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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134501, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689655

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are a vital component of freshwater phytoplankton, and many species are recognized for their ability to produce toxins and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Nitrogen is an essential element of all the complex macromolecules in algal cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the changes in transcriptomic patterns and physiological responses in response to N starvation is poorly understood. The transcriptomes were generated via RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to study the major metabolic pathway under N starvation. The results shed light on the mechanism of toxin production and physiological adaptations in Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa). The cell density gradually increased during the first two days then declined over time and was finally stable at (15.50 ±â€¯0.5) × 105 cell mL-1 after 6 days. The chlorophyll-a content and phycocyanin content of M. aeruginosa increased during the first two days and subsequently decreased markedly over time under N starvation. The variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm ratio) decreased with time under N starvation. Most photosynthesis genes have similarity decreasing trends with growth physiological changes. The microcystins (MCs) levels generally increased first, reaching a peak value with 1.35 pg cell-1 on the fifth day, and then remained roughly constant. The genes involved in N metabolism-related gene expression were upregulated to maintain normal biological activity, while the genes involved in photosynthesis-related gene expression were downregulated to save energy. All genes encoding algae toxin synthesis were upregulated under N starvation. The observed expression patterns demonstrate that all MCs genes respond similarly to MCs production within the cell. Our results indicate the response mechanism of M. aeruginosa under N starvation and provide a comprehensive understanding of N-controlling cyanobacteria and MCs synthesis.


Assuntos
Microcistinas/metabolismo , Microcystis/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Cianobactérias , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Transcriptoma
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109945, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753309

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms dominated by Microcystis frequently produce microcystins, a family of toxins capable of inflicting harm to pelagic and benthic freshwater invertebrates. Research on the effect of microcystins on invertebrates is inconclusive; from one perspective, studies suggest invertebrates can coexist in toxic blooms; however, studies have also measured negative food-associated effects from microcystins. To test the latter perspective, we examined the reproduction, growth, and survival of laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Hexagenia spp. exposed to cell-bound microcystins through a series of life-cycle bioassays. Test organisms were exposed to a concentration gradient ranging from 0.5 µg L-1 to 300 µg L-1 microcystins, which corresponds to values typically found in freshwaters during bloom season. Lethal concentrations in C. dubia (LC50 = 5.53 µg L-1) and D. magna (LC50 = 85.72 µg L-1) exposed to microcystins were among the lowest recorded to date, and reproductive effects were observed at concentrations as low as 2.5 µg L-1. Length of D. magna was significantly impacted in microcystin treatments great than 2.5 µg L-1. No lethality or growth impairments were observed in Hexagenia. This information will improve our understanding of the risks posed by microcystins to food webs in freshwaters.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ephemeroptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ephemeroptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Dose Letal Mediana , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122246, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629286

RESUMO

Using biological treatment to deal with harmful algal blooms is highly potential over the physical and chemical methods due to its species specificity and eco-friendly characteristics. In this study, algicidal broth were produced from a Vibrio sp. co-culture composed mainly of V. brasilliensis and V. tubiashii. The productivity of the algicidal compounds was optimized under a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1 with a minimum algicidal broth dosage of 0.3% for 100% algal lysis. The algicidal threshold and EC50 of the spray-dried algicidal broth were 0.17 and 0.68 g/L, respectively. Treatment with the algicidal agents led to an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level that causes membrane damage as supported by the increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. and a further inhibition to the antioxidant system as indicated by a sharp decrease in the catalase (CAT) activity. The algicidal compound was identified as hexahydro pyrrolo[1,2-a] pyr azine-1,4-dione.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Vibrio , Técnicas de Cocultura , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Malondialdeído
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134323, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522044

