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2.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 5-8, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187649

RESUMO

Vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP) is a key measure for their protection but mainly for the protection of the susceptible patients from healthcare-associated transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases. Studies indicate that there are significant immunity gaps as well as suboptimal vaccination uptake rates among HCP across Europe. Despite the fact that all European countries have vaccination policies for HCP, there are significant variations among them in terms of recommended vaccines and implementation frameworks (recommended or mandatory). In an environment of increasing vaccine hesitancy, Italy has one of the highest rates of skepticism related to safety and effectiveness of vaccines. It is also one of the first European countries to address this issue in a comprehensive way, implementing mandatory vaccination policies for several vaccinations included in the routine vaccination program, but also for HCPs as a requirement for employment.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Programas Obrigatórios , Vacinação/psicologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Recusa de Vacinação
3.
Intern Med J ; 49(5): 662-665, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083800

RESUMO

Influenza vaccination is an important preventative health measure. A significant proportion of general medical inpatients meets indications for annual inactivated influenza vaccination (IIV), as recommended by the Australian National Immunisation Programme. This study explores opportunities to provide IIV to eligible general medical inpatients and associated barriers.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/tendências , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Vacinação/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Vacinas contra Influenza/normas , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Vacinação/normas
4.
J Leg Med ; 39(1): 1-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141456

RESUMO

The United States Supreme Court has upheld state vaccination mandates as a condition of entry to schools by relying on their police power in protecting public health and safety. Despite this broad authority, many state mandates include exemptions that permit parents to refuse vaccination on behalf of their children for nonmedical reasons, like religious, philosophical, or personal beliefs. A spectrum of these laws currently exists, ranging from California's ban of all nonmedical claims to Ohio's extremely permissive grant of exemptions. This article discusses each of these states' mandates and the relationship between relaxed exemption laws and measles outbreaks using statistical analyses. To curb the spread of this vaccine-preventable disease, states should consider the threat to public health paramount to individual liberty infringement by restricting access to nonmedical exemptions. This approach aligns with a century of case law that has rejected vaccination mandate challenges based on fundamental rights, religious freedom, equal protection, and due process. Now states must act within that authority to safeguard against the persistence of this potentially fatal disease.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Obrigatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Recusa de Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Direitos Civis , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Programas Obrigatórios/tendências , Sarampo/transmissão , Ohio , Pais , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Religião , Governo Estadual , Decisões da Suprema Corte , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Recusa de Vacinação/tendências
5.
Therapie ; 74(1): 131-140, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660377

RESUMO

A flagship recommendation of the citizen's steering committee on immunization, the mandatory immunization for infants extended to 11 vaccines, introduced in January 2018, is part of a set of recommendations that must be considered as a whole, each component being indispensable to the achievement of objectives: restore confidence in vaccination and increase immunization coverage. Roundtable # 6 participants identified a decade of concrete initiatives that could address, at least in part, the committee's recommendations, including: developing information systems and data generation; simplify the vaccination journey and increase vaccination opportunities; developing training of health professionals; learning vaccines at school; using motivational interviewing in educational intervention; undertaking local initiatives; improving supply and communicate on the value of vaccines. To carry out these actions, it has been proposed that a joint ministerial task-force bringing together the different stakeholders at the national level should be set up to promote their implementation and follow-up, and at regional level, the establishment of an Agences régionales de santé awareness plan making vaccination a priority.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinas , Comunicação , França , Educação em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Programas Obrigatórios , Motivação , Farmacovigilância , Saúde Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vacinação/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 52: 96, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517523

RESUMO

The successful Programa Nacional de Imunizações do Brasil (Brazilian National Immunization Program) has been experiencing a major challenge with regard to vaccination coverage for children, which has been dropping. Several aspects are related, but certainly vaccine hesitancy has been strengthening itself as one of the main concerns of Brazilian public administrators and researchers. Vaccine hesitancy is the delay in acceptance or refusal despite having the recommended vaccines available in health services, being a phenomenon that varies over time, over location and over types of vaccines. Hesitant individuals are between the two poles of total acceptance and refusal of vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is nothing new in European and North-American countries, and even in Brazil, it has been studied even if under another name. The drop of vaccination coverage observed from 2016 on reiterates the relevance of the theme, which must be better understood through scientific research.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/tendências , Movimento contra Vacinação/tendências , Brasil , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus , Fatores de Risco , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
7.
mSphere ; 3(6)2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404933

