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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46770

RESUMO

O sarampo é uma doença viral aguda, infecto-contagiosa, altamente transmissível que atinge com mais severidade populações de baixo nível sócio-econômico.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Epidemias , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46762

RESUMO

Calendário de vacinação do SUS para cidadãos de todas as idades.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Sistema Único de Saúde , Vacinação
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46763

RESUMO

A imunização correta pode evitar essas doenças. A primeira dose da tríplice viral deve ser ministrada aos 12 meses de idade. Aos 15 meses, uma dose da vacina tetraviral (sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varíola), que corresponde à segunda dose da vacina tríplice e uma dose da varicela.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Vacinação , Programas de Imunização , Sistema Único de Saúde
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 729-733, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437144

RESUMO

Since October 2016, Afghanistan and Pakistan have been the only countries with reported cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (1). In Afghanistan, although the number of cases had declined during 2013-2016, the polio eradication program experienced challenges during 2017-2019. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2018-May 2019 and updates previous reports (2,3). During May-December 2018, insurgent groups (antigovernment elements) banned house-to-house vaccination in most southern and southeastern provinces, leaving approximately 1 million children inaccessible to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) administration. During January-April 2019, vaccination targeting children at designated community sites (site-to-site vaccination) was permitted; however, at the end of April 2019, vaccination campaigns were banned nationally. During 2018, a total of 21 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 during 2017. During January-May 2019, 10 WPV1 cases were reported (as of May 31), compared with eight during January-May 2018. Sewage sample-testing takes place at 20 sites in the highest-risk areas for poliovirus circulation; 17 have detected WPV1 since January 2017, primarily in the southern and eastern provinces. Continued discussion with antigovernment elements to resume house-to-house campaigns is important to achieving polio eradication in Afghanistan. To increase community support for vaccination, collaboration among humanitarian service agencies to address other urgent health and basic needs is critical.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402965

RESUMO

Introduction: The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia from 2014-2015 setback the already fragile health system which was recovering from the effects of civil unrest. This led to significant decline in immunization coverage and key polio free certification indicators. The Liberia investment plan was developed to restore immunization service delivery and overall health system. Methods: We conducted a desk review to summarize performance of immunization coverage, polio eradication, measles control, new vaccines and technologies. Data sources include program reports, scientific and grey literature, District Health Information System (DHIS2), Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (IDSR) database, auto visual AFP detection and reporting (AVADAR) and ONA Servers. Data analysis was done using Microsoft excel spreadsheets, ONA software and Arc GIS. Results: There was a 36% increase in national coverage for Penta 3 in 2017 compared to 2014 from WUENIC data. Penta 3 dropout rate reduced by 2.5 fold from 15.3% in 2016 to 6.4% in 2017; while MCV1 coverage improved by 23% from 64% in 2015 to 87% in 2017. There was a rebound of non-polio AFP rate (NPAFP) rate from 1.2 in 2015 to 4.3 in 2017. Furthermore, there was a 2-fold increase in the number of AFP cases receiving 3 or more doses of OPV from 36% in 2015 to 61% in 2017. Conclusion: Liberia demonstrated strong rebound of immunization services following the largest and most devastating EVD outbreak in West Africa in 2014 - 2015. Immunization coverage improved and dropout rates reduced. However, there are still opportunities for improvement in the immunization program both at national and sub-national levels.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação/métodos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402966

RESUMO

Introduction: Measles is an acute viral disease that remains endemic in much of sub-Sahara Africa, including Liberia. The 2014 Ebola epidemic disrupted an already fragile health system contributing to low uptake of immunization services, population immunity remained low thus facilitating recurrent outbreaks of measles in Liberia. We describe lessons learnt from detecting and responding to recurrent outbreaks of measles two years post the 2014 Ebola epidemic in Liberia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study using the findings from Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (IDSR) 15 counties, National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL), National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL) and District Health Information Software (DIHS2) data conducted from October to December, 2017. We perused the outbreaks line lists and other key documents submitted by the counties to the national level from January 2016 to December 2017. Results: From January 2016 to December 2017, 2,954 suspected cases of measles were reported through IDSR. Four hundred sixty-seven (467) were laboratory confirmed (IgM-positive), 776 epidemiologically linked, 574 clinically confirmed, and 1,137 discarded (IgM-negative). Nine deaths out of 1817 cases were reported, a case fatality rate of 0.5%; 49% were children below the age of 5 years. Twenty-two percent (405/1817) of the confirmed cases were vaccinated while the vaccination status of 55% (994/1817) was unknown. Conclusion: Revitalization of IDSR contributed to increased detection and reporting of suspected cases of measles thus facilitating early identification and response to outbreaks. Priority needs to be given to increasing the uptake of routine immunization services, introducing a second dose of measles vaccine in the routine immunization program and conducting a high-quality supplementary measles immunization campaign for age group 1 to 10 years to provide protection for a huge cohort of susceptible.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Recidiva
7.
S D Med ; 72(4): 164-167, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sioux Falls Family Medicine Residency serves a large non-English speaking and low socioeconomic status population. We designed a quality initiative to increase influenza and pneumonia vaccination rates in our elderly patients. METHODS: The main components of the project included improved clinic workflow, physician and staff education, and heightened patient awareness of vaccination importance. For the latter, we employed posters with key points about why patients should receive the vaccines, and personalized handouts with a photo of their provider discussing the importance of receiving these vaccines. The handouts were translated into the four most common non-English languages served by our clinics. RESULTS: Following implementation of the initiative, influenza vaccination rates increased from 35 to 53 percent, PPSV23 vaccination rates increased from 62.5 to 64 percent, and most impressively, PCV13 vaccination rates increased from 40 to 60 percent. CONCLUSION: This quality improvement project demonstrated meaningful change with minimal financial and logistical investment and should be sustainable in the long-term.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , South Dakota , Vacinação
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46681

