage into a cohort model, we predicted the age-adjusted population immunity in Kenya and estimated the probability of outbreaks when contact-reducing COVID-19 interventions are lifted. We considered various scenarios for reduced measles vaccination coverage from April 2020. RESULTS: In February 2020, when a scheduled SIA was postponed, population immunity was close to the herd immunity threshold and the probability of a large outbreak was 34% (8-54). As the COVID-19 contact restrictions are nearly fully eased, from December 2020, the probability of a large measles outbreak will increase to 38% (19-54), 46% (30-59), and 54% (43-64) assuming a 15%, 50%, and 100% reduction in measles vaccination coverage. By December 2021, this risk increases further to 43% (25-56), 54% (43-63), and 67% (59-72) for the same coverage scenarios respectively. However, the increased risk of a measles outbreak following the lifting of all restrictions can be overcome by conducting a SIA with ≥ 95% coverage in under-fives. CONCLUSION: While contact restrictions sufficient for SAR-CoV-2 control temporarily reduce measles transmissibility and the risk of an outbreak from a measles immunity gap, this risk rises rapidly once these restrictions are lifted. Implementing delayed SIAs will be critical for prevention of measles outbreaks given the roll-back of contact restrictions in Kenya.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/provisão & distribução , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Sarampo/complicações , Cobertura Vacinal
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 130, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516196

RESUMO

Knowledge among the rural parents about the vaccinations and vaccination coverage of children in the first year of life in Papua New Guinea - analysis of data provided by Christian Health Services. BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed to assess rural parents' knowledge about the diseases prevented by vaccinations and establish vaccination coverage in PNG. METHODS: Knowledge of vaccinations was checked through a standard questionnaire (five closed questions). We analyzed data on vaccination coverage from 2016 to 2018 from all Catholic health facilities. Analyzed vaccinations were the pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-HiB-HepB) and measles vaccine given in the first year of life. Coverage was calculated based on the number of vaccines used compared to the number of eligible children. Analyzed vaccinations were the pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-HiB-HepB) and measles vaccine given in the first year of life. RESULTS: Fifty-six parents, including 52 mothers and four fathers, participated in the interview. Many parents (46%) understood that the vaccine prevents diseases. During the analyzed period, 25,502 doses of measles vaccine were given, 31,428 children were vaccinated with the pentavalent vaccine. In 2016, the measles vaccine coverage rate was 26.6 and 33.4% for the pentavalent vaccine. In 2017, measles and pentavalent vaccines' coverage rate was 12.5 and 16.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in immunization coverage between provinces. A decreasing trend in the number of administered vaccinations was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis demonstrate that in PNG, the majority of children are not fully immunized. There are significant differences in the vaccination coverage between provinces. As protection from diseases is low, there is a very high risk of an outbreak of the vaccine-preventable disease in the community. Delivery of vaccinations in PNG encounters many barriers, from access to healthcare services to natural disasters and inter-tribial conflicts.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Pais , População Rural , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação , Adulto , Redes Comunitárias , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/psicologia , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Combinadas/uso terapêutico
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-15. (PAHO/FPL/IM/21-0002).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53196

RESUMO

Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA) is a regional initiative that aims to promote equity and access to vaccination in all countries in the Region of the Americas. The participation of the countries of the Americas in the VWA is flexible. The VWA platform can be adapted to national, regional, and global contexts to select activities that best meet local public health priorities. At the heart of this initiative are countries' relentless efforts to reach vulnerable population groups with little or no access to regular health services, such as those living in urban peripheries, rural or border areas, and indigenous communities, with vaccination. With these efforts, VWA has contributed to strengthening national immunization programs in the countries of the Region. The initiative has also provided a substantial platform for promoting the importance of vaccination, keeping the issue at the top of the political agenda, and continuing to attract media attention. VWA has become a shining example of what can happen when countries come together, across borders, cultures, and languages, with the goal of improving the health of their populations. In 2020, from 25 April to 2 May the Region of the Americas celebrated its 18th Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA) campaign and its 9th World Immunization Week. The 2020 regional slogan was "Love. Trust. Protect. #GetVax". In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, PAHO emphasized that VWA is a flexible platform and the activities developed under its framework can be adapted to the different local, national, regional, and global contexts. 45 countries and territories of the Americas planned to participate in VWA. However, many countries postponed their activities due to the global epidemiological situation of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown policies implemented in the countries.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Vacinação em Massa , Programas de Imunização , Imunização , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Vacinas
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-01-13. (OPS/FPL/IM/21-0002).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53193