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased as a result of global climate and environmental changes, exerting increasing impacts on the aquatic ecosystem, coastal economy, and human health. Despite great research efforts, our understanding on the drivers of HABs is still limited in part because HAB species' physiology is difficult to probe in situ. Here, we used molecular ecological analyses to characterize a dinoflagellate bloom at Xiamen Harbor, China. Prorocentrum donghaiense was identified as the culprit, which nutrient bioassays showed were not nutrient-limited. Metatranscriptome profiling revealed that P. donghaiense highly expressed genes related to N- and P-nutrient uptake, phagotrophy, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, oxidative phophorylation, and rhodopsin) and carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle and pentose phosphate) during the bloom. Many genes in P. donghaiense were up-regulated at night, including phagotrophy and environmental communication genes, and showed active expression in mitosis. Eight microbial defense genes were up-regulated in the bloom compared with previously analyzed laboratory cultures. Furthermore, 76 P. donghaiense microRNA were identified from the bloom, and their target genes exhibited marked differences in amino acid metabolism between the bloom and cultures and the potential of up-regulated antibiotic and cell communication capabilities. These findings, consistent with and complementary to recent reports, reveal major metabolic processes in P. donghaiense potentially important for bloom formation and provide a gene repertoire for developing bloom markers in future research.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , MicroRNAs
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1348-1358, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726564

RESUMO

Proliferating cyanobacterial blooms due eutrophication in reservoirs is a major global problem. The production of cyanotoxins often increases with grazing pressure and temperature while the sensitivity of zooplankton to cyanotoxins is directly related to temperature. Here we evaluate the effect of different concentrations of the crude extract of cyanobacteria from Valle de Bravo reservoir during dry (January) and rainy (September) seasons at 20 and 25 °C on the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus based on acute and chronic toxicity tests. We filtered 20 or 150 l of lake water, depending on the intensity of the bloom, and estimated the density and diversity of the cyanobacteria. The crude extracts, after 5 cycles of freezing, thawing and sonication at 14 MHz, were filtered and the microcystin concentration quantified based on ELISA. The extracts were used to conduct the acute and chronic toxicity tests, all in quadruplicate. Acute toxicity tests were based on 24 h mortality. Chronic toxicity tests (population growth and life table experiments) were conducted at 5 and 10% of the median lethal concentration. The field samples were dominated by Microcystis sp. (January) or Woronichinia naegeliana (September). The microcystin concentration in lake water was 9.57 µg/l and 0.097 µg/l and the median lethal concentration was 5.34 µg microcystin/L and 0.35 µg microcystin/L in January and September, respectively. Survival and reproduction of B. calyciflorus were lower in the presence of the cyanobacteria crude extract, more so at 20° than at 25 °C. Our results highlight the urgency of regular monitoring based on zooplankton assays for reservoirs in tropical and temperate regions, subject to frequent and dominant cyanobacterial blooms, often as a result of climate change.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Rotíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Eutrofização , México , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
6.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 826-836, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638032

RESUMO

There is a global concern regarding the occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and their effects on human health. Lake Victoria (LV) has been reported to face eutrophication challenges, resulting in an increase of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. This study is aimed at understanding the association of HABs and health risks at Ukerewe Island. A cross-sectional study conducted on 432 study subjects and water samples for cyanobacteria species identification were collected at LV shores. The results reveal that concentrations of cyanobacteria cells are beyond (WHO) acceptable limits; species of Microcystis aeruginosa range from 90,361.63 to 3,032.031.65 cells/mL and Anabaena spp. range from 13,310.00 to 4,814,702 cells/mL. Water usage indicates that 31% use lake water, 53% well water and 16% treated supplied pipe water. Vomiting and throat irritation was highly reported by lake water users as compared to wells and pipe water (P < 0.001). Gastrointestinal illness (GI) was significantly elevated among lake water users as compared to pipe and well water users (P < 0.001). Visible blooms in lake water were associated with GI, skin irritation and vomiting as compared to water without visible blooms (P < 0.001). The concentration of cyanobacteria blooms poses greater risks when water is used without treatment.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos/microbiologia , Microcystis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tanzânia
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13031-13041, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609108

