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1.
Cell Rep ; 17(2): 570-582, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27705802

RESUMO

Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), which degrades L-proline, resides within the schizophrenia-linked 22q11.2 deletion suggesting a role in disease. Supporting this, elevated L-proline levels have been shown to increase risk for psychotic disorders. Despite the strength of data linking PRODH and L-proline to neuropsychiatric diseases, targets of disease-relevant concentrations of L-proline have not been convincingly described. Here, we show that Prodh-deficient mice with elevated CNS L-proline display specific deficits in high-frequency GABA-ergic transmission and gamma-band oscillations. We find that L-proline is a GABA-mimetic and can act at multiple GABA-ergic targets. However, at disease-relevant concentrations, GABA-mimesis is limited to competitive blockade of glutamate decarboxylase leading to reduced GABA production. Significantly, deficits in GABA-ergic transmission are reversed by enhancing net GABA production with the clinically relevant compound vigabatrin. These findings indicate that accumulation of a neuroactive metabolite can lead to molecular and synaptic dysfunction and help to understand mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disease.


Assuntos
Prolina Oxidase/genética , Prolina/deficiência , Esquizofrenia/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ritmo Gama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glutamato Descarboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Camundongos , Prolina/genética , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Vigabatrina/administração & dosagem
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(1): 20-27, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: lil-742030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the indexes and the main factors associated with non-adherence to medication treatment for systemic arterial hypertension between urban and rural areas. METHOD: analytical study based on an epidemiological survey with a sample of 247 hypertensive residents of rural and urban areas, with application of a socio-demographic and economic questionnaire, and treatment adherence assessment. The Pearson's Chi-square test was used and the odds ratio (OD) was calculated to analyze the factors related to non-adherence. RESULTS: the prevalence of non-adherence was 61.9% and it was higher in urban areas (63.4%). Factors significantly associated with non-adherence were: male gender (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.50), age 20-59 years old (OR=2.51; 95% CI 1.44-4.39), low economic status (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.09-3.47), alcohol consumption (OR=5.92, 95% CI 1.73-20.21), short time of hypertension diagnosis (OR=3.07; 95% CI 1.35-6.96) and not attending the health service for routine consultations (OR=2.45; 1.35-4.42). CONCLUSION: the socio-demographic/economic characteristics, lifestyle habits and how to relate to health services were the factors that presented association with non-adherence regardless of the place of residence. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar os índices e os principais fatores associados a não adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial sistêmica, entre área urbana e rural. MÉTODO: estudo analítico baseado em inquérito epidemiológico, realizado com amostra de 247 hipertensos moradores das áreas rural e urbana, com aplicação de questionário sociodemográfico, econômico e avaliação da adesão. Foi utilizado o teste quiquadrado de Pearson e calculado o Odds Ratio (OD) para análise dos fatores relacionados a não adesão. RESULTADOS: a prevalência da não adesão foi de 61,9%, sendo maior na área urbana (63,4%). Os fatores que apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com a não adesão foram: gênero masculino (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,08-3,50), faixa etária entre 20 e 59 anos (OR=2,51; IC95% 1,44-4,39), baixa classe econômica (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,09-3,47), etilismo (OR=5,92; IC 95% 1,73-20,21), tempo curto de diagnóstico de hipertensão (OR=3,07; IC95% 1,35-6,96) e não procura pelo serviço de saúde para consultas de rotina (OR=2,45; 1,35-4,42). CONCLUSÃO: as características sociodemográficas, econômicas, hábitos de vida e o modo de relacionar-se com os serviços de saúde foram os fatores que apresentaram associação com a não adesão, independentemente do local de residência. .


