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1.
PeerJ ; 11: e14673, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710858

RESUMO

Prohexadione calcium (Pro-Ca), as a growth retardant, can effectively alleviate the damage of salt stress to plants. In order to explore the effects of NaCl stress on the physiological characteristics and panicle traits of rice plants as well as the alleviating effect of Pro-Ca at the booting stage, we performed pot experiments on two rice cultivars: conventional rice 'Huanghuazhan' and hybrid rice 'Xiangliangyou900'. Rice plants were treated with 0.3% NaCl 48 hours after Pro-Ca (100 mg L-1) treatment to study the effects of Pro-Ca on the physiological characteristics of the leaves and panicles, as well as the panicle and yield traits of rice under salt stress. Our analysis indicated that NaCl treatment inhibited the morphological growth parameters and photosynthetic efficiency, destroyed the antioxidant defense systems of leaves and panicles, increased soluble protein and proline in both rice cultivars. Foliar application of Pro-Ca significantly increased the leaf area, uppermost internode length, panicle length, panicle weight, number of primary branches, number of grains per panicle, seed setting rate and yield under salt stress. Pro-Ca application significantly affected chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), and apparent mesophyll conductance (AMC) in NaCl-treated rice cultivars compared with NaCl treatment alone. Moreover, Pro-Ca also increased ascorbic acid (AsA) content, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and further increased the accumulation of soluble protein and proline in leaves and panicles. These results illustrated that foliar application of Pro-Ca at the booting stage could alleviate the damage caused by NaCl stress by regulating the physiological and metabolic processes of rice plants, thereby enhancing the stress resistance of the plants, increasing total rice yield in salt stress conditions.


Assuntos
Oryza , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 132: 108479, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513322

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute one of the most promising sources of natural molecules used for the design of effective antimicrobial agents alternative to antibiotics. Previously, we have showed that a crab proline-rich AMP designated as SpPR-AMP1 is a potent AMP that exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrated the importance of SpPR-AMP1 peptide in treating a virulent acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) Vibrio campbellii VH-639 isolate and eliciting the innate immune response to counter the AHPND infection in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. SpPR-AMP1 exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity against V. campbellii VH-639 at MIC value of 0.195-0.39 µM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the membrane disruption potential of SpPR-AMP1 against the V. campbellii VH-639 cells. The in vivo effect of SpPR-AMP1 in shrimp L.vannamei was investigated and the results showed that SpPR-AMP1 was capable of modulating the innate immune response by stimulating the expression levels of AMP transcripts in shrimp hemocytes. Moreover, treatments with SpPR-AMP1 could promote the resistance of shrimp against V. campbellii VH-639 infection as demonstrated by a significant increase in shrimp survival rate and decrease in both the bacterial load and the expression levels of bacterial PirA and PirB toxin gene transcripts in the infected shrimp. These results suggest the potential of SpPR-AMP1 peptide with the combined antimicrobial and immunoenhancing capabilities as promising antimicrobial agent to treat V. campbellii VH-639 causing AHPND infection in shrimp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Penaeidae , Vibrioses , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Prolina/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Vibrioses/veterinária , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361700

