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1.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066434

RESUMO

Viral pathogens often exploit host cell regulatory and signaling pathways to ensure an optimal environment for growth and survival. Several studies have suggested that 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in the modulation of infection. Traditionally, AMPK is a key energy regulator of cell growth and proliferation, host autophagy, stress responses, metabolic reprogramming, mitochondrial homeostasis, fatty acid ß-oxidation and host immune function. In this review, we highlight the modulation of host AMPK by various viruses under physiological conditions. These intracellular pathogens trigger metabolic changes altering AMPK signaling activity that then facilitates or inhibits viral replication. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the regulation of AMPK signaling following infection can shed light on the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against viral infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/imunologia , 59585/tratamento farmacológico , 59585/epidemiologia , 59585/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , 59565/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/imunologia
2.
Food Chem ; 358: 129812, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940289

RESUMO

Prunus fruits are recognized to be rich sources of polyphenols with health promoting effect. In this work we evaluated the phenolic profile and bioactivity, namely antioxidant capacity, antiproliferative effect in HT29, and inhibition capacity of α-glucosidase (α-Gls), α-amylase (α-Amy) and human dipeptidyl peptidase III (hDPP III) activities, of traditional Prunus fruits grown in Serbia. Fifteen Prunus samples were investigated and compared: common European plum and three old plum subspecies ('vlaskaca', damson plum and white damson), purple-leaf cherry plum, red and white cherry plum, sweet cherry, sweet cherry-wild type, sour cherry, steppe cherry, mahaleb cherry, blackthorn, peach, and apricot. Principal Component Analysis highlighted steppe cherry and blackthorn as Prunus species with the highest bioactive potential. In silico analysis pointed out rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin and quercetin as the most potent inhibitors of α-Gls, α-Amy and hDPP III enzymes. Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside showed the highest binding energy to α-Gls (-10.6 kcal/mol).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Prunus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Células HT29 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 347: 23-35, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961984

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is the conjoint consequence of almost all chronic liver diseases. Cholestatic liver injury is a significant stimulus for fibrotic liver. This study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of niclosamide as a NOTCH inhibitor and on the Wnt pathway against cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF) which was experimentally induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Rats were randomly divided into five main groups (6 per group): sham, BDL, BDL/niclosamide 5, BDL/niclosamide 10 and niclosamide 10 only group. Niclosamide was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 4 weeks starting at the same day of surgery at doses 5 and 10 mg/kg. Liver function, cholestasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, liver fibrosis, NOTCH signaling pathway and Wnt pathway markers were assessed. Niclosamide (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced liver enzymes levels, oxidative stress, inflammation and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (p-STAT3). Niclosamide (5 and 10 mg/kg) also significantly reduced NOTCH pathway (Jagged1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, HES1, SOX9), Wnt pathway (Wnt5B, and Wnt10A), and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-ß1), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen deposition with more prominent effect of the higher dose 10 mg/kg. So, this study presents nicloamide as a promising antifibrotic agent in CLF through inhibition of NOTCH and Wnt pathways.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Biliar/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ligadura , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
4.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3978-3991, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977989

