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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(6): e11-e24, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719931

RESUMO

Background: Central sleep apnea (CSA) is common among patients with heart failure and has been strongly linked to adverse outcomes. However, progress toward improving outcomes for such patients has been limited. The purpose of this official statement from the American Thoracic Society is to identify key areas to prioritize for future research regarding CSA in heart failure.Methods: An international multidisciplinary group with expertise in sleep medicine, pulmonary medicine, heart failure, clinical research, and health outcomes was convened. The group met at the American Thoracic Society 2019 International Conference to determine research priority areas. A statement summarizing the findings of the group was subsequently authored using input from all members.Results: The workgroup identified 11 specific research priorities in several key areas: 1) control of breathing and pathophysiology leading to CSA, 2) variability across individuals and over time, 3) techniques to examine CSA pathogenesis and outcomes, 4) impact of device and pharmacological treatment, and 5) implementing CSA treatment for all individualsConclusions: Advancing care for patients with CSA in the context of heart failure will require progress in the arenas of translational (basic through clinical), epidemiological, and patient-centered outcome research. Given the increasing prevalence of heart failure and its associated substantial burden to individuals, society, and the healthcare system, targeted research to improve knowledge of CSA pathogenesis and treatment is a priority.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
3.
Ethn Dis ; 31(1): 5-8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519150

RESUMO

During the past three decades, the world has experienced many clinical and public health challenges that require implementation of practices and policies informed by an understanding of social determinants of health and health inequities, but perhaps none as global and pervasive as the current COVID-19 pandemic. In the context of this special themed issue on Social Determinants of Health and Implementation Research: Three Decades of Progress and a Need for Convergence, we highlight the application of social determinants of health and implementation research on various aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/terapia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/tendências , /epidemiologia , Previsões , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e21690, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The working environment of a suicide prevention helpline requires high emotional and cognitive awareness from chat counselors. A shared opinion among counselors is that as a chat conversation becomes more difficult, it takes more effort and a longer amount of time to compose a response, which, in turn, can lead to writer's block. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates and then designs supportive technology to determine if a support system that provides inspiration can help counselors resolve writer's block when they encounter difficult situations in chats with help-seekers. METHODS: A content-based recommender system with sentence embedding was used to search a chat corpus for similar chat situations. The system showed a counselor the most similar parts of former chat conversations so that the counselor would be able to use approaches previously taken by their colleagues as inspiration. In a within-subject experiment, counselors' chat replies when confronted with a difficult situation were analyzed to determine if experts could see a noticeable difference in chat replies that were obtained in 3 conditions: (1) with the help of the support system, (2) with written advice from a senior counselor, or (3) when receiving no help. In addition, the system's utility and usability were measured, and the validity of the algorithm was examined. RESULTS: A total of 24 counselors used a prototype of the support system; the results showed that, by reading chat replies, experts were able to significantly predict if counselors had received help from the support system or from a senior counselor (P=.004). Counselors scored the information they received from a senior counselor (M=1.46, SD 1.91) as significantly more helpful than the information received from the support system or when no help was given at all (M=-0.21, SD 2.26). Finally, compared with randomly selected former chat conversations, counselors rated the ones identified by the content-based recommendation system as significantly more similar to their current chats (ß=.30, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Support given to counselors influenced how they responded in difficult conversations. However, the higher utility scores given for the advice from senior counselors seem to indicate that specific actionable instructions are preferred. We expect that these findings will be beneficial for developing a system that can use similar chat situations to generate advice in a descriptive style, hence helping counselors through writer's block.


Assuntos
Conselheiros/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1635: 461658, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333351

RESUMO

This study reports the application of retention modeling and quality by design practices for reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method development of a new chemical entity. Prior to the retention modeling, preliminary screening experiments were performed for the selection of stationary phase, organic modifiers, and method parameters. Based on the results of preliminary method conditions, tG-T (gradient time - temperature) 2-D modeling with 4 input runs, and tG-T-tc (gradient time-temperature-ternary composition) 3-D modeling with 12 input runs were designed to build a model for achieving the optimized separation. Modeling of reverse phase separations was based on the measurement of both retention times and peak areas. A design space with appropriate input variables and control strategy was established prior to optimization and robustness evaluation following the quality by design framework. DryLabⓇ was used to predict the optimized gradient profile and separation temperature. The robustness evaluation was carried out using the multiple factors at a time approach and the control space was established. The interdependence of control space and the control strategy was demonstrated by evaluating method robustness using two levels of system suitability criteria. The predictive accuracy of the retention modeling was established through experimental verification of the in-silico predictions. The quality by design based method development approach demonstrated the in-silico optimization as an integral component of reverse-phase chromatographic method development to evaluate the interplay of factors such as organic modifiers, separation temperature and gradient time, which greatly integrated and enhanced method robustness during method development.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Simulação por Computador , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Temperatura
8.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e3400, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144453