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, heat, cold, and heavy metals, are associated with global climate change and hamper plant growth and development, affecting crop yields and quality. However, the negative effects of abiotic stresses can be mitigated through exogenous treatments using small biomolecules. For example, the foliar application of melatonin provides the following: it protects the photosynthetic apparatus; it increases the antioxidant defenses, osmoprotectant, and soluble sugar levels; it prevents tissue damage and reduces electrolyte leakage; it improves reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging; and it increases biomass, maintains the redox and ion homeostasis, and improves gaseous exchange. Glutathione spray upregulates the glyoxalase system, reduces methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity and oxidative stress, decreases hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde accumulation, improves the defense mechanisms, tissue repairs, and nitrogen fixation, and upregulates the phytochelatins. The exogenous application of proline enhances growth and other physiological characteristics, upregulates osmoprotection, protects the integrity of the plasma lemma, reduces lipid peroxidation, increases photosynthetic pigments, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and amino acids, and enhances stress tolerance, carbon fixation, and leaf nitrogen content. The foliar application of glycine betaine improves growth, upregulates osmoprotection and osmoregulation, increases relative water content, net photosynthetic rate, and catalase activity, decreases photorespiration, ion leakage, and lipid peroxidation, protects the oxygen-evolving complex, and prevents chlorosis. Chemical priming has various important advantages over transgenic technology as it is typically more affordable for farmers and safe for plants, people, and animals, while being considered environmentally acceptable. Chemical priming helps to improve the quality and quantity of the yield. This review summarizes and discusses how exogenous melatonin, glutathione, proline, and glycine betaine can help crops combat abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Melatonina/metabolismo , Betaína/farmacologia , Betaína/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231984

RESUMO

Cadmium toxicity is one of the deleterious abiotic factors that reduce wheat production. Two different cultivars (Akbar and Dilkash) were compared for their cadmium (0, 40 and 80 mg/kg) tolerance and responses towards Bacillus subtilis NA2, Aspergillus niger PMI-118 and L-proline. Both microbes were tested for heavy metal tolerance and production of various plant hormones and biological active enzyme characteristics under normal and cadmium stress. A completely randomized design (two cultivars × four treatments × three cadmium levels × three replicates) was adopted using distilled water as a control. The growth promotion potential of these strains under cadmium stress was determined by N-fixation, IAA synthesis, P-solubilization, amylase and proteases production. A pot experiment under controlled conditions was conducted to evaluate the effect of bacteria, fungi, and L-proline under cadmium stress. It was indicated from the result that plant biomass (46.43%), shoot length (22.40%), root length (25.06%), chlorophyll (17.17%), total sugars (27.07%), total proteins (86.01%) and ascorbic acid (83.27%) were improved with inoculation under control and cadmium stress. The accumulation of total flavonoids (48.64%), total phenolics (24.88%), hydrogen peroxide (53.96%) and activities of antioxidant enzymes CAT (26.37%) and APX (43.71%) were reduced in the plants treated with bacteria, fungi and L-proline than those under control. With parallel aids, Bacillus subtilis NA2 showed a higher cadmium tolerance and plant growth stability as compared to Aspergillus niger PMI-118 and L-proline and may be adopted in the future.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Amilases , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger , Bacillus subtilis , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 790: 136898, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195298

RESUMO

Noopept (NP) is a proline-containing dipeptide with nootropic and neuroprotective properties. We have previously shown that NP significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells mediated by the activation of inhibitory interneurons in stratum radiatum. The cholinergic system plays an important role in the performance of cognitive functions, furthermore multiple behavioral and clinical facts link NP with the cholinergic system. The present study was undertaken to reveal the possible interaction of NP with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Currents were recorded from rat hippocampal neurons using the whole-cell, patch-clamp technique. NP (5 µM) increased the action potential firing frequency recorded from GABAergic interneurons in the stratum radiatum (SR) of CA1 region. This effect was almost completely abolished by the application of the α7 nAChR-selective antagonists α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT; 6 nM) and methyllycaconitine (MLA; 20 nM). The increase in the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal cells induced by NP was also eliminated by α7 nAChRs antagonists. These results imply the involvement of α7 nAChRs in the modulation of hippocampal neuronal activity caused by NP and indicate that a7 nAChRs are an important site of action of NP.