OBJETIVO: evaluar los índices y los principales factores asociados a la no adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre área urbana y rural. MÉTODO: estudio analítico basado en investigación epidemiológica desarrollada con una muestra de 247 hipertensos moradores del área rural y urbana, con aplicación de un cuestionario sociodemográfico, económico y evaluación de la adhesión. Fue utilizado la prueba chi-cuadrado de Pearson y calculado el odds ratio (OD) para análisis de los factores relacionados a la no adhesión. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia de la no adhesión correspondió a 61,9%, siendo mayor en el área urbana (63,4%). Los factores que mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa con la no adhesión fueron: género masculino (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,08-3,50), rango de edad entre 20 a 59 años (OR=2,51; IC95% 1,44-4,39), clase económica baja (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,09-3,47), etilismo (OR=5,92; IC 95% 1,73-20,21), tiempo corto de diagnóstico de hipertensión (OR=3,07; IC95% 1,35-6,96) y no procurar el servicio de salud para consultas de rutina (OR=2,45; 1,35-4,42). CONCLUSIÓN: las características sociodemográficas/económicas, hábitos de vida y el modo de relacionar con los servicios de salud fueron los factores que mostraron asociación con la no adhesión independientemente del local de residencia. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Esquizofrenia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Modelos Estatísticos , Mutação/genética , Prolina Oxidase/sangue , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
3.
J Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(2): 109-24, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25391710

RESUMO

Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is diagnosed before the age of 13 years, and early onset schizophrenia (EOS) is diagnosed before the age of 18 years. EOS is considered extremely rare and its prevalence in comparison to the worldwide prevalence of schizophrenia (1%) has not adequately been studied. Patients who experience the first episode of psychosis need to be treated early and optimally to lessen the morbidity and improve the outcome of the illness. Treatment needs to be a combination of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities. Pharmacological intervention is necessary for remission, improvement of positive symptoms and to aid with the efficacy of psychosocial interventions. There is a lack of efficacy and safety data of the use of antipsychotic medication in children, with most of the information available being extrapolations of adult data. An increased use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of EOS has been accompanied by growing concern about the appropriate use and associated side effects in children and adolescents. This update highlights new developments, concepts and treatment trends in EOS.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/terapia , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/induzido quimicamente , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Neuroimagem/métodos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Puberdade/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 54: 20-5, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980685

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of hyperprolinemia on oxidative damage to biomolecules (protein, lipids and DNA) and the antioxidant status in blood of rats. The influence of the antioxidants on the effects elicited by proline was also examined. Wistar rats received two daily injections of proline and/or vitamin E plus C (6th-28th day of life) and were killed 12h after the last injection. Results showed that hyperprolinemia induced a significant oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA demonstrated by increased carbonyl content, malondialdehyde levels and a greater damage index in comet assay, respectively. The concomitant antioxidants administration to proline treatment completely prevented oxidative damage to proteins, but partially prevented lipids and DNA damage. We also observed that the non-enzymatic antioxidant potential was decreased by proline treatment and partially prevented by antioxidant supplementation. The plasma levels of vitamins E and C significantly increased in rats treated exogenously with these vitamins but, interestingly, when proline was administered concomitantly with vitamin E plus C, the levels of these vitamins were similar to those found in plasma of control and proline rats. Our findings suggest that hyperprolinemia promotes oxidative damage to the three major classes of macromolecules in blood of rats. These effects were accomplished by decrease in non-enzymatic antioxidant potential and decrease in vitamins administered exogenously, which significantly decreased oxidative damage to biomolecules studied. These data suggest that antioxidants may be an effective adjuvant therapeutic to limit oxidative damage caused by proline.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/química , Lipídeos/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Proteínas/química , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Prolina/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
5.
Schizophr Res ; 156(1): 15-22, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24787057