RESUMO

La 18.ª Semana de Vacunación en las Américas se celebró entre el 25 de abril y el 2 de mayo del 2020 bajo el lema "Ama. Confía. Protege. #Vacúnate". Esta iniciativa tiene por objetivo impulsar la equidad y el acceso a la vacunación en todos los países de la Región de las Américas. Durante la campaña del 2020, los países se centraron en elaborar estrategias diferenciadas para poder cumplir sus objetivos de vacunación y ajustar los contextos nacionales y locales a la pandemia de COVID-19. En este informe se presentan las actividades y campañas de comunicación llevadas a cabo por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud durante la semana con el objetivo de alentar a los países a seguir vacunando contra las enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación. Asimismo, se recogen las actividades puestas en marcha en otras regiones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas , América
12.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 13(1): 60-64, ene. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196950

RESUMO

Nos encontramos en plena carrera científica para frenar la expansión del SARS-CoV-2. Una de las formas más prometedoras es desarrollar una vacuna segura y eficaz, que permita la inmunización de la mayor parte de la población. En este sentido, son numerosos los estudios que se están llevando a cabo. No obstante, la información que nos llega puede ser abrumadora, por eso este artículo pretende esclarecer la situación. Actualmente existen más de 60 prototipos de vacunas frente a COVID-19 sometidos a ensayos clínicos y más de 170 prototipos en fases preclínicas. A pesar de que las propuestas actuales cubren casi todas las formas de investigación, las plataformas más prometedoras son los ácidos nucleicos, como el mRNA, que destaca por su alta potencia, cortos ciclos de producción, bajo coste y administración segura. De hecho, son el soporte de las dos vacunas aprobadas para su comercialización en Europa, Comirnaty(R) y la va-cuna de Moderna. Aunque dispongamos de vacunas seguras y efectivas comercializadas, los laboratorios deberán ampliar la información acerca del tiempo que permanece la protección, la prevención de casos graves, si previene infecciones asintomáticas, así como información en personas inmunodeprimidas, niños y embarazadas. No obstante, es importante considerar que la obtención de una vacuna no supone el control inmediato de la pandemia, sino más bien, un proceso gradual, puesto que se necesita un determinado porcentaje de población vacunada para frenar el contagio comunitario. Por eso, es de vital importancia cumplir las medidas higiénico-sanitarias y seguir siendo prudentes


We are attending a scientific race to stop the expansion of SARS-CoV-2. One of the most promising ways is to develop a safe and effective vaccine that will allow the majority of the population to be immunized. In this sense, numerous studies are in progress. However, the information that reaches us can be overwhelming, so this article aims to clarify the situation. Currently there are more than 60 prototypes of vaccines against COVID-19 submitted to clinical trials and more than 170 prototypes in preclinical phases. Although current proposals cover almost all forms of research, the most promising platforms are nucleic acids, such as mRNA, which stands out for its high potency, short production cycles, low cost and safe administration. In fact, they are the base for the two vaccines approved for commercialization in Europe, Comirnaty (R) and the Moderna vaccine. Even though we have safe and effective vaccines commercialized, laboratories should expand the information about the time that protection remains, the prevention of serious cases, if it prevents asymptomatic infections, as well as information in immuno-suppressed people, children and pregnant women. However, it is important to consider that obtaining a vaccine does not imply immediate control of the pandemic, but rather, a gradual process, since a certain percentage of the vaccinated population is needed to stop the community contagion. Therefore, it is of vital importance to comply with sanitary hygiene measures and to remain prudent


Assuntos
Humanos , Vacinas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas/classificação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499422