Assuntos
Nootrópicos , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Ratos , Bungarotoxinas , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
7.
Environ Pollut ; 314: 120262, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162560

RESUMO

Micro and nanoplastics are new generation contaminants of global concern. It is important to evaluate the effects on edible products due to the presence of micro- and nano-sized plastics in the treated wastewater. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to explore the effect of polsytrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs; 20 nm) at different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg L-1) on Glycine max L. (soybean) seedlings for 7-days. In the current study, firstly the uptake of PS-NPs by Glycine max L. (soybean) roots were confirmed by laser confocal scanning microscope. Exposure to PS-NPs, negatively affected growth parameters and increased Fe, Zn and Mn contents in roots and leaves of soybean seedlings. PS-NPs treatments caused oxidative stress in soybean seedlings. The hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents, showed similar increase pattern in seedlings exposed to PS-NPs. Response to PS-NPs, the level of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase) and proline content were generally enhanced in roots and leaves of soybean. The expression level of stress-related genes examined in the study included CSD5, FSD3, APX1, and POD up-regulated in PS-NPs treated-soybean seedlings in a tissue specific manner. The results of the present study showed the adverse effects of PS-NPs on soybean seedlings, which may have important implications for the risk assessment of NPs on crop production and environmental safety.


Assuntos
Plântula , Soja , Catalase/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Microplásticos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia
8.
Environ Pollut ; 313: 120229, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152705

RESUMO

The promising response of chromium-stressed (Cr(VI)-S) plants to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been observed, but the participation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in H2S-induced Cr(VI)-S tolerance in plants remains to be elucidated. It was aimed to assess the participation of NO in H2S-mediated Cr(VI)-S tolerance by modulating subcellular distribution of Cr and the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in the pepper seedlings. Two weeks following germination, plants were exposed to control (no Cr) or Cr(VI)-S (50 µM K2Cr2O7) for further two weeks. The Cr(VI)-S-plants grown in nutrient solution were supplied with 200 µM sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS, donor of H2S), or NaHS plus 100 µM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of NO). Chromium stress suppressed plant growth and leaf water status, while elevated proline content, oxidative stress, and the activities of AsA-GSH related enzymes, as well as endogenous H2S and NO contents. The supplementation of NaHS increased Cr accumulation at root cell walls and vacuoles of leaves as soluble fraction to reduce its toxicity. Furthermore it limited oxidative stress, improved plant growth, modulated leaf water status, and the AsA-GSH cycle-associated enzymes' activities, as well as it further improved H2S and NO contents. The positive effect of NaHS was found to be augmented on those parameters in the CrS-plants by the SNP supplementation. However, 0.1 mM cPTIO, the scavenger of NO, inverted the prominent effect of NaHS by decreasing NO content. The supplementation of SNP along with NaHS + cPTIO reinstalled the positive effect of NaHS by restoring NO content, which suggested that NO might have a potential role in H2S-induced tolerance to Cr(VI)-S in pepper plants by stepping up the AsA-GSH cycle.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzoatos , Capsicum/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Cromo/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Imidazóis , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Plântula , Sulfetos , Água/metabolismo
9.
J Org Chem ; 87(19): 12900-12908, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153987

RESUMO

An operationally simple and convenient resolution method via Cu(II) complexes was reported, efficiently providing valuable enantiopure N,C-unprotected α-amino acids. This protocol features synthetically attractive yields and a stereochemical outcome, using a recyclable Schiff base ligand and inexpensive easily accessible metal copper salts. These novel Cu(II) complexes can be obtained in an enantiopure state by means of column chromatography or recrystallization. Furthermore, all the Cu(II) complexes were evaluated for their antibacterial activities. Among them, complexes (S,2S)-3a, (S,2S)-3g, and (S,2S)-3o showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus Mu50. Further biological evaluation indicated that they were effective against most of Gram-positive bacteria. It is the first study on the biological activities of transition metal complexes with this type of proline-derived Schiff base ligand.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Bases de Schiff , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Cobre/farmacologia , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prolina/farmacologia , Sais , Bases de Schiff/química , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia
11.
Food Funct ; 13(19): 10110-10120, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102920

