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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1475, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, a high-sodium diet is the most important dietary risk factor and is known to cause a range of health problems. This study aimed to forecast Japan's disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) for chronic diseases that would be associated with high-sodium diet in different future scenarios of salt intake. We modelled DALY forecast and alternative future scenarios of salt intake for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), and stomach cancer (SC) from 2017 to 2040. METHODS: We developed a three-component model of disease-specific DALYs: a component on the changes in major behavioural and metabolic risk predictors including salt intake; a component on the income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate under 25 years; and an autoregressive integrated moving average model to capture the unexplained component correlated over time. Data on risk predictors were obtained from Japan's National Health and Nutrition Surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. To generate a reference forecast of disease-specific DALY rates for 2017-2040, we modelled the three diseases using the data for 1990-2016. Additionally, we generated better, moderate, and worse scenarios to evaluate the impact of change in salt intake on the DALY rate for the diseases. RESULTS: In our reference forecast, the DALY rates across all ages were predicted to be stable for CVDs, continuously increasing for CKDs, and continuously decreasing for SC. Meanwhile, the age group-specific DALY rates for these three diseases were forecasted to decrease, with some exceptions. Except for the ≥70 age group, there were remarkable differences in DALY rates between scenarios, with the best scenario having the lowest DALY rates in 2040 for SC. This represents a wide scope of future trajectories by 2040 with a potential for tremendous decrease in SC burden. CONCLUSIONS: The gap between scenarios provides some quantification of the range of policy impacts on future trajectories of salt intake. Even though we do not yet know the policy mix used to achieve these scenarios, the result that there can be differences between scenarios means that policies today can have a significant impact on the future DALYs.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tendências , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
3.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(5): 665-670, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896177

RESUMO

Health education and promotion researchers and practitioners are committed to eliminating health disparities, and the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has continuously supported this effort through its journals, professional development, annual conferences, and advocacy. The COVID-19 pandemic elucidated inequities directly caused by racism and other social determinants of health. In order to achieve health equity, we need to become antiracist in our research, practice, and advocacy work by standing united against racist policies and practices. I invite us all to heed the call to action on these five points: place racism on the agenda, practice cultural humility, claim your privilege and eliminate microaggressions, utilize strategies that promote inclusion and equity, and embrace your inner leader and activist. Just as SOPHE as an organization pivoted its annual conference from on ground to virtual in March 2020, so can we be innovative and brave as professionals to face the hard work and dedication needed to become antiracist.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Betacoronavirus , Equidade em Saúde/normas , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Racismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745081

RESUMO

In line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the target for achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), state level initiatives to promote health with "no-one left behind" are underway in India. In Kerala, reforms under the flagship Aardram mission include upgradation of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) to Family Health Centres (FHCs, similar to the national model of health and wellness centres (HWCs)), with the proactive provision of a package of primary care services for the population in an administrative area. We report on a component of Aardram's monitoring and evaluation framework for primary health care, where tracer input, output, and outcome indicators were selected using a modified Delphi process and field tested. A conceptual framework and indicator inventory were developed drawing upon literature review and stakeholder consultations, followed by mapping of manual registers currently used in PHCs to identify sources of data and processes of monitoring. The indicator inventory was reduced to a list using a modified Delphi method, followed by facility-level field testing across three districts. The modified Delphi comprised 25 participants in two rounds, who brought the list down to 23 approved and 12 recommended indicators. Three types of challenges in monitoring indicators were identified: appropriateness of indicators relative to local use, lack of clarity or procedural differences among those doing the reporting, and validity of data. Further field-testing of indicators, as well as the revision or removal of some may be required to support ongoing health systems reform, learning, monitoring and evaluation.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias de Ginástica/organização & administração , Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify health systems-level barriers to treatment for women who screened positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in a cervical cancer prevention program in Kenya. METHODS: In a trial of implementation strategies for hrHPV-based cervical cancer screening in western Kenya in 2018-2019, women underwent hrHPV testing offered through community health campaigns, and women who tested positive were referred to government health facilities for cryotherapy. The current analysis draws on treatment data from this trial, as well as two observational studies that were conducted: 1) periodic assessments of the treatment sites to ascertain availability of resources for treatment and 2) surveys with treatment providers to elicit their views on barriers to care. Bivariate analyses were performed for the site assessment data, and the provider survey data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Seventeen site assessments were performed across three treatment sites. All three sites reported instances of supply stockouts, two sites reported treatment delays due to lack of supplies, and two sites reported treatment delays due to provider factors. Of the 16 providers surveyed, ten (67%) perceived lack of knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer as the main barrier in women's decision to get treated, and seven (47%) perceived financial barriers for transportation and childcare as the main barrier to accessing treatment. Eight (50%) endorsed that providing treatment free of cost was the greatest facilitator of treatment. CONCLUSION: Patient education and financial support to reach treatment are potential areas for intervention to increase rates of hrHPV+ women presenting for treatment. It is also essential to eliminate barriers that prevent treatment of women who present, including ensuring adequate supplies and staff for treatment.