RESUMO

Prevention of serious infections in pregnant mothers, newborns, and young infants through immunization during pregnancy and in early life has the potential to further reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, research in this field has advanced substantially, from the understanding of the biology and immunology of pregnancy and early life, to the active development of several candidate vaccines, for which challenges and opportunities for global implementation are under consideration. Experts from academia, industry, regulatory and funding agencies, public health, and international organizations met in Brussels (Belgium) from 10 to 12 September 2017, at the 4th International Neonatal and Maternal Immunization Symposium (INMIS), to review the most relevant advances in maternal and neonatal immunization. The overarching focus of the conference was to identify the path forward to achieve integration of maternal and early life immunization strategies for the successful implementation of vaccines in antenatal care and pediatric programs for reduction of maternal and infant mortality worldwide.IMPORTANCE This report provides an overview of the proceedings of the 4th International Maternal and Neonatal Immunization Symposium, where presentations focused on the state-of-the-art research on the development and implementation of vaccines given during pregnancy for the protection of mothers and infants.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Saúde do Lactente , Saúde Materna , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Lactente , Gravidez
8.
Ann Ig ; 30(4 Supple 1): 11-15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062374

RESUMO

Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children. In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution that committed all countries to polio eradication by the year 2000, launching the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The last naturally occurring case of wild polio virus type 2 infection was in October 1999 while the last case of wild polio virus type 3 was recorded in November 2012. In 2016 there were the lowest number of polio cases in recorded history (just 37) and this year we expect even fewer cases. Until the end of October 2017 only 12 cases were reported (the previous year, in this same period, 27 cases had been recorded). The eradication program did not progress smoothly: fundamentalism; religious opposition; civil war; outbreaks of other infectious diseases and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses may favor the failure of vaccination programs. Through the enormous progress toward polio eradication made in these last years, such as the switch from the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine to the bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and the certification of the eradication of the wild polio virus type 2; the eradication efforts are at their final chapter, otherwise known as the polio endgame.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 241, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) encountered two substantial outbreaks during the past decade: the H1N1 swine flu outbreak during 2009-2010 and the silent polio outbreak during 2013. Although both outbreaks share several similar characteristics, the functioning of the Israeli MoH was different for each case. The aim of this study was to identify factors that contributed to the change in the MoH response to the polio outbreak in light of the previous 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative research using semi-structured interviews with 18 Israeli policymakers from the MoH, relevant specialists and politicians. Each interview was transcribed and a thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. RESULTS: Three main themes were found in the interview analysis, which reflect major differences in the MoH management policy during the polio outbreak. 1) clinical and epidemiological differences between the two disease courses, 2) differences in the functioning of the MoH during the outbreaks, 3) differences in the risk communication strategies used to reach out to the local health community and the general public. Most interviewees felt that the experience of the 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak which was perceived as unsuccessful, fueled the MoH engagement and proactiveness in the later polio outbreak. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of learning processes within health care organizations during outbreaks and may contribute to better performance and higher immunization rates.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Israel/epidemiologia , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/uso terapêutico , Vacina Antipólio Oral/uso terapêutico , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/normas , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(10): e257-e260, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570591

RESUMO

Eighty-five children were diagnosed with culture-confirmed nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis within the MYCOMED surveillance network from 2004 to 2013. The mean incidence sharply increased from 0.57 to 3.7 per 100,000 children per year, after the discontinuation of mandatory bacillus Calmette and Guérin immunization in 2007. Cases were documented as Mycobacterium avium (62.3%), Mycobacterium intracellulare (15.3%) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (12.9%). Outcome was favorable in all, with or without surgery or antimycobacterial treatment.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Linfadenite/epidemiologia , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Programas Obrigatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Obrigatórios/tendências , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Pediatrics ; 141(4)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Young children in resource-poor settings remain inadequately immunized. We evaluated the role of compliance-linked incentives versus mobile phone messaging to improve childhood immunizations. METHODS: Children aged ≤24 months from a rural community in India were randomly assigned to either a control group or 1 of 2 study groups. A cloud-based, biometric-linked software platform was used for positive identification, record keeping for all groups, and delivery of automated mobile phone reminders with or without compliance-linked incentives (Indian rupee Rs30 or US dollar $0.50 of phone talk time) for the study groups. Immunization coverage was analyzed by using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: Between July 11, 2016, and July 20, 2017, 608 children were randomly assigned to the study groups. Five hundred and forty-nine (90.3%) children fulfilled eligibility criteria, with a median age of 5 months; 51.4% were girls, 83.6% of their mothers had no schooling, and they were in the study for a median duration of 292 days. Median immunization coverage at enrollment was 33% in all groups and increased to 41.7% (interquartile range [IQR]: 23.1%-69.2%), 40.1% (IQR: 30.8%-69.2%), and 50.0% (IQR: 30.8%-76.9%) by the end of the study in the control group, the group with mobile phone reminders, and the compliance-linked incentives group, respectively. The administration of compliance-linked incentives was independently associated with improvement in immunization coverage and a modest increase in timeliness of immunizations. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance-linked incentives are an important intervention for improving the coverage and timeliness of immunizations in young children in resource-poor settings.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica/tendências , Telefone Celular/tendências , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Motivação , Sistemas de Alerta/tendências , População Rural/tendências , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/tendências , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Mensagem de Texto/tendências
12.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 150(6): 233-239, mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171547