RESUMO

Gelidium amansii (GA) is a kind of red alga homologous to medicine and food and is distributed all over the world. Studies on GA are mainly focused on its polysaccharides, with little research on the ethanol extract. The ethanol extract of Gelidium amansii (GAE) was subjected to a reverse-phase column to obtain 7 components. Among them, 100% methanol solution (GAM), enriched with phytene-1,2-diol, exhibited the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.17 mg mL-1). Subsequently, high-fat male flies (HMFs) were used as a model to explore the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of GAM in vivo. Studies showed that GAM can effectively prolong the lifespan of HMFs. When GAM concentrations were 0.2 and 1.0 mg mL-1, the average lifespan of HMFs was increased by 28.7 and 40.7%, respectively, while the longest lifespan of HMFs was increased by 20.55% and 32.88%, respectively. Further research revealed that GAM can significantly downregulate the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO), and can significantly upregulate the levels of catalase (CAT) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD). In addition, by analyzing differential metabolites, we found that GAM relieves aging caused by oxidative stress by regulating amino acid, lipid, sugar, and energy metabolism. The GAM group significantly regulated the levels of adenine, cholic acid, glutamate, L-proline, niacin, and stachyose which tend to recover to the levels of the normal diet male fly (NMF) group. In general, our research provides ideas for the high-value utilization of GA and provides a lead compound for the research and development of anti-aging food or medicine.


Assuntos
Niacina , Rodófitas , Adenina/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácido Cólico , Drosophila , Etanol/farmacologia , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metanol , Niacina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Rodófitas/química , Açúcares , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(39): 12364-12371, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126316

RESUMO

Febrifugine, a natural alkaloid, exhibits specific anti-phytophthora activity; however, its mode of action is unclear. In this study, halofuginone, a synthetic derivative of febrifugine, showed significantly higher anti-phytophthora activities than those of febrifugine and the commercial drug metalaxyl against Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora capsici, and Phytophthora infestans with effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC50) values of 0.665, 0.673, and 0.178 µg/mL, respectively. Proline could alleviate the growth inhibition of halofuginone on P. capsici, implying that halofuginone might target prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PcPRS). The anti-phytophthora mechanism of halofuginone was then investigated by molecular docking, fluorescence titration, and enzymatic inhibition assays. The results revealed that halofuginone could bind to PcPRS and shared a similar binding site with the substrate proline. Point mutations at Glu316 and Arg345 led to 24.5 and 16.1% decreases in the enzymatic activity of PcPRS but 816.742- and 459.557-fold increases in the resistance to halofuginone, respectively. The results further confirmed that halofuginone was a competitive inhibitor of proline against PcPRS, and Glu316 and Arg345 played important roles in the binding of halofuginone and proline. Taken together, the results indicated that halofuginone is an alternative anti-phytophthora drug candidate and that PcPRS represents a potential target for the development of new pesticides.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases , Praguicidas , Phytophthora , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/química , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Piperidinas , Prolina/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas
13.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(10)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066920

RESUMO

Herein, Bacillus subtilis PBE-8's biocontrol efficacy was evaluated through physiological and metabolic approaches against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL). The study elaborates on PBE-8's cell-free filtrate (CFF) antifungal activity through mycelial growth inhibition, metabolite profiling, and substrates utilization patterns. Additionally, under different CFF concentrations, reduction in spore count (94%-55%), biomass (50%), and cytoplasmic bulbous protrusions in mycelia were also observed. Furthermore, the effect of bacterial CFF on FOL metabolism was confirmed through GC-MS. CFF suppresses the concentration of aliphatic amino acids like L-valine, L-leucine, L-Isoleucine, glycine, and fatty acids such as linoleic acid and α- linolenic acid during the co-culturing conditions, which are essential for pathogenicity and resistance against host's systemic acquired resistance. The phenotype microarray assay revealed that CFF-treated FOL shows phenotype loss in 507 (56.58%) out of 896 substrates. Among 507, twenty-seven substrates showed significant phenotype loss, among which four substrates such as L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, ammonia, and L-arginine are common in different crucial metabolic pathways of FOL, like alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline, carbon metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, amino-acyl tRNA synthesis, and biosynthesis of amino acids. The results suggest that PBE-8 CFF has certain antifungal metabolites that hinder the fungal metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Alanina/genética , Alanina/farmacologia , Amônia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arginina , Ácido Aspártico , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Biotransformação , Carbono , Fusarium/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Glutamina/genética , Glutamina/farmacologia , Glicina , Isoleucina/genética , Isoleucina/farmacologia , Leucina/genética , Leucina/farmacologia , Ácidos Linoleicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Linolênicos/farmacologia , Análise em Microsséries , Nitrogênio , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Prolina/genética , Prolina/farmacologia , RNA de Transferência/farmacologia , Valina/genética , Valina/farmacologia
14.
Environ Pollut ; 312: 120084, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057328