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Las actividades investigativas en el pregrado permiten desarrollar competencias investigativas en los estudiantes que servirán para su futuro desempeño profesional; el interés hacia estas actividades parte de la motivación de los estudiantes. Objetivo: Describir el interés por la investigación científica por parte de los estudiantes de una facultad de Odontología. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. El universo incluyó 395 estudiantes, de los cuales la muestra estuvo conformada por 187 estudiantes obtenida de forma aleatoria a partir de la lista de matriculados de la facultad. Se encuestó el interés hacia la investigación, así como las características de sexo, año académico, colegio de procedencia, participación en proyectos de investigación, pertenencia a una sociedad científica estudiantil y la experiencia en la publicación de artículos científicos. Se compararon las puntuaciones a través de pruebas no paramétricas U de Mann-Whitney y Kruskall Wallis. Se aceptó un nivel de significancia de 0,05. Resultados: El 68,4 por ciento manifestó interesarse por la investigación científica. No se encontraron diferencias en las puntuaciones de hombres (48,11 ± 9,2) y mujeres (48,07 ± 5,85) (p = 0,251). Los estudiantes que pertenecen a una sociedad científica estudiantil presentan mayores puntuaciones (55,41 ± 4,94) a diferencia de los que no pertenecen (48,25 ± 7,22) (p = 0,001). Los estudiantes de quinto año presentaron mayores puntuaciones (50,88 ± 5,36) sobre el interés por la investigación científica (p = 0,450). Conclusiones: La mayoría de estudiantes de la Facultad de Odontología presentan elevado interés por la investigación científica. No se encontraron diferencias entre hombres y mujeres, tampoco según el tipo de colegio de procedencia. Aquellos estudiantes que participaban en proyectos de investigación y eran parte de una sociedad científica estudiantil fueron los que más interés presentaron por la investigación(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Through undergraduate research activities students develop research competences useful for their future professional performance. Interest in these activities stems from the students' motivation. Objective: Describe the interest in scientific research among students from a dental school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. The study universe was 395 students, of whom a sample of 187 was randomly selected from the list of students enrolled at the institution. The items surveyed were interest in research, sex, academic year, previous school, participation in research projects, membership in a students' scientific society and experience in the publication of scientific papers. Scores were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. A 0.05 significance level was accepted. Results: Of the total respondents, 68.4 percent reported interest in scientific research. Differences were not found between the scores obtained by men (48.11 ± 9.2) and women (48.07 ± 5.85) (p = 0.251). Students who belong to scientific societies had higher scores (55.41 ± 4.94) than those who do not (48.25 ± 7.22) (p = 0.001). Fifth-year students had higher scores (50.88 ± 5.36) in interest in scientific research (p = 0.450). Conclusions: Most students from the dental school showed great interest in scientific research. No differences were found between men and women or according to the type of previous school. Students who participated in research projects and were members of a scientific society expressed the greatest interest in research(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Faculdades de Odontologia , Sociedades Científicas , Estudantes de Odontologia , Publicações de Divulgação Científica , Peru , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propensity score techniques can reduce confounding and bias in observational studies. Such analyses are able to measure and balance pre-determined covariates between treated and untreated groups, leading to results that can approximate those generated by randomized prospective studies when such trials are not feasible. The most commonly used propensity score -based analytic technique is propensity score matching (PSM). Although PSM popularity has continued to increase in medical literature, improper methodology or methodological reporting may lead to biased interpretation of treatment effects or limited scientific reproducibility and generalizability. In this study, we aim to characterize and assess the quality of PSM methodology reporting in high-impact otolaryngologic literature. METHODS: PubMed and Embase based systematic review of the top 20 journals in otolaryngology, as measured by impact factor from the Journal Citations Reports from 2012 to 2018, for articles using PSM analysis throughout their publication history. Eligible articles were reviewed and assessed for quality and reporting of PSM methodology. RESULTS: Our search yielded 101 studies, of which 92 were eligible for final analysis and review. The proportion of studies utilizing PSM increased significantly over time (p < 0.001). Nearly all studies (96.7%, n = 89) specified the covariates used to calculate propensity scores. Covariate balance was illustrated in 67.4% (n = 62) of studies, most frequently through p-values. A minority (17.4%, n = 16) of studies were found to be fully reproducible according to previously established criteria. CONCLUSIONS: While PSM analysis is becoming increasingly prevalent in otolaryngologic literature, the quality of PSM methodology reporting can be improved. We provide potential recommendations for authors regarding optimal reporting for analyses using PSM.