RESUMO

25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficits have been associated with schizophrenia susceptibility and supplementation has been recommended for those at-risk. Although the mechanism by which a deficit confers risk is unknown, vitamin D is a potent transcriptional modulator and can regulate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) expression. PRODH maps to chromosome 22q11, a region conferring the highest known genetic risk of schizophrenia, and encodes proline oxidase, which catalyzes proline catabolism. l-Proline is a neuromodulator at glutamatergic synapses, and peripheral hyperprolinemia has been associated with decreased IQ, cognitive impairment, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between 25(OH)D and schizophrenia, comparing fasting plasma 25(OH)D in 64 patients and 90 matched controls. We then tested for a mediating effect of hyperprolinemia on the association between 25(OH)D and schizophrenia. 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in patients, and 25(OH)D insufficiency associated with schizophrenia (OR 2.1, adjusted p=0.044, 95% CI: 1.02-4.46). Moreover, 25(OH)D insufficient subjects had three times greater odds of hyperprolinemia than those with optimal levels (p=0.035, 95% CI: 1.08-8.91), and formal testing established that hyperprolinemia is a significantly mediating phenotype that may explain over a third of the effect of 25(OH)D insufficiency on schizophrenia risk. This study presents a mechanism by which 25(OH)D insufficiency confers risk of schizophrenia; via proline elevation due to reduced PRODH expression, and a concomitant dysregulation of neurotransmission. Although definitive causality cannot be confirmed, these findings strongly support vitamin D supplementation in patients, particularly for those with elevated proline, who may represent a large subgroup of the schizophrenia population.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Esquizofrenia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Mutação/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina Oxidase/sangue , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatr Genet ; 24(4): 172-5, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24842239

RESUMO

The neuropsychiatric phenotype associated with hyperprolinemia type I (HPI) is still under debate. To our knowledge, no long-term follow-up on patients with HPI has been reported so far. We have previously described the clinical, biochemical, and molecular features of four patients with HPI. Here, we report on the neuropsychiatric and genotype features of an expanded sample of 10 patients with HPI with a mean follow-up duration of 11 years. Epileptic manifestations and/or cognitive impairment were prevalent at onset, but they were subsequently replaced by psychiatric disorders. Social behavior and relational skills were considerably impaired in the majority of cases. Learning disability was present in one patient. The complex neurochemical effects of proline on the central nervous system and genotype/phenotype correlations were discussed.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Adolescente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Prolina/sangue , Prolina Oxidase/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 37(3): 383-90, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24173411

RESUMO

Although hyperprolinemia type-II has a discriminative metabolic phenotype and is frequently associated with neurological system involvement, the casual relation between the metabolic abnormalities and the clinical features, except for those of the secondary B6 deficiency, has been frequently debated. In order to evaluate disease frequency and the neuro-metabolic outcome we searched our laboratory database between 1992 and 2010, including 20,991 urinary organic acid profiles. From these individuals 16,720 parallel blood samples were available, and were investigated by serum amino acid analysis. We also evaluated the clinical, neurological, psychological features, laboratory data and vitamin levels and therapeutic effect in metabolically confirmed hyperprolinemia. Due to the mitochondrial localization of both ALDH4A1 and PRODH mitochondrial enzyme complex activity was evaluated and oxygen consumption was measured to assess ATP production in patient-fibroblasts. The Mitochondrial Disease Score was used to evaluate clinical mitochondrial dysfunction. The child behavior checklist was used to screen for psychopathology. We found four patients with increased urinary P5C diagnosed with hyperprolinemia type II, and only one patient had hyperprolinemia type I. All children with hyperprolinemia type II had low normal B6 concentration, and three of the patients had biochemical markers suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed in a muscle biopsy in one case. Intellectual disability was found in two adolescent patients. All patients showed seizures and significant behavioral problems, including anxiety and hallucinations. The clinical course was non-progressive and independent from the B6 concentration and B6 therapy. Hyperprolinemia is a rare inborn error. Individuals with hyperprolinemia should be monitored closely due to their frequent behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/etiologia , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Adolescente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/psicologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/terapia , Biópsia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Músculos/patologia , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem
8.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 43(1): 31-6, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23462603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperprolinemia is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by a high proline level in blood and/or urine and various neuropsychiatric symptoms. Type I hyperprolinemia is caused by a proline oxidase deficiency, which is encoded by the PRODH gene on chromosome 22q11. Herein, we present a study of Korean patients with type I hyperprolinemia who were diagnosed during newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry and confirmed by molecular analysis. METHODS: Four neonates were referred to our hospital for workup of high proline levels in newborn screening test. We analyzed the biochemical findings and the PRODH gene was amplified by long-range PCR to confirm molecular genetic abnormalities. RESULTS: All patients had high plasma proline levels, ranging from 742 to 1192 µmol/L (reference range, 77.4 - 244.6 µmol/L). In molecular analysis, 4 disease-associated mutant alleles were identified: c.1414G>A (p.A472T), c.1279G>A (p.V427M), c.1357C>T (p.R453C) and c.1562A>G (p.Q521R). All mutations were missense and c.1279G>A included the majority of mutant alleles. No relationships between type of mutation and clinical outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION: We found that distinct molecular alterations of the PRODH gene result in abnormal proline levels. Newborn screening and molecular analysis are necessary to identify patients before clinical expression of metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/enzimologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Prolina Oxidase/genética , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , República da Coreia
9.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 36(2): 258-63, 2012 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22019856

