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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105191, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075734

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms produced by the phytoplankton species Karenia brevis and its associated neurotoxin, brevetoxin (PbTx), occur throughout the Gulf of Mexico and have had devastating impacts on co-occurring populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), an important marine sentinel species. The majority of documented impacts, however, are from the eastern Gulf of Mexico, with a critical lack of information on the degree and frequency of PbTx exposure in bottlenose dolphins from Texas coastal waters. This study documents PbTx exposure in Texas bottlenose dolphins between 2007 and 2017 and their association with co-occurring K. brevis blooms. PbTx was detected in 60% (n = 112) of the animals tested. Liver tissue samples had the highest frequency of detection (62%), followed by feces (41.4%) and gastric contents (30.4%). PbTx was not detected in urine or intestinal tissue. The concentration ranges of PbTx detected in feces (1.2-216, mean 38.4 ng/g), gastric contents (3.3-1016, mean 158 ng/g) and liver (0.6-52.4, mean 8.5 ng/g) samples were an order of magnitude less than values reported for Florida dolphins for the same sample types. The proportion of dolphins recovered within 4 weeks of a bloom that tested positive for PbTx ('Bloom' group; 75%) was significantly higher compared to those that were recovered 5-8 weeks after termination of a bloom ('Post-Bloom' group; 36%; p = 0.004). The proportion of PbTx-positive animals with no observed bloom association ('Baseline' group; 60%) was also significantly greater than the Post-Bloom group (p = 0.012). No significant difference in proportion of PbTx-positive animals was detected between Bloom and Baseline groups (p = 0.242). No significant differences in liver PbTx concentrations were observed between any pairwise combinations of the 3 exposure groups (p = 0.261). Overall, these findings suggest persistent PbTx exposure for many individuals in these populations, although the health impacts of such exposure are not known.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Florida , Golfo do México , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , Neurotoxinas , Texas
2.
Water Res ; 185: 116292, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086464

RESUMO

The current study reports the community succession of different toxin and non-toxin producing cyanobacteria at different stages of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) and their connectivity with nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in a freshwater lake using an ecogenomics framework. Comprehensive high throughput DNA sequencing, water quality parameter measurements, and functional gene expressions over temporal and spatial scales were employed. Among the cyanobacterial community, the lake was initially dominated by Cyanobium during the months of May, June, and early July, and later primarily by Aphanizomenon and Dolichospermum depicting functional redundancy. Finally, Planktothrix appeared in late August and then the dominance switched to Planktothrix in September. Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis panniformis; two species responsible for cyanotoxin production, were also present in August and September, but in significantly smaller relative abundance. MC-LR (0.06-1.32 µg/L) and MC-RR (0.01-0.26 µg/L) were two major types of cyanotoxins detected. The presence of MC-LR and MC-RR were significantly correlated with the Microcystis-related genes (16SMic/mcyA/mcyG) and their expressions (r = 0.33 to 0.8, p < 0.05). The metabolic analyses further linked the presence of different cyanobacterial groups with distinct functions. The nitrogen metabolisms detected a relatively higher abundance of nitrite/nitrate reductase in early summer, indicating significant denitrification activity and the activation of N-fixation in the blooms dominated by Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum (community richness) during nutrient-limited conditions. The phosphorus and carbohydrate metabolisms detected a trend to initiate a nutrient starvation alert and store nutrients from early summer, while utilizing the stored polyphosphate and carbohydrate (PPX and F6PPK) during the extreme ortho-P scarcity period, mostly in August or September. Specifically, the abundance of Aphanizomenon and Dolichospermum was positively correlated with the nitrogen-fixing nif gene and (p < 0.001) and the PPX enzyme for the stored polyphosphate utilization (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the lake experienced a longer N-fixing period (2-3 months) before non-fixing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix) dominated the entire lake in late summer. The Provo Bay site, which is known to be nutrient-rich historically, had early episodes of filamentous cyanobacteria blooms compared to the rest of the lake.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microbiota , Cianobactérias/genética , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos , Microcystis
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946494