RESUMO

Research over the last three decades showed that chromium, particularly the oxyanion chromate Cr(VI) behaves as a toxic environmental pollutant that strongly damages plants due to oxidative stress, disruption of nutrient uptake, photosynthesis and metabolism, and ultimately, represses growth and development. However, mild Cr(VI) concentrations promote growth, induce adventitious root formation, reinforce the root cap, and produce twin roots from single root meristems under conditions that compromise cell viability, indicating its important role as a driver for root organogenesis. In recent years, considerable advance has been made towards deciphering the molecular mechanisms for root sensing of chromate, including the identification of regulatory proteins such as SOLITARY ROOT and MEDIATOR 18 that orchestrate the multilevel dynamics of the oxyanion. Cr(VI) decreases the expression of several glutamate receptors, whereas amino acids such as glutamate, cysteine and proline confer protection to plants from hexavalent chromium stress. The crosstalk between plant hormones, including auxin, ethylene, and jasmonic acid enables tissues to balance growth and defense under Cr(VI)-induced oxidative damage, which may be useful to better adapt crops to biotic and abiotic challenges. The highly contrasting responses of plants manifested at the transcriptional and translational levels depend on the concentration of chromate in the media, and fit well with the concept of hormesis, an adaptive mechanism that primes plants for resistance to environmental challenges, toxins or pollutants. Here, we review the contrasting facets of Cr(VI) in plants including the cellular, hormonal and molecular aspects that mechanistically separate its toxic effects from biostimulant outputs.


Assuntos
Cromatos , Poluentes Ambientais , Cromatos/metabolismo , Cromo/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Cisteína/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Etilenos/farmacologia , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Hormese , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia
15.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(10): e693, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169254

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertrophic scar (HS), a fibroproliferative disorder of the skin with some tumor-like properties, is closely related to dysregulated inflammation. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor is a promising medication for cancer therapy as its potent functions on adaptive immune response; whether it could be a candidate for HS therapy has aroused our interest. This study aimed to explore the effect and the mechanism of BMS-202, a PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor, in HS. METHODS: Ten HS and adjacent normal skin tissues collected from HS patients were used to detect α-SMA, collagen I, and PD-L1 expression by Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot (WB) analysis. Fibroblasts derived from HS tissues (HFBs) were exposed to diverse concentrations of BMS-202, of which proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and collagen synthesis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, wound healing, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End labeling, and [3 H]-proline incorporation assays, respectively. The effect of BMS-202 on α-SMA and collagen I expression, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1)/Smad signaling in HFBs was also determined by WB and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The expression level of PD-L1 was significantly elevated in both HS tissues and HFBs, which was positively correlated with α-SMA and collagen I expressions. BMS-202 exerted a significant suppression effect on the cell proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and α-SMA and collagen I expression of HFBs in a concentration-dependent way; but did not affect apoptosis. Finally, BMS-202 could reduce the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Smad2, and Smad3, and the TGFß1 expression once its concentration reached 2.5 nM. CONCLUSION: BMS-202 effectively suppressed proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition of HFBs, potentially through the regulation of the ERK and TGFß1/Smad signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/patologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/terapia , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , DNA Nucleotidilexotransferase/metabolismo , DNA Nucleotidilexotransferase/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 850: 158019, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973547