RESUMO

Com objetivo de conscientizar a sociedade sobre a importância da vacinação, o Conselho Federal de Biologia lançou nesta quarta-feira (20/03/19) a campanha "Não é só a felicidade que prolonga a vida. Vacine-se". A campanha foi criada devido à preocupação com o crescente boicote à vacinação no Brasil, o que tem deixado sob alerta autoridades e instituições da área da saúde devido ao risco de reintrodução de doenças já eliminadas ou erradicadas no país, como é o caso de poliomielite, sarampo e rubéola.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Vacinação Obrigatória , Programas de Imunização , Comunicação
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46659

RESUMO

As experiências vividas pela criança, nos primeiros anos de vida, são fundamentais para a formação do adulto que ela será no futuro. Por isso, é muito importante que a criança cresça em um ambiente saudável, cercada de afeto e com liberdade para brincar. Com o objetivo de promover e proteger a saúde da criança e o aleitamento materno, o Ministério da Saúde instituiu a Política Nacional de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Criança (PNAISC).


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(29): 642-646, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344023

RESUMO

The number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases in Nigeria decreased from 1,122 in 2006 to six WPV type 1 (WPV1) in 2014 (1). During August 2014-July 2016, no WPV cases were detected; during August-September 2016, four cases were reported in Borno State. An insurgency in northeastern Nigeria had resulted in 468,800 children aged <5 years deprived of health services in Borno by 2016. Military activities in mid-2016 freed isolated families to travel to camps, where the four WPV1 cases were detected. Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaigns were intensified during August 2016-December 2017; since October 2016, no WPV has been detected (2). Vaccination activities in insurgent-held areas are conducted by security forces; however, 60,000 unvaccinated children remain in unreached settlements. Since 2018, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has emerged and spread from Nigeria to Niger and Cameroon; outbreak responses to date have not interrupted transmission. This report describes progress in Nigeria polio eradication activities during January 2018-May 2019 and updates the previous report (2). Interruption of cVDPV2 transmission in Nigeria will need increased efforts to improve campaign quality and include insurgent-held areas. Progress in surveillance and immunization activities will continue to be reviewed, potentially allowing certification of interruption of WPV transmission in Africa in 2020.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/genética , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Sorogrupo , Violência
13.
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303913

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in Senegal. HBV vaccine of all children has been introduced in 1999 and included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 2004. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV prevalence and immunity status against HBV amongst children in Senegal. Methods: Between March and August 2016, consecutive children aged from 6 months to 16 years old were recruited in outpatient department of three main children hospitals in Senegal. Serum samples were analyzed for HBV serology (HBsAg, HBcAb, HBsAb) using ARCHITECT analyzer. Children with HBsAb levels ≥ 10 IU/l) were considered as seroprotected against HBV. Results: During the study period, 295 children fulfilled the criteria for the study and were further analyzed. Three children were HBsAg positive giving a seroprevalence at 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-3.3), 12/267 (4.5%, 95% CI=2.3-7.7) had positive HBcAb and 226/295 (76.6%, 71.4-81.3) had positive HBsAb including 191 (77.3%, 71.6-82.4) with isolated HBsAb related to previous active immunization. However only 165 children (56%, CI 50-62) had seroprotective HBsAb levels (HBsAb ≥ 10 UI/L) and 63 (21.4, 16.8-26) had a strong seroprotectiondefined by HBsAb ≥ 100 IU/L. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although HBV prevalence has significantly decreased in children in Senegal following a better HBV vaccine coverage, the number of children correctly seroprotected is insufficient (56%). Assessing the levels of HBsAb and providing HBV vaccine boosters should be considered in children in Senegal.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 661-663, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288334

RESUMO

Vaccination is among the most economic and effective intervention measures to combat infectious diseases. National immunization program is the best approach to achieve the major public health value of vaccines, and is an important sign of equity of medical service. The evidences accumulated by the studies on vaccine safety and economic assessment are the important basis for the decision making for immunization.