RESUMO

Limited data coverage on harmful algal blooms (HABs) in some regions makes assessment of long-term trends difficult, and also impedes understanding of bloom ecology. Here, observations reported in a local newspaper were combined with cell count and environmental data from resource management agencies to assess trends in Karenia brevis "red tide" frequency and duration in the Nueces Estuary (Texas) and adjacent coastal waters, and to determine relationships with environmental factors. Based on these analyses, the Coastal Bend region of the Texas coast has experienced a significant increase in the frequency of red tide blooms since the mid-1990s. Salinity was positively correlated with red tide occurrence in the Nueces Estuary, and a documented long-term increase in salinity of the Nueces Estuary may be a major factor in the long-term increase in bloom frequency. This suggests that freshwater inflow management efforts in Texas should consider impacts on red tide habitat suitability (i.e., salinity regime) in downstream estuaries. Natural climate variability such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which is strongly related to rainfall and salinity in Central and South Texas, was also an influential predictor of red tide presence/absence. Though no significant change in the duration of blooms was detected, there was a negative correlation between duration and temperature. Specifically, summer-like temperatures were not favorable to K. brevis bloom development. The relationships found here between red tide frequency/duration and environmental drivers present a new avenue of research that will aid in refining monitoring and forecasting efforts for red tides on the Texas coast and elsewhere. Findings also highlight the importance of factors (i.e., salinity, temperature) that are likely to be altered in the future due to both population growth in coastal watersheds and anthropogenic climate change.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Mudança Climática , Dinoflagelados/patogenicidade , Previsões , Golfo do México , Salinidade , Temperatura , Texas
4.
Water Res ; 186: 116349, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882452

RESUMO

Machine learning modeling techniques have emerged as a potential means for predicting algal blooms. In this study, synthetic spatio-temporal water quality data for a river section were generated with a 3D water quality model and used to investigate the capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) for predicting harmful cyanobacterial blooms. The CNN model displayed a reasonable capacity for short-term predictions of cyanobacteria (Microcystis) biomass. In the nowcasting of Microcystis, the CNN performance had a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.87. An increase in the forecast lead time resulted in a decrease in the prediction accuracy, reducing the NSE from 0.87 to 0.58. As the spatial observation density increased from 20% to 100% of the input image grids, the CNN prediction NSE had improved from 0.70 to 0.84. Adding noise to the data resulted in accuracy deterioration, but even at the noise amplitude of 10%, the accuracy was acceptable for some applications, with NSE = 0.76. Visualization of the CNN results characterized its performance variations across the studied river reach. Overall, this study successfully demonstrated the capability of the CNN model for cyanobacterial bloom prediction using high temporal frequency images.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes Neurais de Computação , Rios
5.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105010, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907730

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms of bacterioplankton community assembly and interspecies interactions during harmful algal blooms remain largely unclear. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the bacterioplankton communities over the continuous course of saxitoxin-producing Gymnodinium catenatum blooms and two diatom (i.e., Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros curvisetus) blooms in an anthropogenically controlled and eutrophic bay, East China Sea. The succession of bacterioplankton communities correlated with changes in the dynamics of algal species. Deterministic versus stochastic bacterioplankton community assemblage processes were quantified, demonstrating that stochastic processes increased when algal blooms happened. The occurrence of algal blooms caused weaker bacterioplankton interspecies interactions and higher degrees of cooperative activities, changed keystone taxa and diminished the stability of bacterial communities. These findings consequently have important implications for our understanding of bacterioplankton community ecology during algal blooms.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , China , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105014, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907732

RESUMO

Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium pacificum are representatives of the dinoflagellate genus that regularly proliferate on the French coasts and other global coastlines. These harmful species may threaten shellfish harvest and human health due to their ability to synthesize neurotoxic alkaloids of the saxitoxin group. However, some dinoflagellates such as A. minutum, and as reported here A. pacificum as well, may also have a beneficial impact on the environment by producing dimethylsulfoniopropionate-DMSP, the precursor of dimethylsulfur-DMS and sulfate aerosols involved in climate balance. However, environmental conditions might influence Alexandrium physiology towards the production of harmful or environmentally friendly compounds. After assessing the influence of two salinity regimes (33 and 38) relative to each species origin (Atlantic French coast and Mediterranean Lagoon respectively), it appears that DMSP and toxin content was variable between the three experimented strains and that higher salinity disadvantages toxin production and tends to favor the production of the osmolytes DMSP and glycine betaine. Hence, this key metabolite production is strain and species-dependent and is influenced by environmental conditions of salinity which in turn, can diversely affect the environment. Widespread coastal blooms of A. minutum and A. pacificum, although being a risk for seafood contamination with toxins, are also a DMSP and DMS source that potentially contribute to the ecosystem structuration and climate. Regarding recent advances in DMSP biosynthesis pathway, 3 dsyB homologs were found in A. minutum but no homolog of the diatom sequence TpMMT.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Salinidade , Frutos do Mar
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111609, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890961