RESUMO

Forest environment has many health benefits, and negative air ions (NAI) is one of the major forest environmental factors. Many studies have explored the effect of forest environment on cardiac autonomic nervous function, while forest NAI in the among function and the underlying mechanism still remain unclear. To explore the associations and molecular linkages between short-term exposure to forest NAI and heart rate variability (HRV), a repeated-measure panel study was conducted among 31 healthy adults. Participants were randomly selected to stay in a forest park for 3 days and 2 nights. Individual exposures including NAI were monitored simultaneously and HRV indices were measured repeatedly at the follow-up period. Urine samples were collected for non-targeted metabolomics analysis. Mixed-effect models were adopted to evaluate associations among NAI, HRV indices and metabolites. The median of NAI concentration was 68.11 (138.20) cm-3 during the study period. Short-term exposure to forest NAI was associated with the ameliorative HRV indices, especially the excitatory parasympathetic nerve. For instance, per interquartile range increase of 5-min moving average of NAI was associated with 9.99 % (95%CI: 8.95 %, 11.03 %) increase of power in high frequency. Eight metabolites were associated with NAI exposure. The down-regulated tyrosine metabolism was firstly observed, followed by other amino acid metabolic alterations. The NAI-related metabolic changes reflect the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. HRV indices were associated with 25 metabolites, mainly including arginine, proline and histidine metabolism. Short-term exposure to forest NAI is beneficial to HRV, especially to the parasympathetic nerve activity, by successively disturbing different metabolic pathways which mainly reflect the increased anti-inflammation and the reduced inflammation. The results will provide epidemiological evidences for developing forest therapy and improving cardiac autonomic nervous function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arginina/análise , Florestas , Frequência Cardíaca , Histidina/análise , Histidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Íons/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Prolina/análise , Prolina/farmacologia , Tirosina/análise , Tirosina/farmacologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157943, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952877

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a typical persistent organic pollutant with a high load in the agricultural soils of vegetable crops. Currently, studies on the toxicity of DBP in vegetable crops are limited. Therefore, in this study, pakchoi (Brassica campestris L.), a typical vegetable crop, was used to evaluate the toxic effects of DBP. Pakchoi was exposed to DBP for 24 d at three doses (2, 20, and 200 mg/kg), and the phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular indicators were determined. The results revealed that DBP could reduce the emergence of pakchoi and inhibit plant height, root length, fresh weight, and leaf area. At the biochemical level, DBP exposure could reduce the content of three typical photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids). The effects of DBP exposure on the quality of pakchoi were primarily through reduced soluble sugar and increased proline contents. In addition, O2·- and H2O2 levels increased after DBP stress, and the corresponding antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) were activated to resist oxidative damage. The dose- and time-dependent toxicities of DBP to pakchoi were demonstrated using an integrated biological response index. Finally, the molecular-level results on Day 24 showed that the three antioxidant enzyme genes (sod, pod, and cat) were significantly downregulated, and the antioxidant enzyme genes were more sensitive biomarkers than the enzyme activities. However, the expression level of enzyme genes was opposite to that of enzyme activity (SOD and POD); thus, DBP might directly interact with these enzymes. Molecular docking showed that DBP could stably bind near the SOD/POD active center through intermolecular interaction forces. This study provides essential information on the risk of DBP toxicity to vegetable crops.