RESUMO

Widespread coastal eutrophication is known to increase the prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Increased HABs have also been linked to climate change, with ocean warming predicted to lead to increased prevalence and earlier timing of HABs. Testing the predictions of warming to HABs is difficult due to the lack of long-term observations across spatial scales. Here, we use a 45 year (1970-2015) record of the occurrence and duration of HABs along Chinese coast to show that the HAB frequency has increased at a rate of 40 ± 4% decade-1, with earlier timing by 5.50 ± 1.78 days decade-1. The increasing frequency of blooms varied with latitude and is significantly correlated with warming at an average rate of 0.17 ± 0.03 °C decade-1, with the positive relationship being strongest in more eutrophic provinces. HAB frequency increased with elevated dissolved inorganic nutrient concentration, but this increase was amplified further with warming. Warming and eutrophication showed additive roles in triggering HABs. Swift action to mitigate eutrophication is essential to avoid a sharp increase in the HABs in coastal waters with further warming.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Mudança Climática
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 105-117, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590766

RESUMO

The Beagle Channel is a remote subantarctic environment where mussel aquaculture initiatives have existed since the early 1990s. Here we analyze phytoplankton biomass and composition, and the occurrence of harmful microalgae species and their toxins at three sites during the period 2015-2016. The occurrence of potentially harmful algae was observed throughout the study period, including toxigenic dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium catenella (Group I of the A. tamarense complex), A. ostenfeldii, Dinophysis acuminata, Gonyaulax spinifera, Azadinium sp., and the diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. fraudulenta. Toxic dinoflagellates were detected in low densities whereas a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was observed in late February. Isolates of A. catenella and P. delicatissima sensu stricto were phylogenetically characterized. The toxin profile of A. catenella was dominated by GTX4, while P. delicatissima sensu stricto showed no production of the neurotoxin domoic acid in culture conditions. The results provide base-line information for the management of harmful algal blooms in this little explored subantarctic area.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Diatomáceas/química , Dinoflagelados/química , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Fitoplâncton/química , Animais , Biomassa , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Sul
9.
Eur J Protistol ; 71: 125642, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654920

RESUMO

The marine dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a harmful algal bloom (HAB) species that severely impacts the environment and causes huge economic losses. Yellow clay (YC), considered to be a non-toxic and naturally-occurring material, represents an important step towards the direct control of HABs. In the present study, we evaluated the physiological and biochemical effects of YC on C. polykrikoides after exposures of up to 72 h. We observed little physiological changes in growth rate, chlorophyll a, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and activity of alkaline phosphatase after exposure to YC. Interestingly, YC significantly increased total carbohydrate and glutathione levels, affecting the physiology of the cells. These results indicate that total carbohydrate content may play an important role in cell-clay aggregation and it could be the main underlying mechanism that mitigates HAB cells via sedimentation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Argila/parasitologia , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Argila/química , Proliferação Nociva de Algas
10.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 689-700, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655863

RESUMO

Water is essential to human life around the world, but there are numerous threats to its quality both internationally and nationally. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to examine public perceptions of water-related environmental concerns in northwest Ohio. In fall 2015, nine focus groups on environmental health conditions were conducted with Lucas County, Ohio residents. Each 90-min focus group was videotaped and professionally transcribed to maximize data capture and facilitate data analysis. Colaizzi's (1978) method of content analysis was applied to make sense of the participants' environmental concerns related to water. The majority of the 93 participants were white females between the ages of 40 and 59. A do-not-drink advisory related to a harmful algal bloom in the summer of 2014 and the possibility of a future bloom were still prominent in residents' minds that affected their perceptions and behaviors 1 year later. The emergent themes included: (1) avoiding the use of tap water due to concerns about water quality, (2) mourning the loss of a precious resource and their childhood recreational activities, (3) believing there are financial impacts associated with water problems, (4) distrusting the actions and decisions of persons in authority, (5) wanting to stop fighting about who is to blame and determine the problem's real cause, and (6) desiring actions and planning by authorities to prevent future problems. Understanding public perceptions of water-related environmental concerns can inform practitioners worldwide on successful approaches to restoring trust, educating about and communicating risk, and planning for future issues.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos , Adulto , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Água , Qualidade da Água
11.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113149, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522007