RESUMO

Red tide has always been an environmental issue with global concern. A Noctiluca scintillans red tide and a Mesodinium red tide occurred successively in Yantai nearshore, China, where is usually oligotrophic, in October 2019. Currents, phytoplankton community composition and nutrients were analyzed to access the driving factors of the red tides. The maximum N. scintillans and Mesodiniium abundance reached 124.92 ± 236.84 × 103 cells/L and 1157.52 ± 1294.16 × 103 cells/L respectively. The fast growth of N. scintillans was due to increasing abundance of phytoplankton. The currents were crucial to the assembly and dispersal of red tides. The red tides significantly redistributed the nutrients in the red tide patches and regulated the dominant species in phytoplankton community. Our study illuminates the influence of physical-biochemical coupling processes on red tides, and suggests that ocean dynamics such as currents and tidal factors deserve more attention when considering the ecosystem health problems of coastal zones.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110963, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800234

RESUMO

Harmful Phaeocystis blooms disrupt seawater recreation and pose serious challenges to aquatic animals. The growth performance, phenotypic traits, and antioxidant responses of Brachionus plicatilis Müller to different proportions of Phaeocystis globosa were evaluated. B. plicatilis rotifers were exposed to cultures with Chlorella sp. and P. globosa alone and in mixtures of these two algae with proportions of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The total proportions of the two algae were maintained at 100%. Results showed that P. globosa inhibited the rotifer net reproduction rate, intrinsic growth rate, and finite rate of increase (P < 0.01). It induced the formation of defense phenotypic traits in terms of the increased posterolateral spine length and the reduced body length, swimming speed, and grazing rate of B. plicatilis (P < 0.001). Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased, but the reactive oxygen species levels increased as the proportions of P. globosa increased (P < 0.01). The mixture of 50% Chlorella and 50% Phaeocystis positively affected the glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase activity, and generation time of rotifers (P < 0.01). Although P. globosa released toxicants with harmful effects on the growth performance of B. plicatilis, rotifers changed their antioxidant defense system and formed defense phenotypic traits in response to eutrophic conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Haptófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Rotíferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Rotíferos/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Natação
9.
Water Res ; 185: 116264, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791455

RESUMO

Coolia malayensis is one of the commonly found benthic dinoflagellates in Hong Kong which can produce biotoxins and threaten the early life stages of marine invertebrates. Seawater temperature has been recognized as one of the primary environmental factors that affect the formation of harmful algal blooms. The present study evaluated the responses of C. malayensis, including growth, toxicity and toxin content (putative analogues of okadaic acid and azaspiracids), after exposure to a range of seven different temperatures (i.e., 16°C, 18°C, 20°C, 22°C, 24°C, 26°C, and 28°C). The highest algal density and specific growth rate were recorded at 24°C. Significantly higher Fv/Fm (maximum quantum yield of PSII) and total phaeo-pigment values were observed in the exponential growth phase at 28°C. The toxicity of the algal extract, which was assessed by the lethality rate of Artemia larvae, increased with temperature. The highest toxin content was detected at the second highest temperature treatment, i.e., 26°C. Overall, temperature had significant effects on the physiological activities and toxicity of C. malayensis. This study has raised attention to the potentially increasing risks posed by toxic benthic dinoflagellates during heat waves in coastal waters.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Animais , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Hong Kong , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853898

RESUMO

The effects of allelopathy and the potential harm of several isolated allelochemicals have been studied in detail. Microorganisms in the phycosphere play an important role in algal growth, decay and nutrient cycling. However, it is unknown and often neglected whether allelochemicals affect the phycosphere. The present study selected a phenolic acid protocatechuic acid (PA) - previously shown to be an allelochemical. We studied PA at a half maximal effective concentration of 0.20 mM (30 mg L-1) against Scrippsiella trochoidea to assess the effect of PA on its phycosphere in an acute time period (48 h). The results showed that: 1) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in the treatment groups (31.4 ± 0.55) exceeded those of the control groups (28.2 ± 1.30) and the Shannon and Simpson indices were lower than the control groups (3.31 ± 0.08 and 0.84 ± 0.02, 3.45 ± 0.09 and 0.88 ± 0.01); 2) Gammaproteobacteria predominated in the treatment groups (44.71 ± 2.13 %) while Alphaproteobacteria dominated in the controls (67.17 ± 3.87 %); 3) Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were important biomarkers in the treatment and control groups respectively (LDA > 4.0). PA improved the relative abundance of Alteromonas significantly and decreased the one of Rhodobacteraceae. PICRUSt analysis showed that the decrease of Rhodobacterceae was closely related with the decline of most functional genes in metabolism such as amino acid, carbohydrate, xenobiotics, cofactors and vitamins metabolism after PA-treated.