Assuntos
Otolaringologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Viés , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22849, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused heavy burdens and brought tremendous challenges to global public health. This study aimed to investigate collaboration relationships, research topics, and research trends on COVID-19 using scientific literature. METHOD: COVID-19-related articles published from January 1 to July 1, 2020 were retrieved from PubMed database. A total of 27,370 articles were included. Excel 2010, Medical Text Indexer (MTI), VOSviewer, and D3.js were used to summarize bibliometric features. RESULTS: The number of the COVID-19 research publications has been continuously increasing after its break. United States was the most productive and active country for COVID-19 research, with the largest number of publications and collaboration relationships. Huazhong University of Science and Technology from China was the most productive institute on the number of publications, and University of Toronto from Canada ranked as Top 1 institute for global research collaboration. Four key research topics were identified, of which the topic of epidemiology and public health interventions has gathered highest attentions. Topic of virus infection and immunity has been more focused during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak compared with later stage. The topic popularity of clinical symptoms and diagnosis has been steady. CONCLUSIONS: Our topic analysis results revealed that the study of drug treatment was insufficient. To achieve critical breakthroughs of this research area, more interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, and global research collaborations are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Editoração/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências
12.
Trials ; 21(1): 815, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993804

RESUMO

An unprecedented volume of research has been generated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are risks of inefficient duplication and of important work being impeded if efforts are not synchronized. Excessive reliance on observational studies, which can be more rapidly conducted but are inevitably subject to measured and unmeasured confounders, can foil efforts to conduct rigorous randomized trials. These challenges are illustrated by recent global efforts to conduct clinical trials of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as a strategy for preventing COVID-19. Innovative strategies are needed to help overcome these issues, including increasing communication between the Data Safety and Monitoring Committees (DSMCs) of similar trials. It is important to reinforce the primacy of high-quality trials in generating unbiased answers to pressing prevention and treatment questions about COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 2159-2164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581514

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the fundamental characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) clinical trials registered in China. Methods: COVID-19 clinical trials registered in China were analyzed from databases on ChiCTR and ClinicalTrials.gov. The study designs, samples, primary end points, and intervention measures were evaluated. Results: In total, 262 intervention clinical trials were retrieved on March 10, 2020. Overall, 181 (69.1%) trials involved two groups, 200 (76.3%) trials were randomized parallel trials, 24 (9.2%) trials were double blind, and 60.3% of trials included ≤100 participants. Sixty (22.9%) trials considered symptom improvement as the primary endpoint and 43 (16.4%) trials considered the rate or time at which the subjects became virus-free as the primary endpoint. Of 262 intervention studies, chemical drugs and biological products were studied in 105 (40.1%) intervention studies, of which antiviral drugs accounted for 15.3% and malaria drugs accounted for 8.4% of the studies. Among all trials, 27.9% of the studies used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 10.3% used cell therapy, and 5.0% used plasma therapy. Conclusion: This study is the first snapshot of the landscape of COVID-19 clinical trials registered in China and provided the basic features of clinical trial designs for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 to offer useful information to guide future clinical trials on COVID-19 in other countries.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/tendências
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the change of the risk of bias (RoB) of acupuncture randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the past five decades. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched. We included RCTs identified from systematic reviews (SRs) on acupuncture. General characteristics and RoB judgment for each domain were extracted. The proportions of RCTs at high and unclear RoB were calculated and the changes were examined by the Mann-Kendall test. RESULTS: We included 368 SRs including 4 715 RCTs. The rates of RCTs at unclear RoB were the highest in allocation concealment (63%), and at the lowest in incomplete outcome data (35%); in the last five decades, statistically significant reductions were found for random sequence generation (P < 0.001) and selective reporting (P = 0.01), and increases for blinding of participants and personnel (P < 0.001), blinding of outcome assessment (P < 0.001) and incomplete outcome data (P = 0.04). For the proportions of RCTs at high RoB, blinding of participants and personnel (47%) and blinding of outcome assessment (35%) were the poorest domains; there were no significant differences in changes for all domains. CONCLUSIONS: Although improvements concerning unclear risk were observed for random sequence generation and selective reporting, major issues remain for allocation concealment and blinding. It is imperative to use valid randomization, specify how it is conducted, and try to test for selection bias and the success of masking by using the Berger Exner test.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Viés de Seleção
18.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 13(1): 38, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576291

RESUMO

The recent and rapid emergence of COVID-19 infection has led to a flood of publications describing all aspects of the disease and its presentation. The appearance of chilblain-like lesions, in children and young adults has particularly caught the attention of healthcare professionals with an interest in the foot. With such a novel infection, demand for information is high at a time when evidence is scarce. Consequently, there has been a renaissance in the publication of case studies. This type of research, previously relegated from many mainstream journals, as a low level source of evidence, has permitted the rapid reporting, publication and dissemination of much needed clinical data which can be used as a foundation to inform further research and investigations about a new global infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Publicações/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(16): 4198-4200, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503806

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health threat (1). Patients with cancer are one of the most vulnerable populations. During this pandemic, clinical trial accrual to NCI studies has fallen dramatically. Investigators quickly turned to regulatory bodies to simplify treatment schedules, facilitate telemedicine, and decrease required data collection. Going forward, the oncology research community must use the lessons learned to focus on redesigning studies to ensure that critical scientific questions are answered safely while expanding access and increasing partnerships with community physicians. These changes will accelerate clinical progress while protecting our patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Oncologia/normas , National Cancer Institute (U.S.)/normas , National Cancer Institute (U.S.)/tendências , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Telemedicina/normas , Telemedicina/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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