RESUMO

Hyperprolinemia is an inherited disorder of proline metabolism and patients affected by this disease may present neurological manifestations, including seizures and cognitive dysfunctions. Moreover, an association between adulthood schizoaffective disorders and moderate hyperprolinemia has been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying these behavioral phenotypes still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of proline treatments on behavioral parameters in zebrafish, such as locomotor activity, anxiety, and social interaction. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to proline (1.5 and 3.0 mM) during 1h or 7 days (short- or long-term treatments, respectively). Short-term proline exposure did not promote significant changes on the behavioral parameters observed. Long-term exposure at 1.5 mM proline significantly increased the number of line crossing (47%), the total distance (29%), and the mean speed (33%) when compared to control group. A significant increase in the time spent in the upper portion of the test tank was also observed after this treatment (91%), which may be interpreted as an indicator of anxiolytic behavior. Proline at 1.5 mM also induced social interaction impairment (78%), when compared to the untreated group after long-term treatment. Moreover, these proline-induced behavioral changes in zebrafish were completely reversed by acute administration of an atypical antipsychotic drug (sulpiride), but not by a typical (haloperidol). These findings demonstrate that proline is able to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in zebrafish, which reinforce the use of this species as a complementary vertebrate model for studying behavioral phenotypes associated with neurological dysfunctions characteristic of metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina/antagonistas & inibidores , Prolina/farmacologia , Comportamento Social , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/induzido quimicamente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Sulpirida/farmacologia , Sulpirida/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Peixe-Zebra
10.
J Cell Biochem ; 113(1): 174-83, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21882227

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of chronic hyperprolinemia on oxidative and metabolic status in liver and serum of rats. Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of proline from their 6th to 28th day of life. Twelve hours after the last injection the rats were sacrificed and liver and serum were collected. Results showed that hyperprolinemia induced a significant reduction in total antioxidant potential and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased after chronic proline administration, while glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity, dichlorofluorescin oxidation, GSH, sulfhydryl, and carbonyl content remained unaltered. Histological analyses of the liver revealed that proline treatment induced changes of the hepatic microarchitecture and increased the number of inflammatory cells and the glycogen content. Biochemical determination also demonstrated an increase in glycogen concentration, as well as a higher synthesis of glycogen in liver of hyperprolinemic rats. Regarding to hepatic metabolism, it was observed an increase on glucose oxidation and a decrease on lipid synthesis from glucose. However, hepatic lipid content and serum glucose levels were not changed. Proline administration did not alter the aminotransferases activities and serum markers of hepatic injury. Our findings suggest that hyperprolinemia alters the liver homeostasis possibly by induction of a mild degree of oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The hepatic alterations caused by proline probably do not implicate in substantial hepatic tissue damage, but rather demonstrate a process of adaptation of this tissue to oxidative stress. However, the biological significance of these findings requires additional investigation.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/induzido quimicamente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Prolina/administração & dosagem , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Glicemia/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluoresceínas/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Masculino , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
11.
Neurochem Res ; 37(1): 205-13, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21935728