Assuntos
Alelopatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Alelopatia/genética , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/genética , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111400, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753185

RESUMO

The dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum has worldwide distribution and is associated with harmful algal blooms through the production of karlotoxins. We investigated the allelopathy and toxicity to explore the potential ecological implications. Prorocentrum donghaiense was inhibited significantly when grown either in co-cultures or in culture filtrate of K. veneficum. In addition, the effect of the co-occurring microalga species (P. donghaiense) on the hemolytic activity of K. veneficum was also evaluated. P. donghaiense did not inhibit the growth of K. veneficum but increased the hemolytic activity. The culture of K. veneficum was loaded onto an RP-C18 column and eluted with different percentages of aqueous methanol solution. 80% methanol fraction not only inhibited the growth of P. donghaiense by allelopathy but also exhibited strong hemolytic activity, indicating that the allelochemicals and toxins of K. veneficum might be the same components. Furthermore, KmTx 3 (C68H124O24) was identified using HPLC-HRMS from this fraction.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Alelopatia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas
12.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115384, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823043

RESUMO

Water-lifting aerator (WLA) which was developed by Professor Tinglin Huang at Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, China has multi-functional water quality improvement that significantly inhibits the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in deep drinking water reservoirs. However, the biological mechanism of WLA to the suppress algal growth has not been comprehensively understood. Here, the cellular mechanism that allows WLA to control HABs was explored based on the combination of both laboratory simulation and field investigation. Under simulated hydrodynamic conditions, the results showed that the cell density, chlorophyll a content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and dehydrogenase activity in Microcystis aeruginosa all peaked under light conditions at 25 °C. The metabolic activity of M. aeruginosa varied significantly under low temperature at 6 °C and light conditions when cultured for 48 h. The extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) contents of M. aeruginosa were both resolved into three components. Moreover, the total fluorescence intensities from EOM and IOM both peaked under light conditions at 25 °C. The field investigation showed that the growth of algae was decreased significantly in Lijiahe drinking water reservoir with WLA application. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased significantly after vertical mixing, thereby indicating that the WLA weakened the photosynthetic ability and reduced the biological activity of algae in situ. In addition, the WLA significantly affected the vertical distribution of the phytoplankton community composition. Altogether, these results shed new lights on understanding the control of algal blooms by WLA in stratified drinking water reservoirs. WLA has broad prospect of engineering applications, which can control algal blooms of water supply resources in situ, therefore, reduce the content of disinfection by-products in drinking water treatment plants.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Microcystis , China , Clorofila A , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Remoção , Qualidade da Água
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111596, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861933

RESUMO

The effects of two harmful algae Alexandrium tamarense and Gymnodinium catenatum on ecological quality status were identified using biofilm-dwelling ciliate assemblage as test organism communities. The body-size spectra of the test ciliates were observed at a gradient of cell concentrations of both algal species: 100 (control), followed by102, 103, 104 and 105 cells ml-1. The test ciliates showed clear variations in body-size spectra along the concentration gradients of both algal species. In terms of probability density, the ciliates generally peaked at low levels of algal concentrations (100-104 cells ml-1) in small size forms, followed by the forms with large sizes at the concentration of 105 cells ml-1 of both algal species. Bootstrapped-average analysis demonstrated a significant change in body-size spectrum when algal concentrations were higher than 104 cells ml-1. It is suggested that the body-size spectrum of the ciliates may be used to indicate the effects of harmful algal bloom.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Dinoflagelados , Biofilmes , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614830