Assuntos
Brassica , Poluentes do Solo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
18.
Mar Drugs ; 20(7)2022 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877744

RESUMO

Investigation of the cytotoxic fractions of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of the tunicate-derived Aspergillus sp. DY001 afforded two new dipeptides, asperopiperazines A and B (1 and 2), along with the previously reported compounds (+)-citreoisocoumarin (3) and (-)-6,8-di-O-methylcitreoisocoumarin (4). Analyses of the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data of the compounds supported their structural assignments. Asperopiperazine A (1) is a cyclic dipeptide of leucine and phenylalanine moieties, which are substituted with an N-methyl and an N-acetyl group, respectively. On the other hand, asperopiperazine B (2) is a cyclic dipeptide of proline and phenylalanine moieties with a hydroxyl group at C-2 of the proline part. The absolute configuration of the amino acid moieties in 1 and 2 were determined by Marfey's analyses and DFT NMR chemical shift calculations, leading to their assignment as cyclo(l-NMe-Leu-l-NAc-Phe) and cyclo(d-6-OH-Pro-l-Phe), respectively. Asperopiperazines A and B displayed higher antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than Candida albicans. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 displayed variable growth inhibitory effects towards HCT 116 and MDA-MB-231 cells, with asperopiperazine A as the most active one towards HCT 116.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Urocordados , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Dipeptídeos/química , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Fungos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Fenilalanina , Prolina/farmacologia
20.
Bone ; 162: 116452, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654351

RESUMO

Among the interventions used to prevent osteoporosis in female organisms, strength training (ST) and oxytocin (OT) stand out, as a promising hormone with anabolic action on bone. This study aimed to verify whether the combined action of OT and ST, compared to isolated interventions, potentiates the bone remodeling process of the femoral neck of Wistar rats during periestropause. Forty Wistar rats (18 months) with irregular estrous cycle were randomly distributed into groups: 1-Vehicle (Veh; NaCl 0.15 mol/L ip); 2-Oxytocin (Ot; 134 µg/kg/ip); 3-Strength training (St); 4-Ot + St. The animals of the 1, 2 and 4 groups received two intraperitoneal injections with an interval of 12 h every 30 days, totaling 8 injections at the end of the experimental period (18 to 21 months). The animals in the St and Ot + St groups performed ST on a ladder 3 times a week, maximal voluntary carrying capacity (MVCC) test monthly. After 120 days, the animals were euthanized; the femur was collected for analysis of biomechanical testing, densitometry, bone microtomography, Raman spectroscopy, tissue PCR, and blood for analysis of bone biomarkers, liver damage, and oxidative stress. The main effects in the Ot group were observed in the maximum load and energy in the compression testing (femoral head), and stiffness and energy in the three-points bending testing (femur diaphysis). In addition, the main effects occurred on the bone mineral density (BMD), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), number of pores (Po.N), polar moment of inertia (J), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and connectivity density (Conn.Dn), Bone alkaline phosphatase (Alp), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11b (Opg), Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (Rankl) and Cathepsin K (Ctsk) expression. There was an effect in the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In the St group, the main effect was observed on the energy (compression and the three-points bending), stiffness, aBMD, BMD, cortical bone area (Ct.Ar), Po.N, trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), Tb.Th and in the mineralization ratio (ѵ1PO4/proline), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Alp, Osteopontin/secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Opn/Spp1), Opg, Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11ª (Rank), Rankl, Ctsk expression. There was an effect in the TRAP and ALP. The interaction in the combination of therapies in the Ot + St group was verified in energy to maximum load (compression and three-points bending testing), stiffness, BMD, Ct.Th, J, Tb.Th and ѵ1PO4/proline. In the gene analysis there was interaction in the Runx2, Osterix/Sp7 transcription factor (Osx/Sp7), Bmp2, Alp, Osteocalcin/Bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (Ocn/Bglap), Opg, Rankl and Acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (Trap/Acp5) expression. In addition, the combination of OT and ST resulted in a higher maximum load compared to the Veh group, with higher BV/TV than the Ot group, higher Rankl and Ctsk expression than Veh and Ot groups, and lower Po.N and lower activity of TRAP than the other groups. In oxidative stress, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was lower. These results showed that the combination of interventions is a promising anabolic strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis in the period of periestropause, standing out from the effects of isolated interventions.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Treinamento de Força , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/patologia , Osteoporose/patologia , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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