Assuntos
Crioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Crioterapia/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
8.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(6): ajpe8154, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665725

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the way we live, work, and study. As faculty members, staff members, and students attempt to create and maintain a new normal because of this pandemic, the preservation of wellbeing becomes the responsibility of each and every one of us. The pandemic has taught us not to presume the importance of wellbeing and has allowed us time to reflect on establishing new assumptions and beliefs about how and when we work and study; how to be more efficient in our work and home responsibilities; and above all, what is most important. We must support ourselves and our students by maintaining a routine, modifying work and coursework expectations, and seeking psychosocial support if needed. Focusing on promoting wellbeing through leadership will move our institutions forward to a brighter future beyond COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Docentes de Farmácia/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Docentes de Farmácia/organização & administração , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica
10.
Health Info Libr J ; 37(3): 171-172, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672399

RESUMO

In early 2020, the world experienced an unprecedented health crisis. When the pandemic of coronavirus was declared by the World Health Organization, it brought with it sudden and dramatic changes to everyday life. In the UK, the key message from the Government was to 'Stay at home, protect the NHS, save lives', sending out a clear warning that failing to stay at home would put other lives and the ability of the NHS to cope at risk. This editorial discusses COVID-19, how society responded and the vital role that health literacy plays in saving lives during a global health emergency.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Reino Unido
13.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 17, 2020. 13 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103541

RESUMO

Este documento tiene el propósito de actualizar las líneas de acción estratégicas de la OPS/OMS para el abordaje de la epidemia de la COVID-19 en Honduras. La pandemia ha tenido una evolución acelerada a nivel mundial, considerándose de una gravedad alta con impactos que van mucho más allá del sector salud y que han perturbado todos los aspectos sociales y económicos de casi todos los países del mundo. Por lo tanto, es necesario ir adaptando y actualizando las intervenciones para que reflejen de mejor manera las lecciones aprendidas de otros países, los mandatos y las necesidades nacionales y las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud/Organización Panamericana de la Salud, de acuerdo con las políticas emergentes tanto al nivel nacional, subregional y mundial.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Estratégias Nacionais , Planejamento , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Honduras
14.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 165-171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walking interventions improve physical function, reduce fall risk, and prevent mobility disability-even in those with compromised walking ability. However, most prior studies have been conducted in controlled research settings, with no dissemination of an evidence-based walking program for older adults who have mobility limitations and/or are socially isolated. OBJECTIVES: This study reports data on the feasibility and acceptability of a community-based walking program (Walk On!) for older adults who are functionally limited, and assesses changes in physical function among attendees. The program sessions focused on long-distance walking, and took place for one-hour, for two days/week, and for 12 weeks at a time. DESIGN: Pilot implementation study. SETTING: Local church in Winston-Salem, NC. PARTICIPANTS: 49 program participants; Measurements: Physical function battery and satisfaction survey data, as well as formative evaluation data from six attendees of a focus group, are reported. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were >75 years (71%), female (65%), and presented with low levels of physical function (usual gait speed=0.79±0.16; 30.6% used an assistive device). Satisfaction with the program was high (100% would recommend it to others) and focus group results were overwhelmingly positive. Mean attendance to scheduled sessions was 77%±21%, and 63% of participants attended at least 75% of scheduled sessions (n=8 attended 100%). On average, participants improved their 6-min walk distance by 8.9%, their SPPB score by 15.4%, their timed-up-go time by 9.0%, and their usual gait speed by 11.4%. CONCLUSION: The results of the initial evaluation of Walk On! show high feasibility and acceptability of the program, as well as efficacy for improving physical function. Further research is needed to evaluate a delivery method for wider implementation of the program and to definitively test its effectiveness for improving function and other health benefits.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Limitação da Mobilidade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Caminhada , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Caminhada/fisiologia
15.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(2): 137-S5, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539479