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is considered a molecular marker of melanoma, and few natural antitumor drugs targeting tyrosinase have been identified. In this study, proanthocyanidins (PAs) were isolated from the leaves of Photinia × fraseri and their structures were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the effects of antityrosinase activity were investigated. The results showed that the basic structural units of PAs are composed of catechin and epicatechin and that oligomer is the main component. PAs exhibited better antityrosinase activity via chelation of copper ions and by disturbing o-quinone production. Furthermore, analyses of the cell cycle, apoptosis rate, and regulation of melanin protein expression revealed preliminarily that PAs could affect melanin production by downregulating microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) expression and by inhibiting the activities of tyrosinase and tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP-1), leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Collectively, our study demonstrated that PAs are potential tyrosinase inhibitors and have good antimelanoma effects. These findings provide a theoretical support for the application of tyrosinase inhibitors and for further drug development.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Photinia/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Levodopa/química , Levodopa/metabolismo , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melaninas/genética , Melanoma Experimental/enzimologia , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Ácido Periódico , Folhas de Planta/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação
5.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2239-2245, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study was designed to investigate the effect of IL-39 on T24 bladder cancer (BC) cell line survival and growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to assess the direct effect of IL-39 on survival, proliferation, and apoptosis of T24 BC cells, we utilized a clonogenic survival assay, a cell proliferation assay, and caspase-3 activity kits. Potential proliferative and apoptotic molecular mechanisms were evaluated by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Treatment of T24 BC cells with IL-39 resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of colonies. The anti-tumor effect of IL-39 on T24 bladder cancer cells correlated strongly with a decrease in cyclin E, in combination with an increase in the mRNA levels of Fas. CONCLUSION: IL-39 impedes the growth and survival of T24 BC cells by inhibiting growth and promoting apoptosis. This ability to modulate gene transcription in neoplastic cells shows promise and warrants further research in immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina E/metabolismo , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Ciclina D/genética , Ciclina D/metabolismo , Ciclina E/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Receptor fas/genética
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2247-2256, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adjuvant therapeutic options are limited for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of the newly synthesized antineoplastic agent 1,4,5-Oxathiazinane-4,4-dioxide (OTD) on TNBC cells as a potential cancer therapeutic strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TNBC primary BT-20 and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cell lines were treated with increasing concentrations of OTD for various time periods to assess cell viability. Cell necrosis, apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and ROS generation were evaluated using assay kits or specific inhibitors. RESULTS: Treatment with OTD resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cell death of TNBC BT-20 and MDA-MB-231 cells. OTD also dose-dependently arrested TNBC cell proliferation. Notably, treatment with OTD induced both necrosis and apoptosis of TNBC cells, while the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK partially attenuated OTD-induced cell death. Importantly, abrogated OTD-induced cell death was observed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), whereas enhanced OTD-induced cell death was observed after the addition of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor BSO, indicating OTD-induced killing of TNBC cells via a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism. CONCLUSION: OTD is strongly cytotoxic to both primary and metastatic TNBC cells, possibly by inducing multiple cell death pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2277-2286, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) are one of the targeted therapies proven to treat breast cancer gene (BRCA)-mutant ovarian cancer. Because most ovarian cancers are BRCA wild-type, it is necessary to extend the usage of PARPis. In the present study, we combined the PARPi, talazoparib, and the IL-6 inhibitor, bazedoxifene, for the treatment of human ovarian cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3, UWB1.289 (BRCA1-null) and OV75, were treated with talazoparib and bazedoxifene, as monotherapy or combination treatment. The effects of treatment on cell viability, migration, growth and colony formation were examined. Western blot was used to investigate pathways that may be involved in the antitumor effects of the two agents. RESULTS: The combination of talazoparib and bazedoxifene showed synergistic inhibition of cell viability, cell migration, cell growth, and cell colony formation on all the studied cell lines. The expression of p-AKT, c-myc, p-ERK, ERα was inhibited, and γ-H2AX expression was induced. CONCLUSION: Combined inhibition of PARP and IL-6 may be an efficacious treatment for ovarian cancer, independently of BRCA mutation status.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Indóis/farmacologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2656, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976200

RESUMO

Activating mutants of RAS are commonly found in human cancers, but to date selective targeting of RAS in the clinic has been limited to KRAS(G12C) through covalent inhibitors. Here, we report a monobody, termed 12VC1, that recognizes the active state of both KRAS(G12V) and KRAS(G12C) up to 400-times more tightly than wild-type KRAS. The crystal structures reveal that 12VC1 recognizes the mutations through a shallow pocket, and 12VC1 competes against RAS-effector interaction. When expressed intracellularly, 12VC1 potently inhibits ERK activation and the proliferation of RAS-driven cancer cell lines in vitro and in mouse xenograft models. 12VC1 fused to VHL selectively degrades the KRAS mutants and provides more extended suppression of mutant RAS activity than inhibition by 12VC1 alone. These results demonstrate the feasibility of selective targeting and degradation of KRAS mutants in the active state with noncovalent reagents and provide a starting point for designing noncovalent therapeutics against oncogenic RAS mutants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2581, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972544