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic hyperprolinemia on glutamate uptake, as well as some mechanisms underlying the proline effects on glutamatergic system in rat cerebral cortex. The protective role of guanosine on effects mediated by proline was also evaluated. Results showed that acute and chronic hyperprolinemia reduced glutamate uptake, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, ATP levels and increased lipoperoxidation. GLAST and GLT-1 immunocontent were increased in acute, but not in chronic hyperprolinemic rats. Our data suggest that the effects of proline on glutamate uptake may be mediated by lipid peroxidation and disruption of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, but not by decreasing in glutamate transporters. This probably induces excitotoxicity and subsequent energy deficit. Guanosine was effective to prevent most of the effects promoted by proline, reinforcing its modulator role in counteracting the glutamate toxicity. However, further studies are needed to assess the modulatory effects of guanosine on experimental hyperprolinemia.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Guanosina/farmacologia , Homeostase , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
12.
Neurochem Res ; 36(12): 2306-15, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21792675

RESUMO

This study investigated whether physical exercise would reverse proline-induced performance deficits in water maze tasks, as well as its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunocontent and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Wistar rats. Proline administration followed partial time (6th-29th day of life) or full time (6th-60th day of life) protocols. Treadmill exercise was performed from 30th to 60th day of life, when behavioral testing was started. After that, animals were sacrificed for BDNF and AChE determination. Results show that proline impairs cognitive performance, decreases BDNF in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and increases AChE activity in hippocampus. All reported effects were prevented by exercise. These results suggest that cognitive, spatial learning/memory, deficits caused by hyperprolinemia may be associated, at least in part, to the decrease in BDNF levels and to the increase in AChE activity, as well as support the role of physical exercise as a potential neuroprotective strategy.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/psicologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(32): 13041-6, 2011 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21788482

RESUMO

The larva of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, is probably the most complex metazoan organism that can survive submergence in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) in a fully hydrated state. We examined the associations between the physiological and biochemical parameters of differently acclimated larvae and their freeze tolerance. Entering diapause is an essential and sufficient prerequisite for attaining high levels of survival in liquid nitrogen (23% survival to adult stage), although cold acclimation further improves this capacity (62% survival). Profiling of 61 different metabolites identified proline as a prominent compound whose concentration increased from 20 to 147 mM during diapause transition and subsequent cold acclimation. This study provides direct evidence for the essential role of proline in high freeze tolerance. We increased the levels of proline in the larval tissues by feeding larvae proline-augmented diets and found that this simple treatment dramatically improved their freeze tolerance. Cell and tissue survival following exposure to liquid nitrogen was evident in proline-fed nondiapause larvae, and survival to adult stage increased from 0% to 36% in proline-fed diapause-destined larvae. A significant statistical correlation was found between the whole-body concentration of proline, either natural or artificial, and survival to the adult stage in liquid nitrogen for diapause larvae. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested that high proline levels, in combination with a relatively low content of osmotically active water and freeze dehydration, increased the propensity of the remaining unfrozen water to undergo a glass-like transition (vitrification) and thus facilitated the prevention of cryoinjury.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/veterinária , Criopreservação , Drosophilidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophilidae/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Água Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Congelamento , Vidro , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Osmose/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Schizophr Res ; 131(1-3): 139-45, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21645996

RESUMO

There are multiple genetic links between schizophrenia and a deficit of proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) enzyme activity. However, reports testing for an association of schizophrenia with the resulting proline elevation have been conflicting. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether hyperprolinemia is associated with schizophrenia, and to measure the relationship between plasma proline, and clinical features and symptoms of schizophrenia. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study, comparing fasting plasma proline in 90 control subjects and 64 schizophrenic patients and testing for association of mild to moderate hyperprolinemia with schizophrenia. As secondary analyses, the relationship between hyperprolinemia and five measures of clinical onset, symptoms and outcome were investigated. Patients had significantly higher plasma proline than matched controls (p<0.0001), and categorical analysis of gender adjusted hyperprolinemia showed a significant association with schizophrenia (OR 6.15, p=0.0003). Hyperprolinemic patients were significantly older at their first hospitalization (p=0.015 following correction for multiple testing). While plasma proline level was not related to total, positive or negative symptoms, hyperprolinemic status had a significant effect on length of hospital stay (p=0.005), following adjustment for race, BPRS score, and cross-sectional time from admission to proline measurement. Mild to moderate hyperprolinemia is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia, and may represent an intermediate phenotype in the disease. Hyperprolinemic patients have a significantly later age of first psychiatric hospitalization, suggestive of later onset, and hospital stays 46% longer than non-hyperprolinemic subjects. These findings have implications in the etiology of schizophrenia, and for the clinical management of these patients.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Prolina/sangue , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/complicações , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Variância , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolina Oxidase/sangue , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Metab Brain Dis ; 26(3): 159-72, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21643764