RESUMO

In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Project PrIDE, a national initiative to implement and evaluate demonstration projects to increase PrEP uptake among HIV-negative individuals and to re-engage HIV-positive individuals in HIV care. Our team served as the Evaluation Center for Project PrIDE organizations in Chicago and used an empowerment evaluation (EE) approach to enhance evaluation capacity at these organizations. To evaluate our approach, we assessed organizations' evaluation capacity and engagement in technical assistance and capacity building activities in 2016 and 2018. Respondents who self-reported higher engagement with the Evaluation Center and who spent a greater number of hours engaged with our evaluators experienced greater increases in evaluation capacity tied to implementation of evaluation activities and technical assistance utilization. These findings demonstrate that multisite EE can be successfully applied to increase the evaluation capacity of organizations providing both HIV prevention and care services.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Empoderamento , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Poder Psicológico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Chicago , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero , Estados Unidos
17.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1458-1464, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589718

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sounded alarm bells throughout global health systems. As of late May, 2020, over 100,000 COVID-19-related deaths were reported in the United States, which is the highest number of any country. This article describes COVID-19 as the next historical turning point in the physical therapy profession's growth and development. The profession has had over a 100-year tradition of responding to epidemics, including poliomyelitis; 2 world wars and geographical regions experiencing conflicts and natural disasters; and, the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The evidence-based role of noninvasive interventions (nonpharmacological/nonsurgical) that hallmark physical therapist practice has emerged as being highly relevant today in addressing COVID-19 in 2 primary ways. First, despite some unique features, COVID-19 presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome in its severe acute stage. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is very familiar to physical therapists in intensive care units. Body positioning and mobilization, prescribed based on comprehensive assessments/examinations, counter the negative sequelae of recumbency and bedrest; augment gas exchange and reduce airway closure, deconditioning, and critical illness complications; and maximize long-term functional outcomes. Physical therapists have an indisputable role across the contiuum of COVID-19 care. Second, over 90% of individuals who die from COVID-19 have comorbidities, most notably cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic lung disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Physical therapists need to redouble their efforts to address NCDs by assessing patients for risk factors and manifestations and institute evidence-based health education (smoking cessation, whole-food plant-based nutrition, weight control, physical activity/exercise), and/or support patients' efforts when these are managed by other professionals. Effective health education is a core competency for addressing risk of death by COVID-19 as well as NCDs. COVID-19 is a wake-up call to the profession, an opportunity to assert its role throughout the COVID-19 care continuum, and augment public health initiatives by reducing the impact of the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Fisioterapeutas/organização & administração , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias
19.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 112(3): 324-328, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563686

RESUMO

The disproportionately high burden of death and disability observed for racial and ethnic minorities under the Coronavirus pandemic necessitates sustained advocacy by the medical and public health communities around critical determinants of population health. Prompting our advocacy should be the understanding that our collective ability to rebound from such crises may ultimately hinge on protecting and equipping our most vulnerable racial-ethnic minority groups and any susceptible individuals within those populations. If proven effective, recent historic firsts by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Office of Minority Health (OMH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in response to COVID-19 should be championed for permanency within policy, practice and funding. In addition, given the complex history of Black Americans in this country and persistent and substantial Black-white disparities on health and economic measures across the board, some kind of reparations for this group may serve as a logical starting point for further advocacy. Nevertheless, we remain supportive allies of all organizations concerned with communities who suffer the weight of this pandemic and any future world health disasters. Let us as human clinicians and public health professionals capture this moment of challenge and engage in thoughtful unification of effort and commit to measurable progress for as long as the need exists and certainly for the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Defesa do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(4): 328-331, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220096

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is novel corona virus infection outbreak that has gone global in 2020. Current prevention policies consist of hand hygiene and social distancing. Emergencies overloaded health services and shocked the logistics chains in many countries, especially Italy and China. Having more than a quarter of its population being elderly, Japan is at high risk for COVID-19 induced morbidity and mortality. This situation cancelled schedules of all routine group exercise activities for the seniors in Japan. While the outbreak is ongoing, staying at home is safe. However, successive days of being house-ridden and limited movement can lead to excessive physical inactivity. Some elderly who are not moving much can lose a significant amount of muscle strength, flexibility and aerobic capacity. It can accelerate the frailty and dependency of the seniors, and subsequently, claiming of care and health services. Moreover, existing and new evidences showed that physical activity can promote antiviral immunity. An alternative to usual group exercise activities is crucial to keep seniors active without affecting social distancing. While staying at home for long, functional exercises maintaining basic level of physical activity and movements are urgently required to be introduced to the seniors in Tokyo and around the world to prevent functional decline. Home exercise is a practical option. Therefore, we made a home-version of the functional training exercise video with different sets of 10-minutes exercise for 7 days a week. This breakthrough alternative may sustain health promotion for the elderly persons to preserve their active aging and maintain optimal health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina , Tóquio
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