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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5297-5310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) may possess putative antitumoral properties; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We evaluated the antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of enoxaparin (a LMWH) in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and assessed the possible mechanism involved, and the effect on doxorubicin's efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proliferation and migration were evaluated using BrdU and transwell assays, respectively. Immunoblotting was used to measure PAR-1, PAR-2, MMP-2, ERK1/2 and Akt proteins. Apoptosis and cell cycle studies examined the combined effect of enoxaparin and doxorubicin. RESULTS: Enoxaparin inhibited A549 cell proliferation and migration. Following PAR-1 gene knock down, enoxaparin's effect on A549 cell proliferation was diminished compared to scrambled siRNA. Our experiments verified that enoxaparin-mediated down-regulation of MAPK and PI3K, reduced MMP-2 expression and inhibited A549 cell migration. Additionally, enoxaparin increased doxorubicin's efficacy by enhancing apoptosis, while no effect on cell-cycle progression was observed. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the anticancer activity of enoxaparin in A549 cells was mediated by the interference of two major PAR-1 downstream signaling pathways, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt, which in turn inhibit proliferation and migration. Therefore, enoxaparin may be promising as an adjunct to traditional chemotherapy for lung cancer and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Enoxaparina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5339-5344, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Gemcitabine is standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, however the efficacy is limited. Although acquired drug resistance and side-effects are known to limit efficacy, opposite effects of a drug, which enhance the malignancy of treated cancer, have been observed but are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether gemcitabine has such opposite effects on the BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell line expressing green fluorescent protein (BxPC-3-GFP) in an orthotopic mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BxPC-3-GFP tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice were harvested. Tumor fragments were orthotopically implanted in the tail of the pancreas of nude mice using the technique of surgical orthotopic implantation. The BxPC-3-GFP orthotopic models were divided randomly into three groups: Group 1: untreated control; Group 2: low-dose gemcitabine (weekly intraperitoneal injection at 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks); Group 3: high-dose gemcitabine (weekly intraperitoneal injection at 125 mg/kg for 6 weeks). Each group comprised eight mice. Tumor size, fluorescent area of metastases, and body weight were measured. RESULTS: Low- and high-dose gemcitabine inhibited primary tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, and to the greatest extent by high-dose gemcitabine compared to the untreated control (p=0.0134). In contrast, the extent of metastasis on the peritoneum was significantly increased by low-dose gemcitabine compared to the untreated control (p=0.0112). The extent of metastasis showed no significant difference between the untreated control and mice treated with high-dose gemcitabine. Body weight of the treated mice was not significantly different from that of the untreated mice. CONCLUSION: The use of very bright GFP expressing of BxPC-3 cells and the orthotopic model demonstrated an unexpected increase in metastasis by low-dose gemcitabine. Future experiments will investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5403-5415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tubugi-1 is a more stable and accessible synthetic counterpart of natural tubulysins. This study aimed to evaluate its cytotoxic potential against anaplastic human melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of A-375 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assay. The type of cell death and proliferative rate were investigated using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, while the molecular background was evaluated by western blot. RESULTS: Tubugi-1 reduced the viability of A-375 cells, inducing massive micronucleation, followed by augmented expression of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-2, typical of a mitotic catastrophe. Disturbed proliferation and G2M block with prominent caspase activity, weakened the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X transient up-regulation, coexisted with intensive autophagy. Specific inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in conversion from mitotic catastrophe to rapid apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Multilevel anticancer action of tubugi-1 is extended by co-application of an autophagy inhibitor, giving a new dimension in further preclinical advancement of this potential agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Caspase 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5417-5425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemotherapy with docetaxel (DTX) is used for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), but it is inadequate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effect of the combination treatment DTX and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus (TEM) in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, by focusing on the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. RESULTS: TEM induced autophagy but not apoptosis even at a high dose, whereas DTX induced apoptosis. The combination of low-dose DTX and TEM caused a 34% suppression in