RESUMO

To investigate a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortality event following a red tide bloom in Southwest Florida, an RNA sequencing experiment was conducted. Gene expression changes in white blood cells were assessed in manatees rescued from a red tide affected area (n = 4) and a control group (n = 7) using RNA sequencing. The genes with the largest fold changes were compared between the two groups to identify molecular pathways related to cellular and disease processes. In total, 591 genes (false discovery rate <0.05) were differentially expressed in the red tide group. Of these, 158 were upregulated and 433 were downregulated. This suggests major changes in white blood cell composition following an exposure to red tide. The most highly upregulated gene, Osteoclast associated 2C immunoglobulin-like receptor (OSCAR), was upregulated 12-fold. This gene is involved in initiating the immune response and maintaining a role in adaptive and innate immunity. The most highly downregulated gene, Piccolo presynaptic cytomatrix protein (PCLO), was downregulated by a factor of 977-fold. This gene is associated with cognitive functioning and neurotransmitter release. Downregulation of this gene in other studies was associated with neuronal loss and neuron synapse dysfunction. Among the cellular pathways that were most affected, immune response, including inflammation, wounds and injuries, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were the most predominant. The pathway with the most differentially expressed genes was the immune response pathway with 98 genes involved, many of them downregulated. Assessing the changes in gene expression associated with red tide exposure enhances our understanding of manatee immune response to the red tide toxins and will aid in the development of red tide biomarkers.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Trichechus manatus/fisiologia , Animais , Buffy Coat/citologia , Florida , Ontologia Genética , Sistema Imunitário , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/envenenamento , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Neurotoxinas/envenenamento , Oxocinas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/sangue , Envenenamento/reabilitação , Envenenamento/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Transcriptoma , Trichechus manatus/sangue , Trichechus manatus/genética , Trichechus manatus/imunologia
15.
Water Res ; 184: 116120, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726741

RESUMO

The occurrence of harmful algal blooms dominated by toxic cyanobacteria has induced continuous loadings of algal organic matter (AOM) and toxins in drinking water treatment plants. However, the impact of AOM on the active biofilms and microbial community structures of biologically-active filtration (BAF), which directly affects the contaminant removal, is not well understood. In this study, we systematically examined the effects of AOM on BAF performance and bacterial biofilm formation over 240 days, tracing the removal of specific AOM components, a cyanotoxin [microcystin-LR (MC-LR)], and microbial community responses. The component analysis (excitation and emission matrix analysis) results for AOM revealed that terrestrial humic-like substances showed the highest removal among all the identified components and were strongly correlated to MC-LR removal. In addition, reduced empty bed contact time and deactivation of biofilms significantly decreased BAF performances for both AOM and MC-LR. The active biofilm, bacterial community structure, and mlrA gene (involved in microcystin degradation) abundance demonstrated that bacterial biofilm composition responded to AOM and MC-LR, in which Rhodocyclaceae, Saprospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae were dominant. In addition, MC-LR biodegradation appeared to be more active at the top than at the bottom layer in BAF. Overall, this study provides deeper insights into the role of biofilms and filter operation on the fate of AOM and MC-LR in BAF.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Filtração , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microcistinas
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140947, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721680

RESUMO

Retrospective analysis of water quality monitoring data reveals strong interannual shifts in the spatial distribution of two harmful algal species (Prorocentrum minimum and Karlodinium veneficum) in eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. A habitat model, based on the temperature and salinity tolerance of the two species as well as their nutrient preferences, provides a good interpretation for the observed seasonal progression and spatial distribution of these taxa. It also points to climate-induced variability in the hydrological forcing as a mechanism driving the interannual shifts in the algal distributions: both P. minimum and K. veneficum shift downstream during wetter years but upstream during dry years. Climate downscaling simulations using the habitat model show upstream shifts of the two species in the estuary and longer blooming seasons by the mid-21st century. Salt intrusion due to sea level rise will raise salinity in the estuary and cause these HAB species to migrate upstream, but increasing winter-spring flows may also drive favorable salinity habitat downstream. Warming leads to longer growing seasons of P. minimum and K. veneficum but may suppress bloom habitat during their respective peak bloom periods.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Baías , Ecossistema , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140341, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615428