RESUMO

Antibiotics have been widely detected in the ocean and have various impacts on the environment, while knowledge of their chronic influence on phytoplankton, especially red tide algae, is still limited. Dinoflagellates and green algae are common phytoplankton in marine ecosystems. The former is the main red tide algae, and the latter is an important primary producer. We investigated the long-term responses of two representative algae, Prorocentrum lima and Chlorella sp., to two common antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and norfloxacin (NFX)) at environmentally relevant levels (10 and 100 ng/L) during simulated natural conditions. The cell density and activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD)) were analyzed. The results showed that the influence of each antibiotic on Chlorella sp. was not significant (p > 0.05) during the first 10 days, but the influence of the antibiotics later began to show significant inhibition (p < 0.05) compared with the control group, especially during mixed exposure. P. lima was not inhibited, but its cell density increased. SMX had a superior stimulation effect on P. lima. The three enzymes activities of P. lima increased, and the antioxidant mechanism was not seriously impacted. However, for Chlorella sp., the activity of SOD increased while the activities of CAT and POD decreased, suggesting that this algae's antioxidant system was unbalanced due to oxidative stress. Based on our results, the growth of P. lima was different from green algae Chlorella sp. as well as other inhibited marine algae (such as diatom, golden algae) studied in previous studies. Therefore, as a typical pollutant in the ocean, antibiotics may play a positive role in the bloom of dinoflagellate red tides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Poluentes da Água/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1037-1047, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539936

RESUMO

Dinoflagellates represent major contributors to the harmful algal blooms in the oceans. Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient that limits the growth and proliferation of dinoflagellates. However, the specific molecular mechanisms involved in the P acclimation of dinoflagellates remain poorly understood. Here, the transcriptomes of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense grown under inorganic P-replete, P-deficient, and inorganic- and organic P-resupplied conditions were compared. Genes encoding low- and high-affinity P transporters were significantly down-regulated in the P-deficient cells, while organic P utilization genes were significantly up-regulated, indicating strong ability of P. donghaiense to utilize organic P. Up-regulation of membrane phospholipid catabolism and endocytosis provided intracellular and extracellular organic P for the P-deficient cells. Physiological responses of P. donghaiense to dissolved inorganic P (DIP) or dissolved organic P (DOP) resupply exhibited insignificant differences. However, the corresponding transcriptomic responses significantly differed. Although the expression of multiple genes was significantly altered after DIP resupplementation, few biological processes varied. In contrast, various metabolic processes associated with cell growth, such as translation, transport, nucleotide, carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, were significantly altered in the DOP-resupplied cells. Our results indicated that P. donghaiense evolved diverse DOP utilization strategies to adapt to low P environments, and that DOPs might play critical roles in the P. donghaiense bloom formation.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Oceanos e Mares , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133721, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400686

RESUMO

The use of short-term, fast-acting curative treatments to rapidly suppress the proliferation of upcoming cyanobacterial blooms without negative side effects on overall water quality is important for environmental regulatory agencies. A 15-day in situ mesocosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of algal harvest at different intensities and the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the mitigation of cyanobacterial blooms, subsequent algal growth and phytoplankton community structure. The results indicate that filtration through a 30-µm-pore-size net could remove most of the Microcystis colonies, leading to a decline in algal biomass. However, algal harvest at 30% and 60% intensities tended to promote cyanobacterial growth under nutrient-replete conditions, and the mitigation effect only lasted a few days, since cyanobacteria biomass exhibited no significant difference between the control and those two treatments on Day 6. When the algal harvest intensity was 90%, the cyanobacterial biomass remained at a relatively low level for 15 days. The average Microcystis colony size rapidly returned to the initial level after an initial decline across all the algal harvest intensities, indicating that algal harvest should be repeatedly performed within a short time period to mitigate Microcystis blooms. Furthermore, removing Microcystis colonies by filtration led to increased diversity in the phytoplankton community, as the proportion of non-Microcystis cyanobacteria increased with harvest intensity. This result might pose a challenge for cyanobacterial bloom control over the long term if filamentous cyanobacteria become dominant. The 10.0 mg L-1 H2O2 treatment selectively suppressed cyanobacteria throughout the experimental period, leading to succession from a cyanobacteria-dominated to a Chlorophyta-dominated community after Day 9. Overall, using hydrogen peroxide is more effective than algal harvesting as a one-time quick curative measure.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microalgas , Microcistinas , Microcystis , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133776, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426003