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on health service delivery, including immunization programs, and this review assesses the impact on vaccine coverage across the globe and identifies the potential underlying factors. A systematic search strategy was employed on PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, and WHO COVID-19 databases from December 2019 till 15 September 2020. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed quality, and extracted the data (PROSPERO registration #CRD42020182363). A total of 17 observational studies were included. The findings suggest that there was a reduction in the vaccination coverage and decline in total number of vaccines administered, which led to children missing out on their vaccine doses. An approximately fourfold increase was also observed in polio cases in polio endemic countries. Factors contributing to low vaccine coverage included fear of being exposed to the virus at health care facilities, restriction on city-wide movements, shortage of workers, and diversion of resources from child health to address the pandemic. As the world re-strategizes for the post-2020 era, we should not let a crisis go to waste as they provide an opportunity to establish guidelines and allocate resources for future instances. High-quality supplementary immunization activities and catch-up programs need to be established to address gaps during the pandemic era.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/tendências , Pandemias , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Poliomielite/epidemiologia
19.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 7, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499907

RESUMO

National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are defined by the World Health Organization as multidisciplinary groups of health experts who are involved in the development of a national immunization policy. The NITAG has the responsibility to provide independent, evidence-informed advice to the policy makers and national programme managers, on policy issues and questions related to immunization and vaccines.This paper aims to describe the NITAG in Israel. The Israeli NITAG was established by the Ministry of Health in1974. The NITAG's full formal name is "the Advisory Committee on Infectious Diseases and Immunizations in Israel". The NITAG is charged with prioritizing choices while granting maximal significance to the national public health considerations. Since 2007, the full minutes of the NITAG's meetings have been publicly available on the committee's website (at the Ministry of Health website, in Hebrew).According to the National Health Insurance Law, all residents of Israel are entitled to receive universal health coverage. The health services basket includes routine childhood immunizations, as well as several adult and post - exposure vaccinations. The main challenge currently facing the NITAG is establishing a process for introducing new vaccines and updating the vaccination schedule through the annual update of the national health basket. In the context of the annual update, vaccines have to "compete" with multiple medications and technologies which are presented to the basket committee for inclusion in the national health basket. Over the years, the Israeli NITAG's recommendations have proved essential for vaccine introduction and scheduling and for communicable diseases control on a national level. The NITAG has established structured and transparent working processes and a decision framework according to WHO standards, which is evidence-based and country-specific to Israel.The recent global COVID-19 pandemic is a major concern for all countries as well as a challenge for NITAGs. Currently, the NITAGs have a key role in advising both on sustainment of the routine immunization programs and on planning of the COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, with ongoing updates and collaboration with the Ministry of Health and health organizations.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Política de Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Imunização , Vacinação , Vacinas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde Global , Humanos , Israel , Pandemias
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 2, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through a combination of strong routine immunization (RI), strategic supplemental immunization activities (SIA) and robust surveillance, numerous countries have been able to approach or achieve measles elimination. The fragility of these achievements has been shown, however, by the resurgence of measles since 2016. We describe trends in routine measles vaccine coverage at national and district level, SIA performance and demographic changes in the three regions with the highest measles burden. FINDINGS: WHO-UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage show that global coverage of the first dose of measles vaccine has stabilized at 85% from 2015 to 19. In 2000, 17 countries in the WHO African and Eastern Mediterranean regions had measles vaccine coverage below 50%, and although all increased coverage by 2019, at a median of 60%, it remained far below levels needed for elimination. Geospatial estimates show many low coverage districts across Africa and much of the Eastern Mediterranean and southeast Asian regions. A large proportion of children unvaccinated for MCV live in conflict-affected areas with remote rural areas and some urban areas also at risk. Countries with low RI coverage use SIAs frequently, yet the ideal timing and target age range for SIAs vary within countries, and the impact of SIAs has often been mitigated by delays or disruptions. SIAs have not been sufficient to achieve or sustain measles elimination in the countries with weakest routine systems. Demographic changes also affect measles transmission, and their variation between and within countries should be incorporated into strategic planning. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding services after the COVID-19 pandemic provides a need and an opportunity to increase community engagement in planning and monitoring services. A broader suite of interventions is needed beyond SIAs. Improved methods for tracking coverage at the individual and community level are needed together with enhanced surveillance. Decision-making needs to be decentralized to develop locally-driven, sustainable strategies for measles control and elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas de Imunização , Imunização Secundária , Sarampo , Regionalização/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , África/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia
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