RESUMO

While the potential of patient-derived organoids (PDOs) to predict patients' responses to anti-cancer treatments has been well recognized, the lengthy time and the low efficiency in establishing PDOs hamper the implementation of PDO-based drug sensitivity tests in clinics. We first adapt a mechanical sample processing method to generate lung cancer organoids (LCOs) from surgically resected and biopsy tumor tissues. The LCOs recapitulate the histological and genetic features of the parental tumors and have the potential to expand indefinitely. By employing an integrated superhydrophobic microwell array chip (InSMAR-chip), we demonstrate hundreds of LCOs, a number that can be generated from most of the samples at passage 0, are sufficient to produce clinically meaningful drug responses within a week. The results prove our one-week drug tests are in good agreement with patient-derived xenografts, genetic mutations of tumors, and clinical outcomes. The LCO model coupled with the microwell device provides a technically feasible means for predicting patient-specific drug responses in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/instrumentação , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/patologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 37-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green synthesized nanoparticles have been earmarked for use in nanomedicine including for the development of better anticancer drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to undertake biochemical evaluation of anticancer activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from ethanolic extracts of fruits (AgNPs-F) and leaves (AgNPs-L) of Annona muricata. METHODS: Previously synthesized silver nanoparticles were used for the study. The effects of the AgNPs and 5-Fluorouracil were studied on PC3, HeLa and PNT1A cells. The resazurin, migration and colonogenic assays as well as qRT-PCR were employed. RESULTS: The AgNPs-F displayed significant antiproliferative effects against HeLa cells with an IC50 of 38.58µg/ml and PC3 cells with an IC50 of 48.17µg/ml but selectively spared normal PNT1A cells (selectivity index of 7.8), in comparison with first line drug 5FU and AgNPs-L whose selectivity index were 3.56 and 2.26 respectively. The migration assay revealed potential inhibition of the metastatic activity of the cells by the AgNPs-F while the colonogenic assay indicated the permanent effect of the AgNPs-F on the cancer cells yet being reversible on the normal cells in contrast with 5FU and AgNPs-L. CASP9 was significantly over expressed in all HeLa cells treated with the AgNPs-F (1.53-fold), AgNPs-L (1.52-fold) and 5FU (4.30-fold). CXCL1 was under expressed in HeLa cells treated with AgNPs-F (0.69-fold) and AgNPs-L (0.58-fold) and over expressed in cells treated with 5FU (4.95-fold), but the difference was not statistically significant. CXCR2 was significantly over expressed in HeLa cells treated with 5FU (8.66-fold) and AgNPs-F (1.12-fold) but under expressed in cells treated with AgNPs-L (0.76-fold). CONCLUSIONS: Here we show that biosynthesized AgNPs especially AgNPs-F can be used in the development of novel and better anticancer drugs. The mechanism of action of the AgNPs involves activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway through upregulation of CASP9 and concerted down regulation of the CXCL1/ CXCR2 gene axis.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspase 9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Prata/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2482, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931647

RESUMO

While oncogenes promote tumorigenesis, they also induce deleterious cellular stresses, such as apoptosis, that cancer cells must combat by coopting adaptive responses. Whether tumor suppressor gene haploinsufficiency leads to such phenomena and their mechanistic basis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that elevated levels of the anti-apoptotic factor, CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR), promotes apoptosis evasion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells haploinsufficient for the cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) transcription factor, whose loss is associated with dismal clinical prognosis. Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening identifies CFLAR as a selective, acquired vulnerability in CUX1-deficient AML, which can be mimicked therapeutically using inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists in murine and human AML cells. Mechanistically, CUX1 deficiency directly alleviates CUX1 repression of the CFLAR promoter to drive CFLAR expression and leukemia survival. These data establish how haploinsufficiency of a tumor suppressor is sufficient to induce advantageous anti-apoptosis cell survival pathways and concurrently nominate CFLAR as potential therapeutic target in these poor-prognosis leukemias.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/genética , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteínas Repressoras/deficiência , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6695663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937411