Assuntos
Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/economia , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Vacinação/economia
16.
BMJ ; 366: l4472, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272950
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(24): 539-543, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220058

RESUMO

Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States in 2006, rotavirus infection was the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among U.S. children (1). To evaluate the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on disease prevalence and seasonality in the United States, CDC analyzed national laboratory testing data for rotavirus from laboratories participating in CDC's National Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Surveillance System (NREVSS) during the prevaccine (2000-2006) and postvaccine (2007-2018) periods. Nationally, the median annual percentage of tests positive for rotavirus declined from 25.6% (range = 25.2-29.4) in the prevaccine period to 6.1% (range = 2.6-11.1) in the postvaccine period. When compared with the prevaccine period, the postvaccine period saw declines in the annual peak in rotavirus positivity from a median of 43.1% (range = 43.8-56.3) to a median of 14.0% (range = 4.8-27.3) and in the season duration from a median of 26 weeks (range = 23-27) to a median of 9 weeks (range = 0-18). In the postvaccine period, a biennial pattern emerged, with alternating years of low and high rotavirus activity. Implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program has substantially reduced prevalence of the disease and altered seasonal patterns of rotavirus in the United States; these changes have been sustained over 11 seasons after vaccine introduction. Ongoing efforts to improve coverage and on-time vaccination (2) can help maximize the public health impact of rotavirus vaccination.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Laboratórios/tendências , Vigilância da População , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010432, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217960

RESUMO

Background: The Tempelhof refugee camp offers in-camp immunizations. Other camps, like Neukölln, rely on a centralized immunization system. We aimed to determine the impact of conflict on immunization rates of Syrian children and to measure the efficacy of in-camp immunization services. Methods: Families with children aged 1-5 in Tempelhof and Neukölln camps were surveyed. Surveys included siblings under the age of 18. Differences were compared using χ2 test. Results: Data on 179 children at Tempelhof and 40 children at Neukölln were collected. At Tempelhof, amongst Syrian children, 27.8% under the age of 5 were "fully immunized-memory," in contrast to 73.7% over the age of 5 (P = 0.005). This difference in immunization rates by memory between the age groups was not observed in Afghani children (P = 0.34) or in Iraqi children (P = 0.10). Furthermore, compared to the 27.8% of Syrian children, 75% of Afghani children under the age of 5 were "fully vaccinated-memory" (P = 0.0009). Compared to Tempelhof, more children at Neukölln were partially immunized (93%) or had no immunizations (5%) (P < 0.001).


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Afeganistão/etnologia , Berlim , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Iraque/etnologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síria/etnologia
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 605-609, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238605

RESUMO

In 2016, the WHO proposed the goal for elimination of hepatitis B as public health threat, by 2030. China has the heaviest burden caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the world, and serves as the major contributor to the goal of eliminating hepatitis B by 2030, globally. During the past 30 years, great progress has been made towards the implementation on prevention and control programs of HBV infection, in China, that enabling the WHO 2030 target to be fulfilled. However, due to the size of population, the large number of HBV infections and the low coverage of diagnosis and treatment programs, China is still facing the challenge in reaching the 2030 target, on time. This paper elaborates the achievements and gaps regarding the on-going prevention and control programs, including vaccination, prevention of maternal-to-child transmission, blood and injection safety, diagnosis and treatment on HBV infection and putting forward several suggestions on relevant policies for achieving the goal of hepatitis B elimination by 2030, in China.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Metas , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação/métodos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Saúde Pública
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(22): 505-510, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170125

RESUMO

In 1997, the 21 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region* (EMR) passed a resolution during the 41st session of the Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean to eliminate measles† (1). In 2015, this goal was included as a priority in the Eastern Mediterranean Vaccine Action Plan 2016-2020 (2), approved at the 62nd session of the Regional Committee (3). To achieve measles elimination, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean developed the following four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) among children in every district of each country through routine immunization services; 2) achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage with a second MCV dose in every district of each country either through implementation of a routine 2-dose vaccination schedule or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)§; 3) conduct high-quality, case-based measles surveillance in all countries; and 4) provide optimal measles clinical case management, including dietary supplementation with vitamin A (4). Pakistan, an EMR country with a population of approximately 200 million, accounts for nearly one third of the overall EMR population. This report describes progress and challenges toward measles elimination in Pakistan during 2000-2018. During the study period, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 57% in 2000 to 76% in 2017. The second MCV dose (MCV2) was introduced nationwide in 2009, and MCV2 coverage increased from 30% in 2009 to 45% in 2017. During 2000-2018, approximately 232.5 million children received doses of MCV during SIAs. Reported confirmed measles incidence increased from an average of 24.6 per 1 million persons during 2000-2009 to an average of 80.4 during 2010-2018, with peaks in 2013 (230.3) and 2018 (153.6). In 2017 and 2018, the rates of suspected cases discarded as nonmeasles after investigation were 2.1 and 1.5 per 100,000 population, reflecting underreporting of cases. To achieve measles elimination, additional efforts are needed to increase MCV1 and MCV2 coverage, develop strategies to identify and reach communities not accessing immunization services, and increase sensitivity of case-based measles surveillance in all districts.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
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