RESUMO

Proline is an amino acid with an essential role for primary metabolism and physiologic functions. Hyperprolinemia results from the deficiency of specific enzymes for proline catabolism, leading to tissue accumulation of this amino acid. Hyperprolinemic patients can present neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities, whose aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood. This review addresses some of the findings obtained, mainly from animal studies, indicating that high proline levels may be associated to neuropathophysiology of some disorders. In this context, it has been suggested that energy metabolism deficit, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, kinase creatine, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, lipid content, as well as purinergic and cholinergic systems are involved in the effect of proline on brain damage and spatial memory deficit. The discussion focuses on the relatively low antioxidant defenses of the brain and the vulnerability of neural tissue to reactive species. This offers new perspectives for potential therapeutic strategies for this condition, which may include the early use of appropriate antioxidants as a novel adjuvant therapy, besides the usual treatment based on special diets poor in proline.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Encefalopatias Metabólicas , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Radicais Livres/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Memória , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Prolina , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/urina , Atrofia Girata/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Prolina/efeitos adversos , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Transporte Tubular Renal/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
16.
Metab Brain Dis ; 26(2): 141-7, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21509571

RESUMO

Considering that Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is an embedded-membrane enzyme and that experimental chronic hyperprolinemia decreases the activity of this enzyme in brain synaptic plasma membranes, the present study investigated the effect of chronic proline administration on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, as well as the influence of antioxidant vitamins E plus C on the effects mediated by proline on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in cerebral cortex of rats. The expression of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunits was also evaluated. Results showed that proline increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, suggesting an increase of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, concomitant administration of vitamins E plus C significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation, as well as the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity caused by proline. We did not observe any change in levels of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mRNA transcripts after chronic exposure to proline and vitamins E plus C. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms through which proline exerts its effects on brain function and suggest that treatment with antioxidants may be beneficial to treat neurological dysfunctions present in hyperprolinemic patients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Córtex Cerebral/enzimologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/induzido quimicamente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina/administração & dosagem , Prolina/efeitos adversos , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , Membranas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitamina E/farmacologia
17.
Mitochondrion ; 11(3): 397-404, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21168532

RESUMO

Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDh) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the second step in proline degradation. Mutations in human P5CDh cause type II hyperprolinemia, a complex syndrome displaying increased serum proline and mental disabilities. Conceptual gene CG7145 in Drosophila melanogaster encodes the orthologous DmP5CDh1. The mutant allele CG7145(f04633) contains a piggyBac transposon that truncates the enzyme by 83 residues. Heterozygous (CG7145(f04633)/TM3) individuals developed normally, while homozygous (CG7145(f04633)/CG7145(f04633)) individuals displayed proline levels twice that of normal, swollen mitochondria, and ultimately larval and pupal lethality. We believe this is the first correlation between the loss of P5CDh and morphological defects in mitochondria.


Assuntos
1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Prolina/metabolismo , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/patologia , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Deleção de Sequência , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
J Nutr ; 138(10): 2016S-2020S, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18806117