RESUMO

Background: When vascular endothelial cells are subjected to external stimuli, paracrine hormones and cytokines act on adjacent cells. The regulation of the biological behaviour of cells is closely related to the maintenance of organ function and the occurrence and development of disease. However, it is unclear whether vascular endothelial cells affect the biological behaviour of cells involved in wound repair through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms and ultimately play a role in wound healing. We aimed to verify the effect of the autocrine and paracrine functions of vascular endothelial cells on wound healing. Materials and Methods: ELISA was used to detect platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vascular endothelial cell-conditioned medium (HUVEC-CM). Different concentrations of HUVEC-CM were used to treat different stem cells. CCK-8 and scratch assays were used to detect the proliferation and migration ability of each cell. A full-thickness dorsal skin defect model was established in mice, and skin wound healing was observed after the local injection of HUVEC-CM, endothelial cell medium (ECM), or normal saline. H&E staining and immunofluorescence were used to observe the gross morphology of the wound tissue, the epithelial cell migration distance, and the expression of CD3 and CD31. Results: HUVEC-CM promotes the proliferation and migration of epidermal stem cells, skin fibroblasts, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and HUVECs themselves. Furthermore, HUVEC-CM can promote angiogenesis in mouse skin wounds and granulation tissue formation and can accelerate wound surface epithelialization and collagen synthesis, thereby promoting wound healing. Conclusion: Our results clearly suggest that it is practicable and effective to promote wound healing with cytokines secreted by vascular endothelial cells in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Pele/patologia , Cicatrização , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Comunicação Autócrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3329-3342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012262

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Micro-/nano-tubes (TNTs) and micro-/nano-nets (TNNs) are the common and sensible choice in the first step of combined modifications of titanium surface for further functionalization in the purpose of extended indications and therapeutic effect. It is important to recognize the respective biologic reactions of these two substrates for guiding a biologically based first-step selection. Materials and Methods: TNTs were produced by anodic oxidation and TNNs were formed by alkali-heat treatment. The original selective laser melting (SLM) titanium surface was set as control. Surface characterization was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness, and water contact angle measurements. Osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis were measured. MC3T3-E1 cells and RAW 264.7 cells were used for in vitro assay in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In vivo assessments were taken on Beagle dogs with micro-CT and histological analysis. Results: TNN and TNT groups performed decreased roughness and increased hydrophilicity compared with SLM group. For biological detections, the highest ALP activity and osteogenesis-related genes expression were observed in TNT group followed by TNN group (P <0.05). Interestingly, when it comes to the osteoclastogenesis, TNNs displayed lowest TRAP activity and osteoclastogenesis-related genes expression and TNTs were lower than SLM but higher than TNNs (P <0.05). BV/TV around implants was highest in TNT group after 4 weeks (P <0.05). HE, ALP and TRAP staining showed that osteogenic and osteoclastic activity around TNTs were both higher than TNNs (P <0.05). Conclusion: TNNs and TNTs have dual advantages in promotion of osteogenesis and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, TNNs showed better capability in inhibiting osteoclast activity while TNTs facilitated stronger osteogenesis. Our results implied that TNT substrates would take advantage in early application after implantation, while diseases with inappropriate osteoclast activity would prefer TNN substrates, which will guide a biologically based first-step selection on combined modification for different clinical purposes.


Assuntos
Lasers , Nanotubos/química , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Osseointegração/efeitos da radiação , Titânio/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Próteses e Implantes , Células RAW 264.7 , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3217-3240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007175