cell proliferation compared to monotherapy with a higher dose of DTX. The induction of apoptosis was increased by their combination. The combination with DTX overcame the induction of autophagy by TEM. The combination treatment suppressed tumor growth 72% less than the control group after 14 days of treatment in vivo. CONCLUSION: The combination of TEM and DTX induced apoptosis by overcoming autophagy and enhanced the anticancer effect compared to monotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Células PC-3 , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5473-5481, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aerial parts and seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have long been used in traditional medicine such as Ayurveda for health-related purposes. Our interest in neem bioactives lies in their potential use as standalone anticancer agents, or as adjuvants to standard therapy. The aim of the present study was to explore a supercritical CO2 extract (SCNE) of neem leaf and a prominent liminoid in neem leaf, nimbolide, for epigenetic activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HT29) were cultured for 48 h in the presence of neem extract or nimbolide and evaluated for growth inhibition and evidence of suppression of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. RESULTS: Both SCNE and nimbolide suppressed the proliferation of colon cancer cells by inducing epigenetic modifications. CONCLUSION: Neem leaf contains bioactive constituents which modify epigenetic activity.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Limoninas/farmacologia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5483-5494, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs) are the most common tumors in female dogs. Rivoceranib (also known as apatinib) is a novel anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively binds to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). The aim of this study was to disclose the antitumor effects of rivoceranib on CMGT cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The direct effects of rivoceranib on CMGT cells in vitro were analyzed by cell proliferation and migration assays. Cell-cycle distribution and apoptotic ratio were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression levels of phosphorylated VEGFR2 were evaluated by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Rivoceranib treatment significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of CMGT cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results revealed significant increases in G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis proportional to the drug concentration used. Rivoceranib reduced the level of phosphorylated VEGFR2. CONCLUSION: We confirm that rivoceranib exerts antitumor effects on CMGT cells by inhibiting biological functions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 480-491, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008273

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the M. officinalis essential oil was carried out on three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7, NCI-H460 and MOLT-4 by MTT assay. M. officinalis essential oil was characterized by high percentage of monoterpenes (77,5%), followed by the sesquiterpene fraction (14,5%) and aliphatic compounds (2,2%). The main constituents of the essential oil of M. officinalis are citral (47,2%), caryophyllene oxide (10,2%), citronellal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), geranyl acetate (4,1%) and ß- caryophyllene (3,8%). The essential oil showed significant antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines, MOLT-4, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cells, with GI50 values of <5, 6±2 and 31±17 µg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that M. officinalis L. essential oil has a potential as anticancer therapeutic agent.


En el presente estudio, investigamos la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de las hojas de Melissa officinalis L. cultivadas en el sur de Bosnia y Herzegovina. La evaluación in vitro de la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de M. officinalis se llevó a cabo en tres líneas celulares de tumores humanos: MCF-7, NCI-H460 y MOLT-4 utilizando el ensayo de MTT. El aceite esencial de M. officinalis se caracterizó por un alto porcentaje de monoterpenos (77,5%), seguido de la fracción sesquiterpénica (14,5%) y compuestos alifáticos (2,2%). Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial de M. officinalis fueron citral (47,2%), óxido de cariofileno (10,2%), citronelal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), acetato de geranilo (4, 1%), y ß-cariofileno (3,8%). El aceite esencial mostró una actividad antiproliferativa significativa contra las líneas celulares de cáncer MOLT-4, MCF-7 y NCI-H460, con valores GI50 de <5, 6±2 y 31±17 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite esencial de M. officinalis L. tiene potencial como agente terapéutico contra el cáncer.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Melissa , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Óleos Voláteis/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Folhas de Planta , Monoterpenos/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antineoplásicos/química
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108813, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494105

RESUMO