RESUMO

El número de viajeros internacionales bajo inmunodepresión farmacológica (IDF) ha aumentado debido a la mejor expectativa y calidad de vida que proporcionan estas terapias. La complejidad de la asesoría previaje en estos pacientes radica en su mayor susceptibilidad y gravedad ante determinadas infecciones relacionadas con el viaje, así como en las contraindicaciones e interacciones de determinadas vacunas y/o profilaxis con sus terapias de base. El consejo al viajero representa un reto para el clínico, que tiene que adaptar las vacunas y otras medidas preventivas a los pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Por ello, la valoración previa al viaje en pacientes con IDF debe realizarse en una unidad de medicina del viajero, de forma coordinada con el médico especialista que maneja su enfermedad de base. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar la evidencia disponible sobre las recomendaciones sanitarias indicadas en viajeros bajo tratamiento inmunosupresor en relación con la aplicación de vacunas, quimioprofilaxis antimalárica y otras medidas de prevención de enfermedades transmisibles (AU)


There is an increasing number of international travelers receiving immunosuppressive therapy due to the better life expectation and quality offered by this kind of treatment. The complexity of pre-travel counseling in these patients lies in their greater susceptibility to certain travel-related infections and the potential severity of these, as well as in the contraindications and interactions that may occur between certain vaccines and/or prophylaxis and their base therapy. Counseling the traveler represents a challenge for clinicians who have to tailor vaccinations and other recommended preventive measures to the immunosuppressed patients. Thus, pre-travel assessment of patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy should be performed in a specialized Traveler's Medical Unit, working closely with the specialist doctor in charge of treating the patient's underlying medical condition. The purpose of this article is to review available evidence on the health recommendations indicated in the pre-travel administration of vaccines, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and other measures to prevent communicable diseases in travelers receiving immunosuppressive therapy (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Qualidade de Vida , Vacinas/imunologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Saúde do Viajante , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Hepatite A/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Raiva/imunologia , Poliomielite/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Cólera/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico
13.
Vaccine ; 36(1): 6-14, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174317

RESUMO

In 2016, the Immunization Technical Advisory Group of the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) endorsed a regional goal to achieve ≤1% prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among 5-year-old children by 2020. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is largely preventable with a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB-BD) followed by two to three additional doses. We reviewed the progress towards hepatitis B control through vaccination in SEAR during 1992-2015. We summarized hepatitis B vaccination data and reviewed the literature to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infection pre- and post-vaccine introduction. We used a mathematical model to determine post-vaccine prevalence of HBsAg among 5 year olds in countries lacking national serosurvey data and estimated the impact of vaccination on disease burden. Regional coverage with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB3) increased from 56% in 2011 to 87% in 2015. By 2016, 7 of 11 countries had introduced universal HepB-BD. Regional HepB-BD coverage increased from 9% in 2011 to 34% in 2015. In 2015, estimated HBsAg among 5 year olds was 1.1% with variability among countries. Myanmar (3.8%), Timor-Leste (2.7%), Indonesia (1.8%), and India (1%) had the highest prevalence of HBsAg. During 1992-2015, vaccination prevented approximately 16 million chronic HBV infections and 2.6 million related deaths. In 2015, around 197,640 perinatal HBV infections occurred in SEAR with majority occurring in India (62%), Bangladesh (24%), and Myanmar (8%). Myanmar had the highest rate of perinatal chronic HBV infections at 16 per 1000 live births. Despite significant progress in the control of HBV, SEAR needs to secure political commitment for elimination and consider additional strategies, such as promoting health facility births, universal birth dose administration, developing strong coordination between health sectors, and using alternative vaccine delivery methods, to improve HepB-BD coverage and subsequently achieve HBV control and elimination.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Vacinação/tendências , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(5): 1107-1115, 2018 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211624

RESUMO

Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger. Outside the meningitis belt, NmB predominates in North Africa, while NmW followed by NmB predominate in South Africa. Improved surveillance is necessary to address the challenges of this changing epidemiologic picture. A low-cost, multivalent conjugate vaccine covering NmA and the emergent and prevalent meningococcal capsular groups C, W, and X in the meningitis belt is a pressing need.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/uso terapêutico , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Custos de Medicamentos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Incidência , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/economia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Sorogrupo , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/tendências , Vacinas Conjugadas/economia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/uso terapêutico
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 96, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-979020