RESUMO

l-Proline concentration is primarily related to the balance of enzymatic activities of proline dehydrogenase [proline oxidase (POX)] and Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase. As a result, P5C plays a pivotal role in maintaining the concentration of proline in body fluids and inborn errors of P5C metabolism lead to disturbance of proline metabolism. Several inborn errors of proline metabolism have been described. Hyperprolinemia type I (HPI) is a result of a deficiency in POX. The POX gene (PRODH) is located on chromosome 22 (22q11.2) and this region is deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome, a congenital malformation syndrome. In addition, this gene locus is related to susceptibility to schizophrenia. The other type of hyperprolinemia is HPII. It is caused by a deficiency in P5C dehydrogenase activity. Hypoprolinemia, on the other hand, is found in the recently described deficiency of P5C synthetase. This enzyme defect leads to hyperammonemia associated with hypoornithinemia, hypocitrullinemia, and hypoargininemia other than hypoprolinemia. Hyperhydroxyprolinemia is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder caused by the deficiency of hydroxyproline oxidase. There are no symptoms and it is believed to be a benign metabolic disorder. The deficiency of ornithine aminotransferase causes transient hyperammonemia during early infancy due to deficiency of ornithine in the urea cycle. In later life, gyrate atrophy of the retina occurs due to hyperornithinemia, a paradoxical phenomenon. Finally, prolidase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease. Prolidase catalyzes hydrolysis of dipeptide or oligopeptide with a C-terminal proline or hydroxyproline and its deficiency can cause mental retardation and severe skin ulcers.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/deficiência , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/genética , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Dipeptidases/deficiência , Dipeptidases/genética , Dipeptidases/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Pirrolina Carboxilato Redutases/deficiência , Pirrolina Carboxilato Redutases/genética , Pirrolina Carboxilato Redutases/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Res ; 29(1): 9-18, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18344593

RESUMO

H. pylori is a gram-negative bacterium associated with gastric inflammation and peptic ulcer and considered a risk factor for gastric cancer in its natural habitat. However, the energy metabolism of H. pylori in the stomach remains to be clarified. H. pylori shows rather high respiratory activity with L-proline and significantly large amounts of L-proline are present in the gastric juice from H. pylori infected patients. We constructed a disrupted mutant of the put A gene, which encodes the proline utilization A (Put A) flavin-linked enzyme, in order to examine the role of put A in the gastric colonization of H. pylori. The put A disrupted mutant, DeltaputA, was constructed by inserting a chloramphenicol resistant gene into put A. DeltaputA did not show respiratory activity using L-proline and could not incorporate L-proline into cells. DeltaputA also did not show motility in response to amino acids and did not display the swarming activity observed with the wild-type. DeltaputA had lost its ability to colonize the stomach of nude mice, an ability possessed by the wild-type. These findings indicate that put A may play an important role in H. pylori colonization on the gastric mucus layer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Helicobacter pylori/enzimologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Movimento , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transporte Biológico , Células Cultivadas , Resistência ao Cloranfenicol , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/enzimologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processos Heterotróficos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutagênese Insercional , Proteínas Mutantes , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/fisiopatologia , Transformação Bacteriana
20.
Brain Dev ; 29(9): 547-52, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17412540

RESUMO

Hyperprolinemia type I (HPI) results from a deficiency of proline oxidase (POX), involved in the first step in the conversion of proline to glutamate. Diverse phenotypes were described in patients with HPI, prior to the identification of the POX gene (PRODH): whereas various patients were asymptomatic, others had neurological and extraneurological defects. The PRODH gene is located in the region deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Heterozygous and homozygous mutations have been identified in patients with variable hyperprolinemia and various features (patients with schizophrenia, chromosome 22q11 microdeletions and/or neurological defects). A functional study has divided the PRODH missense mutations into three groups: those leading to mild, moderate, or severe reduction of POX activity. In this study, we report four unrelated children with HPI and a homogeneous severe neurological phenotype. We identified biallelic abnormalities in PRODH in these patients that led to severe reduction of POX activity. These included missense and non-sense mutations, deletions of PRODH and a 22q11 microdeletion. Four other children have been reported with severe biallelic PRODH mutations. The phenotype of these eight patients associates early psychomotor development delay with predominant cognitive defects, autistic features and epilepsy. Their values of hyperprolinemia ranged from 400 to 2200 micromol/L. Patients with biallelic PRODH alterations resulting in severely impaired POX activity had an early onset and severe neurological features. Thus, children with this phenotype and those with a microdeletion in chromosome 22q11, especially those with mental retardation and autistic features, should be tested for hyperprolinemia. Hyperprolinemic patients should be screened for PRODH mutations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hiperprolactinemia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Prolina Oxidase/deficiência , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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