RESUMO

Background: GD2 is a mainstream biomarker for neuroblastoma (NB)-targeted therapy. Current anti-GD2 therapeutics exhibit several side effects since GD2 is also expressed at low levels on normal cells. Thus, current anti-GD2 therapeutics can be compromised by the coexistence of the target receptor on both cancer cells and normal cells. Propose: Aptamers are promising and invaluable molecular tools. Because of the pH difference between tumor and normal cells, in this study, we constructed a pH-sensitive aptamer-mediated drug delivery system (IGD-Targeted). Methods: In vivo Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) was used to generate a novel GD2 aptamer. Flow cytometry and molecular docking were applied to assess the binding specificities, affinities abilities of the aptamers. Confocal microscope, CCK8 assay, and BrdU assay were utilized to evaluate whether IGD-Targeted could only bind with GD2 at acidic environment. To evaluate whether IGD-Targeted could inhibit GD2-positive tumor and protect normal cells, in vivo living imaging, histomorphological staining, blood test, and RNA-sequencing were observed in animal model. Results: GD2 aptamer termed as DB67 could bind with GD2-positive cells with high specificity, while has minimal cross-reactivities to other negative cells. It has been validated that the i-motif in IGD-Targeted facilitates the binding specificity and affinity of the GD2 aptamer to GD2-positive NB tumor cells but does not interfere with GD2-positive normal cells at the pH of the cellular microenvironment. In addition, IGD-Targeted is capable of delivering Dox to only GD2-positive NB tumor cells and not to normal cells in vivo and in vitro, resulting in precise inhibition of tumor cells and protection of normal cells. Conclusion: This study suggests that IGD-Targeted as a promising platform for NB therapy which could show greater tumor inhibition and fewer side effects to normal cells, regardless of the existence of the same receptor on the target and nontarget cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , DNA/química , Nanomedicina , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 157, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008089

RESUMO

The apoptotic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic activities for [10]-gingerol in triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs) were already reported. However, despite these important antitumor activities, the compound has the disadvantage to have a hydrophobic characteristic, hindering in vivo administration. To surpass this issue, in this study we have created a [10]-gingerol-loaded nanoemulsion (10GNE) in order to increase the stability and solubility of the compound. The nanoemulsion was characterized and tested for its cytotoxic, cytostatic, and apoptotic effects on a panel of murine and human TNBC cell lines, as well as non-tumor cells, and compared with a [10]-gingerol-free nanoemulsion (NE) and with [10]-gingerol itself. Except for the murine 4T1.13 cell line, the IC50 of the free 10G molecule, after 72 h of incubation, was higher in all cell lines tested, both murine and human, demonstrating therefore the efficacy of the 10GNE regarding cytotoxicity. In murine tumor cells, 60 µM 10GNE was able to arrest cell cycle at sub-G0 phase and induce apoptosis, leading to 48% and 78% of total cell death in 4T1.13 and 4T1Br4 murine tumor cells, respectively. This represents an improvement compared to 10G-free molecule that only induced 74% of total apoptosis at 100 µM in 4T1Br4 cells. Taken together, our results show that nanoformulation preserved the [10]-gingerol cytotoxic and cytostatic properties and improved its apoptotic function on murine TNBC cell lines. These data open new perspectives to a more suitable drug-delivery approach for [10]-gingerol for TNBC treatment that should be further demonstrated using in vivo assays.


Assuntos
Catecóis/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Álcoois Graxos/administração & dosagem , Nanosferas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Células 3T3 BALB , Catecóis/síntese química , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Emulsões , Álcoois Graxos/síntese química , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanosferas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2715, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976157

RESUMO

Efficient immune responses rely on heterogeneity, which in CD8+ T cells, amongst other mechanisms, is achieved by asymmetric cell division (ACD). Here we find that ageing, known to negatively impact immune responses, impairs ACD in murine CD8+ T cells, and that this phenotype can be rescued by transient mTOR inhibition. Increased ACD rates in mitotic cells from aged mice restore the expansion and memory potential of their cellular progenies. Further characterization of the composition of CD8+ T cells reveals that virtual memory cells (TVM cells), which accumulate during ageing, have a unique proliferation and metabolic profile, and retain their ability to divide asymmetrically, which correlates with increased memory potential. The opposite is observed for naive CD8+ T cells from aged mice. Our data provide evidence on how ACD modulation contributes to long-term survival and function of T cells during ageing, offering new insights into how the immune system adapts to ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Divisão Celular Assimétrica/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Divisão Celular Assimétrica/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/genética , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-7/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-7/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925714

RESUMO

A pericyte-like differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) was tested in in vitro experiments for possible therapeutic applications in cases of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to replace irreversibly lost pericytes. For this purpose, pericyte-like ASCs were obtained after their growth in a specific pericyte medium. They were then cultured in high glucose conditions to mimic the altered microenvironment of a diabetic eye. Several parameters were monitored, especially those particularly affected by disease progression: cell proliferation, viability and migration ability; reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; inflammation-related cytokines and angiogenic factors. Overall, encouraging results were obtained. In fact, even after glucose addition, ASCs pre-cultured in the pericyte medium (pmASCs) showed high proliferation rate, viability and migration ability. A considerable increase in mRNA expression levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) was observed, associated with reduction in ROS production, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and angiogenic factors. Finally, a pmASC-induced better organization of tube-like formation by retinal endothelial cells was observed in three-dimensional co-culture. The pericyte-like ASCs obtained in these experiments represent a valuable tool for the treatment of retinal damages occurring in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pericitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Itália , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
18.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4176-4198, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861291