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric tumor, which arises from muscle precursor cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Hippo Pathway (Hpo), a pathway that regulates several physiological and biological features, is involved in RMS tumorigenesis. For instance, an upregulation of the Hpo downstream effector Yes-Associated Protein 1 (YAP) leads to the development of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS) in murine activated muscle satellite cells. On the other hand, the YAP paralog transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) is overexpressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) patients with poor survival. YAP and TAZ exhibit both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions. In the nucleus, YAP binds TEADs (TEA domain family members) factors and together they constitute a complex that is able either to activate the transcription of several genes such as MYC, Tbx5 and PAX8 or to maintain the stability of others like p73. Due to the key role of YAP and TAZ in cancer, the identification and/or development of new compounds able to block their activity might be an effective antineoplastic strategy. Verteporfin (VP) is a molecule able to stop the formation of YAP/TEAD complex in the nucleus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of VP on RMS cell lines. This work shows that VP has an anti-proliferative activity on all RMS cell lines analyzed. Depending on RMS cell lines, VP affects cell cycle differently. Moreover, VP is able to decrease YAP protein levels, and to induce the activation of apoptosis mechanism through the cleavage of PARP-1. In addition, Annexin V assay showed the activation of apoptosis and necrosis after VP treatment. In summary, the ability of VP to disrupt RMS cell proliferation could be a novel and valuable strategy to improve the therapeutic approaches in treating rhabdomyosarcoma.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Verteporfina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/patologia , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553365

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and inhibition of oxidative DNA-damage activities of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of Centaurea sphaerocephala. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the n-BuOH extracts of this plant were also assayed. To investigate the antioxidant potential, extracts were tested for their capacity to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and to inhibit lipid peroxidation using the TBARs method. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were measured. Additionally, antiproliferative activity and DNA-damage inhibition of the n-BuOH extract was determined using XCELLigence RTCA instrument and photolyzing 46966 plasmid, respectively. The results exhibited that the scavenging abilities of the EtOAc extract were better than the n-BuOH extract with an IC50= 11.59 µg/mL and 16.67 µg/mL for both extracts, respectively. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were found higher in the n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts. Furthermore, our results showed that n-BuOH extract exhibited a remarkable inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 of 340.94±7.49 µg/mL and had an antiproliferative effect against Hela cells. Extracts of C. sphaerocephala showed antioxidant activity on scavenging DPPH·. In addition, the n-BuOH extract inhibited the lipid peroxidation and exhibited an antiproliferative effect against HeLa cells line (human cervix carcinoma).


Assuntos
1-Butanol/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Centaurea/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , 1-Butanol/isolamento & purificação , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17009, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490383

RESUMO

Erythrina corallodendron L., a kind of landscape tree, has long been used as a traditional medicine. In this study, the composition of essential oil extracted from the leaves was analysed by GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer), with linalool identified as the main compound. Its cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and HMLE cells was examined by MTT and cloning assays. Transwell and wound-healing assays were used to examine the inhibition of migration and invasion. Western blot, qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of factors related to EMT (snail, slug, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). The essential oil of Erythrina corallodendron leaves was found to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of this study suggest that the essential oil of E. corallodendron leaves may merit further investigation as a potential clinical or adjuvant drug for treating breast cancer migration and invasion.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Erythrina/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química
11.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 296-302, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high dose vitamin C (VC) on proliferation of breast cancer cells and to explore its mechanisms. METHODS: Human breast cancer cells Bcap37 and MDA-MB-453 were treated with VC at low dose (0.01 mmol/L), medium dose (0.10 mmol/L) and high dose (2.00 mmol/L). Cell proliferation was determined with CCK-8 assay, protein expression was evaluated by Western blot, and the secretion of lactic acid in tumor cells was detected by colorimetric method. Bcap37 cells were inoculated in nude mice, and tumor baring nude mice were intraperitoneally injected with high VC(4 g/kg, VC group, n=5)or normal saline (control group, n=5) for 24 d. Tumor weight and body weight were calculated. RESULTS: In vitro experiments demonstrated that high dose VC significantly inhibited cell proliferation in Bcap37 and MDA-MB-453 cells (all P<0.01); the expressions of Glut1 and mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were decreased (all P<0.05); and the secretion of lactic acid was also markedly reduced (all P<0.05). In vivo experiment showed that the tumor weight was decreased in mice treated with high-dose VC as compared with control group (P<0.05), but no difference in body weights between two groups was observed. CONCLUSIONS: High dose VC may inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo through reducing glycolysis and protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Neoplasias da Mama , Glicólise , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4659-4666, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) inhibit human colorectal cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. We investigated the mechanism of the anti-proliferative effects of SCFAs on human colorectal cancer cells by examining their effects on gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DLD-1 cell line was cultured with different SCFAs. Gene groups whose expression levels decreased to <50% or increased >50% compared to untreated cells and the signalling pathways responsible for DLD-1 cell growth inhibition were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: Genes whose expression levels decreased to ≤50% (791 genes) showed remarkable changes in gene function compared to genes whose expression levels increased ≥50%. These genes encode proteins involved in DNA replication and cell cycle/proliferation that contribute to major pathways responsible for suppression of colorectal carcinogenesis pathways. CONCLUSION: SCFAs inhibited the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in DNA replication and cell cycle/proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and exerted antiproliferative activity via different pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4721-4728, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent research has identified the transcription factors NFATc2 and Sp1 as key regulators in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. This study aimed to examine the effect of clinically achievable dosages of analgesics including ketamine, s-ketamine, metamizole, and paracetamol as well as that of sufentanil, ropicavaine, and lidocaine on pancreatic carcinoma cells and the expression of NFATc2 and Sp1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of analgesics on the expression of NFATc2 and Sp1 were investigated with immunoblotting. Cell proliferation was measured with the ELISA BrdU assay. RESULTS: In PaTu8988t pancreatic carcinoma cells, 48 h stimulation with ketamine and s-ketamine significantly inhibited proliferation and decreased expression of NFATc2 in the nucleus. The addition of metamizole and lidocaine reduced proliferation of PaTu8988t cells after 48 h. CONCLUSION: New treatment concepts target specific signaling and transcription pathways. The extent to which drugs influence these mechanisms in pancreatic carcinoma cells needs to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transcrição Genética
14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4787-4794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor antagonist on hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and treated with M-CSF receptor antagonist GW2580 (GW) or a saline vehicle just after (early treated group) or 2 weeks after (late treated group) DEN injection. Animals were sacrificed after 28 weeks and incidence of tumor was assessed. Isolated Kupffer cells were co-cultured with M-CSF in the presence or absence of GW, and the concentration of VEGF was measured. RESULTS: The incidence of tumors was significantly blunted both in the early- and the late-treated groups. In addition, angiogenesis within the tumor was also suppressed in both groups. The concentration of VEGF increased in Kupffer cells treated with M-CSF compared to those cultured without M-CSF. This increase was blunted by GW. CONCLUSION: M-CSF and its receptor could be novel molecular targets for hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Anisóis/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Receptor de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4795-4803, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine the mechanism of vitamin D3-induced modulation of antioxidant-related factors in endometrial cancer, we investigated their role in apoptosis of human endometrial cancer cells exposed to vitamin D3 Materials and Methods: The survival rate of human endometrial cancer cells was estimated after treatment with activated vitamin D3 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using flow cytometry. The levels of VDR, Trx, TXNIP and apoptosis-related proteins were investigated using western blotting and immunocytochemistry in human tissues. RESULTS: Treatment with D3 induced apoptotic cell death and cell-cycle arrest by increasing ROS concentration. Vitamin D3 inhibited proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells. It regulated intracellular ROS concentration in endometrial cancer cells via increased TXNIP expression. CONCLUSION: Antioxidant regulation via TXNIP is an important cell death mechanism in human endometrial cancer, and occurs via induction by vitamin D3.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4811-4816, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) is highly expressed in many forms of cancer, and is a promising therapeutic target. The present study investigated whether inhibition of GGCT enhanced the antiproliferative effects of the drug docetaxel in prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were conducted to measure GGCT expression in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines. GGCT was inhibited using RNAi and a novel enzymatic inhibitor, pro-GA, and cell proliferation was evaluated with single and combination treatments of GGCT inhibitors and docetaxel. RESULTS: GGCT was highly expressed in cultured prostate cancer cells and patient samples. GGCT inhibition alone inhibited prostate cancer cell line proliferation and induced cellular senescence. GGCT inhibition in combination with apoptosis-inducing docetaxel had more potent antiproliferative effects than either drug used alone. CONCLUSION: GGCT inhibition may potentiate anticancer drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/genética , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/metabolismo