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The successful Programa Nacional de Imunizações do Brasil (Brazilian National Immunization Program) has been experiencing a major challenge with regard to vaccination coverage for children, which has been dropping. Several aspects are related, but certainly vaccine hesitancy has been strengthening itself as one of the main concerns of Brazilian public administrators and researchers. Vaccine hesitancy is the delay in acceptance or refusal despite having the recommended vaccines available in health services, being a phenomenon that varies over time, over location and over types of vaccines. Hesitant individuals are between the two poles of total acceptance and refusal of vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is nothing new in European and North-American countries, and even in Brazil, it has been studied even if under another name. The drop of vaccination coverage observed from 2016 on reiterates the relevance of the theme, which must be better understood through scientific research.


RESUMO O exitoso Programa Nacional de Imunizações do Brasil tem vivenciado grande desafio com relação às coberturas vacinais infantis, que têm apresentado queda. Diversos aspectos estão relacionados, mas certamente a hesitação vacinal vem se fortalecendo como uma das principais preocupações dos gestores e pesquisadores brasileiros. Hesitação vacinal é o atraso em aceitar ou a recusa das vacinas recomendadas quando elas estão disponíveis nos serviços de saúde, sendo um fenômeno que varia ao longo do tempo, do local e dos tipos de vacinas. Indivíduos hesitantes situam-se entre os dois polos de aceitação e recusa total da vacinação. A hesitação vacinal não é novidade em países europeus e norte-americanos e, mesmo no Brasil, ela já vem sendo estudada ainda que sob outra denominação. A queda das coberturas vacinais observadas a partir de 2016 reitera a relevância do tema, que deve ser mais bem compreendido por meio de investigações científicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/tendências , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Vacina contra Sarampo , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Poliovirus , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Movimento contra Vacinação/tendências , Sarampo/prevenção & controle
17.
Vaccine ; 35(49 Pt B): 6823-6827, 2017 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122384

RESUMO

Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults. New vaccines under development for these diseases and under-used vaccines such as for human papilloma virus will have the greatest health and economic impact in these populations. Global consensus, political will, policies, global and country infrastructure, and financing mechanisms are needed to accelerate access for the billions of adolescents and adults living under the threat of devastating infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics, especially in lower income countries. The global health community and countries cannot afford to delay planning for implementation of adolescent and adult vaccine programs that will potentially save millions of lives and strengthen global and national economies. The article examines this next challenge and suggests a research agenda and a framework for action to galvanize global and national policy decision-makers to begin preparations for future immunization challenges.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Vacinação/economia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
19.
Clin Ther ; 39(8): 1563-1580.e17, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28781217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on immunization rates of policy changes that allowed pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations across the United States. METHODS: Influenza immunization rates across states were compared before and after policy changes permitting pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations. The study used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data on influenza immunization rates between 2003 and 2013. Logistic regression models were constructed and incorporated adjustments for the complex sample design of the BRFSS to predict the likelihood of a person receiving an influenza immunization based on various patient health, demographic, and access to care factors. FINDINGS: Overall, as states moved to allow pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations, the odds that an adult resident received an influenza immunization rose, with the effect increasing over time. The average percentage of people receiving influenza immunizations in states was 35.1%, rising from 32.2% in 2003 to 40.3% in 2013. The policy changes were associated with a long-term increase of 2.2% to 7.6% in the number of adults aged 25 to 59 years receiving an influenza immunization (largest for those aged 35-39 years) and no significant change for those younger or older. IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that pharmacies and other nontraditional settings may offer accessible venues for patients when implementing other public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/tendências , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(2): 313-318, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722581

RESUMO

Diphtheria is an acute disease caused by exotoxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Globally, diphtheria has been showing a declining trend due to effective childhood vaccination programs. A substantial proportion of global burden of diphtheria is contributed by India. Hospital-based surveillance studies as well as diphtheria outbreaks published in last 20 years (1996-2016) indicate that diphtheria cases are frequent among school-going children and adolescents. In some Indian states, Muslim children are affected more. As per the national level health surveys, coverage of three doses of diphtheria vaccine was 80% during 2015-2016. Information about coverage of diphtheria boosters is not routinely collected through these surveys, but is expected to be low. Few studies also indicate low diphtheria immunity among school-going children and adults. The strategies for prevention of diphtheria need to focus on improving coverage of primary and booster doses of diphtheria vaccines administered as a part of Universal Immunization Program as well as introducing diphtheria vaccine for school-going children.


Assuntos
Difteria/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino
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