RESUMO

Herein, polyphenols were extracted from Pinus koraiensis bark and characterized. Besides, the in vitro antioxidant activity, inhibition effect on cancer cells and the activity of the immune system were investigated. The results showed that the main component of Pinus koraiensis bark was 3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxydihydroflavone. PKB polyphenols demonstrated a high antioxidant activity during in vitro investigation. In vivo immunological function studies on oxidatively injured mice revealed that Pinus koraiensis bark polyphenols effectively improved the survival status of irradiated mice. PKBP also increased the spleen and thymus index of mouse immunoregulatory organs. The results indicated that the phagocytic ability of mononuclear macrophages was increased. Comparing the cell distribution of the PKBP administered group and the model group, the PKBP-administered group reduced the cells arrested in the G1 phase, while the number of cells increased in the S and G2 phases. PKBP effectively protected the mouse immune system and reduced the immune suppression caused by radiation. These findings also confirmed that oxidative damaged cells induced by radiation could be repaired. PKBP had the highest inhibitory activity on colon cancer cells HT29, breast cancer cells MFC-7, gastric cancer cells BGC-823 and cervical cancer HeLa and HT29 cancer cells. PKB polyphenols could effectively induce the production of DNA-Ladder fragments and cause DNA damage in cancer cells. PKBP also blocked the cycle of cancer cells in the G2 phase, stopped cell division and induced cancer cell apoptosis. Analysis of cell apoptosis by Annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining indicated that PKBP inhibited HT29 cancer cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias/patologia , Pinus/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Radicais Livres , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Fagocitose , Casca de Planta/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Baço/citologia
19.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917402

RESUMO

The marine sponge of the genus Geodia, Jaspis, Rhabdastrella, and Stelletta are characterized chemically by a variety of isomalabaricane triterpenes. This class of compounds drew spotlights in marine lead discovery due to their profound anti-proliferative properties. Further research on exploring its chemical diversity led to the identifications of two new isomalabaricane-type triterpenes rhabdastin H (1) and rhabdastin I (2). Their structures were unraveled using a series of spectroscopic approaches. These isolates were found to exhibit unique structural features with the only reported tetrahydrofuran functionality among all marine-derived isomalabaricanes. Both compounds 1 and 2 showed activities against K562 (IC50 11.7 and 9.8 µM) and Molt4 (IC50 16.5 and 11.0 µM) leukemic cells in MTT cell proliferative assay.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Poríferos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células K562 , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920324

RESUMO

Menopause, caused by decreases in estrogen production, results in symptoms such as facial flushing, vaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis. Although hormone replacement therapy is utilized to treat menopausal symptoms, it is associated with a risk of breast cancer development. We aimed to evaluate the estrogenic activities of Spartina anglica (SA) and its compounds and identify potential candidates for the treatment of estrogen reduction without the risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the estrogenic and anti-proliferative effects of extracts of SA and its compounds in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We performed an uterotrophic assay using an immature female rat model. Among extracts of SA, belowground part (SA-bg-E50) had potent estrogenic activity. In the immature female rat model, the administration of SA-bg-E50 increased uterine weight compared with that in the normal group. Among the compounds isolated from SA, 1,3-di-O-trans-feruloyl-(-)-quinic acid (1) had significant estrogenic activity and induced phosphorylation at serine residues of estrogen receptor (ER)α. All extracts and compounds from SA did not increase MCF-7 cell proliferation. Compound 1 is expected to act as an ERα ligand and have estrogenic effects, without side effects, such as breast cancer development.


Assuntos
Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ligantes , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho do Órgão , Fitoestrógenos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoestrógenos/toxicidade , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Útero/metabolismo
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