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing in intensity worldwide, including the western basin of Lake Erie. Substantial efforts have been made to track these blooms using in situ sampling and remote sensing. However, such measurements do not fully capture HAB spatial and temporal dynamics due to the limitations of discrete shipboard sampling over large areas and the effects of clouds and winds on remote sensing estimates. To address these limitations, we develop a space-time geostatistical modeling framework for estimating HAB intensity and extent using chlorophyll a data sampled during the HAB season (June-October) from 2008 to 2017 by five independent monitoring programs. Based on the Bayesian information criterion for model selection, trend variables explain bloom northerly and easterly expansion from Maumee Bay, wind effects over depth, and variability among sampling methods. Cross validation results demonstrate that space-time kriging explains over half of the variability in daily, location-specific chlorophyll observations, on average. Conditional simulations provide, for the first time, comprehensive estimates of overall bloom biomass (based on depth-integrated concentrations) and surface areal extent with quantified uncertainties. These new estimates are contrasted with previous Lake Erie HAB monitoring studies, and deviations among estimates are explored and discussed. Overall, results highlight the importance of maintaining sufficient monitoring coverage to capture bloom dynamics, as well as the benefits of the proposed approach for synthesizing data from multiple monitoring programs to improve estimation accuracy while reducing uncertainty.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Modelos Estatísticos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110488, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421564

RESUMO

To understand and predict the outbreak of red tides, which are often dominated by mixotrophic dinoflagellates (MTDs), the effects of "top-down" control by co-occurring predators on red-tide MTDs should be taken into consideration. We studied the numerical and functional responses of the tintinnid ciliate Favella ehrenbergii feeding on two red-tide MTDs, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Heterocapsa triquetra, under single and mixed prey conditions. Our results suggest that a mixed diet could support a better growth of predators compared to a monodiet. In addition, the predators preferred to graze S. trochoidea in the mixed diets, suggesting that predators may switch their feeding preference. The grazing by tintinnid predators could potentially inhibit the outbreaks of red tides dominated by MTDs. The findings in this study provide basic data and new insights for understanding the complex predator-prey relationships in marine microbial food webs, and the dynamics of red tides dominated by MTDs.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Cadeia Alimentar , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Animais , Dieta , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Predatório
16.
Water Res ; 165: 115005, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450218

RESUMO

The treatment of harmful algal blooms (HABs) by in-situ flocculation is an emerging technology capable of efficiently removing HABs from natural waters. However, differences in salinity, pH and algal species in freshwaters and seawaters can influence the flocculation treatment. In this study, we developed a bicomponent modified soil using amphoteric starch (AS) and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) in order to effectively flocculate microalgae under broad salinity conditions. Specifically, the impacts of water salinity (0-3.3%), pH (3-11), and algal species (Microcystis aeruginosa and marine Chlorella sp.) were investigated in order to evaluate efficiency, dosage and mechanisms of algae flocculation. The results showed that AS-PAC modified soils possessed excellent resistance to salinity change due to the anti-polyelectrolyte effect of AS, which contributed to 99.9% removal efficiency of M. aeruginosa in fresh and saline waters, and Chlorella sp. in marine water, respectively. The dosage of the flocculant modifier was only 10-20% of that of another proven modifier (i.e. Moringa oleifera), which substantially reduced the material cost. The high salinity tolerance of algal flocculation by the AS-PAC modified soil was attributed to the synergistic processes of charge neutralization and netting-bridging. Thus, this study has developed a universal flocculant and revealed fundamental mechanisms for the mitigation of HABs under broad salinity conditions.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Floculação , Tolerância ao Sal , Solo , Amido
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133930, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470329

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and the invasion of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) have become important environmental problems in intertidal zones of China, which caused serious damage on the coastal ecological systems. By using S. alterniflora as algaecide, this helps to utilize this invasive plant, in addition, is expected to help to control the expansion of S. alterniflora. The potential of S. alterniflora in HABs mitigation was investigated on controlling Phaeocystis globosa (haptophyceae) and Prorocentrum donghaiense (dinophyceae). The growth of both HABs species was significantly inhibited at high concentrations, and P. globosa was more sensitive than P. donghaiense. Furthermore, the extracts of S. alterniflora reduced the effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative maximal electron transport rate of both algal species at high concentrations, which implies a disruption on their photosynthetic system. Flavonoids, which were previously known as antialgal chemicals, were found to be abundant in the extracts of S. alterniflora by UPLC-MS detection. Our results revealed that the potential of S. alterniflora as a novel antialgal agent for controlling HABs, simultaneously, resource utilization possibility for the invasive plant S. alterniflora.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Haptófitas , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Poaceae , China , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Introduzidas , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1193-1200, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390709