RESUMO

The frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) in eutrophic waters pose serious threats to the water environment and health of human beings and animals. In this study, a new type of photocatalytic coating was prepared by loading Ag2CO3-N:GO (AGON) on the polyurethane sponge modified by silica sol via a dip coating method for the photocatalytic inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) and degradation of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The factors including photocatalyst loading dosage, natural organic matter (NOM), and alkalinity were studied. The effects on the physiological characteristics of M. aeruginosa and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated to reveal the photocatalytic inactivation mechanisms. The results showed that the AGON coating-4 (the initial concentration of AGON suspension used for loading is 4 g/L) exhibited the optimum photocatalytic performance under visible light, which can completely remove chlorophyll a after 5 h of irradiation. And the NOM and alkalinity in water have relatively negative effects on the photocatalytic inactivation of algae. The prepared AGON coating also exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MC-LR under visible light. It only needed 20, 60 and 120 min to completely degrade 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L MC-LR, respectively. However, the mixed systems of algae and MC-LR required a longer time to achieve photocatalytic degradation. The O2- were the predominant reactive oxygen species, causing the damage of cell membranes and walls and the leakage of cellular content, which eventually led to the irreversible damage to algal cells. What's more, the coating can be reused several times due to its good cyclability and stability. Therefore, the AGON coating has promising prospects for the treatment of algal blooms in eutrophic waters.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Prata , Animais , Clorofila A , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Luz , Microcistinas
18.
Water Res ; 183: 116020, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653764

RESUMO

Elucidating the interactions between algae and associated microbial communities is critical for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the dynamic of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in marine environment. However, the microbial functional profiles and their biogeochemical potential in HABs process remains elusive, especially during a complete natural HAB cycle. Here, we used pyrosequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip) to investigate microbial community dynamics and metabolic potential during a natural dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans) bloom. The results shown that bacterioplankton exhibited significant temporal heterogeneity over the course of the bloom stages. Microbial succession was co-driven by environmental parameters and biotic interactions. The functional analysis revealed significant variations in microbial metabolism during matter cycling. At bloom onset-stage, metabolic potential associated with iron oxidation and transport was elevated. Carbon fixation and degradation, denitrification, phosphorus acquisition, and sulfur transfer/oxidation were significantly enhanced at the plateau stage. During the decline and terminal stages, oxidative stress, lysis of compounds, and toxin degradation & protease synthesis increased. This work reveal phycosphere microorganisms can enhanced organic C decomposition capacity, altered N assimilation rate and S/P turnover efficiency, and balancing of the Fe budget during HAB process. The ecological linkage analysis has further shown that microbial composition and functional potential were significantly linked to algal blooms occurrence. It suggest that structural variability and functional plasticity of microbial communities influence HAB trajectory.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Microbiota , Organismos Aquáticos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fósforo
19.
Water Res ; 183: 115969, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721703

RESUMO

Frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and red tides in freshwater and seawater poses serious threats to water treatment and drives the application of membrane-based technologies in algal separation. Despite the high removal efficiency of algal cells and their metabolites (e.g. organic matter and toxins) by membranes, the generation of concentrate and waste streams presents a major challenge. In this paper, we review the scenarios under which membrane-based processes are integrated with algal separation, with particular attention given to (i) drinking water production and desalination at low algal concentrations and (ii) cyanobacteria-laden water treatment/desalination. The concentrate and waste streams from backwashing and membrane cleaning in each scenario are characterised with this information facilitating a better understanding of the transport of algal cells and metabolites in membrane processes. Current strategies and gaps in managing concentrate and waste streams are identified with guidance and perspectives for future studies discussed in an Eisenhower framework.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água , Água Doce , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Água do Mar , Águas Residuárias
20.
Water Res ; 182: 115959, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531494

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) in lakes and reservoirs represent a major risk for water authorities globally due to their toxicity and economic impacts. Anticipating bloom occurrence and understanding the main drivers of CyanoHABs are needed to optimize water resources management. An extensive review of the application of CyanoHABs forecasting and predictive models was performed, and a summary of the current state of knowledge, limitations and research opportunities on this topic is provided through analysis of case studies. Two modelling approaches were used to achieve CyanoHABs anticipation; process-based (PB) and data-driven (DD) models. The objective of the model was a determining factor for the choice of modelling approach. PB models were more frequently used to predict future scenarios whereas DD models were employed for short-term forecasts. Each modelling approach presented multiple variations that may be applied for more specific, targeted purposes. Most models reviewed were site-specific. The monitoring methodologies, including data frequency, uncertainty and precision, were identified as a major limitation to improve model performance. A lack of standardization of both model output and performance metrics was observed. CyanoHAB modelling is an interdisciplinary topic and communication between disciplines should be improved to facilitate model comparisons. These shortcomings can hinder the adoption of modelling tools by practitioners. We suggest that water managers should focus on generalising models for lakes with similar characteristics and where possible use high frequency monitoring for model development and validation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Eutrofização , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos
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