17.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4829-4835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) still remains an incurable disease as the cells evade apoptosis, which is an obstacle for current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, our aim was to identify an ideal target of leukemic cell growth for developing inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse lymphocytic leukemia cell line L1210, human Toledo cells and a DBA/2 mouse graft model were used to analyze the activity of dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor AZD2014s. Western blotting and flow cytometry were performed to determine the mechanism. RESULTS: AZD2014 inhibited L1210 and human Toledo cell proliferation. Treatment with AZD2014 reduced the phosphorylation levels of S6K1 and 4EBP1 and the protein levels of Rictor, a component of the mTORC2 pathway. AZD2014 induced cell cycle arrest at the G0-G1 phase by reducing the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Oral administration of AZD2014 significantly inhibited the growth of L1210 cell grafts in DBA/2 mice. CONCLUSION: The mTORC1/2 inhibitor may be a better therapeutic agent compared to PI3K/mTORC1 inhibitors for treating patients with CLL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfoide/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfoide/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfoide/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfolinas/farmacologia
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4837-4843, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The antiparasitic drug, ivermectin (IVM), exerts anticancer activities in diverse cancer types. However, its anticancer activity against cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), especially the drug-resistant phenotype, has not yet been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IVM was tested for its anticancer activity against gemcitabine-sensitive (KKU214) and gemcitabine-resistant (KKU214GemR) CCA cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B and clonogenic assays as well as cell-cycle analysis. RESULTS: IVM treatment inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of both KKU214 and KKU214GemR in a dose- and time-dependent manner. KKU214GemR cells were more sensitive than KKU214 to IVM treatment. IVM treatment caused S-phase cell-cycle arrest and also cell death as indicated by an increase of sub-G0/G1 population in KKU214GemR cells treated with IVM for 48 h. CONCLUSION: IVM exerts anti-CCA activities and gemcitabine-resistant KKU214GemR cells are more sensitive to IVM treatment. Thus, IVM might be useful as an alternative treatment for CCA, especially in patients who do not respond to gemcitabine.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4845-4851, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes 15-20% of all breast carcinomas, affecting younger women more often and has a worse prognosis than other types of breast cancer, due to the combination of more aggressive clinical behavior and lack of molecular targets for therapy. This study assessed the effects of non-genotoxic concentrations of tributyltin isothiocyanate (TBT-ITC) and triphenyltin isothiocyanate (TPT-ITC) on MDA-MB-231 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT assay, comet assay, kinetic imaging and flow cytometry were used for analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells. RESULTS: The results showed that 100 nM concentration of TBT-ITC and TPT-ITC, that did not affect viability or DNA integrity, slowed-down migration by CD44 down-regulation. Moreover, both compounds demonstrated immunomodulatory properties, attenuating PD-L1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSION: TPT-ITC was more effective in down-regulating CD44 expression and reducing migration than TBT-ITC, while TBT-ITC was more potent in lowering PD-L1 expression in comparison with TPT-ITC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Isotiocianatos/química , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/química
20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5179-5184, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The pesticide dimethoate (O-dimethyl-S- Nmethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphorodithioate) is able to induce severe acute toxicity in living organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, alone or combined with exposure to dimethoate, on the rat skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 38 Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus), were distributed into four groups: A (n=9) control group, B (n=10) exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), C (n=10) exposed to UV-B followed by application of dimethoate (UV-B+AGRO) and group D (n=9) exposed to dimethoate (AGRO). Histological examination of the tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression were performed to all groups. RESULTS: Animals submitted to UV-B exhibited hyperkeratosis with moderate cell atypia. Regarding exposure to UV-B+AGRO, the animals presented hyperkeratosis and atrophy, whereas in animals exposed to AGRO, only atrophy was noticed. The immunohistochemical results on skin revealed that UVB, AGRO and UVB+AGRO decreased cleaved caspase 3 and Ki-67 expression when compared to the control group (p<0.05). COX-2 expression decreased to UVB or AGRO groups compared to controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: UV-B or AGRO exposure is able to induce histopathological changes and altered expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Ki-67 in rat skin, thus being categorized as a risk condition for skin carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Dimetoato/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Biomarcadores , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/metabolismo
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