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are considered a major threat for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. The presence of HABs in the raw feed water can cause increase of chemical consumption within the desalination plant, increase membrane fouling rate and might lead to plant shutdown. The removal of Algal Organic Matters (AOMs) during the pretreatment will help in increasing the membrane lifetime, reduce operation cost and increase the plant reliability. In this study, the efficiency of liquid ferrate and ferric chloride during coagulation on the removal of AOMs was investigated. The liquid ferrate was generated in-situ by wet oxidation of ferric iron using hypochlorite in a caustic medium. Two seawater models were employed, the first one contains 10 mg c/L of sodium alginate and the second one contains also 10 mg c/L of Chaetoceros affinis algae (CA). During the advanced coagulation, liquid ferrate proved to be more effective in removing AOM than ferric chloride, with an overall DOC removal of 90%, enabling 100% algal removal and the inactivation of 99.99% of the microorganisms. The results presented in this study highlights the efficiency of liquid ferrate as seawater pretreatment during the HABs events.


Assuntos
Água do Mar/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cloretos , Diatomáceas , Compostos Férricos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Ferro , Membranas Artificiais , Oxirredução
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 969-980, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326819

RESUMO

A good understanding of lead (Pb) mobilization in eutrophic lakes is a key to the accurate assessment of Pb pollution. In this work, dissolved and labile Pb was determined by both high resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) in sediment-water profiles of the hyper-eutrophic Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu on a monthly basis during one year. The drinking water standards for dissolved Pb of the World Health Organization (10µg/L) and those of China were exceeded in the overlying water (20.79-118.5µg/L). Out of which, a total of five months even exceeded the fisheries water quality limitation (50µg/L) in China. The algal blooms created an anaerobic environment in the surface sediments in July. The reductive conditions led to the dissolution of Fe/Mn and this caused the release of Pb, followed by organic matter complexation. This was supported by the coincident changes of dissolved Pb with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sediments under anaerobic incubation. Algae residue decomposition in October caused another distinct release of Pb, but this process should be considerably suppressed by increased sulfide precipitation and pyrite adsorption of Pb ion. These results indicated that Pb mobilization in sediments can be significantly enhanced by algal blooms in eutrophic lakes, indicating that further attention should be paid to Pb pollution in waters with harmful algal blooms.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(15): 9160-9170, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328506

RESUMO

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) are becoming a major challenge for the management of both natural and man-made freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Phytoplankton communities are an essential component of aquatic ecosystems, providing the basis for natural food webs as well as important environmental services. HCBs, driven by a combination of environmental pollution and rising global temperatures, destabilize phytoplankton communities with major impacts on aquatic ecology and trophic interactions. Application of currently available algaecides generally results in unselective elimination of phytoplankton species, disrupting water ecology and environmental services provided by beneficial algae. There is thus a need for selective cyanocidal compounds that can eliminate cyanobacteria while preserving algal members of the phytoplankton community. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of N-halamine derivatized nanoparticles (Cl NPs) in selectively eliminating cyanobacteria, including the universal bloom-forming species Microcystis aeruginosa, while having minimal effect on co-occurring algal species. We further support these results with the use a simple microfluidic platform in combination with advanced live-imaging microscopy to study the effects of Cl NPs on both laboratory cultures and natural populations of cyanobacteria and algae at single cell resolutions. We note that the Cl NPs used in this work were made of polymethacrylamide, a nonbiodegradable polymer that may be unsuitable for use as a cyanocide in open aquatic environments. Nevertheless, the demonstrated selective action of these Cl NPs suggests a potential for developing alternative, biodegradable carriers with similar properties as future cyanocidal agents that will enable selective elimination of HCBs.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Nanopartículas , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos , Fitoplâncton
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