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1.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 157-175, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405779

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed myriad and complex challenges for our national health care system spanning preparedness, response, access, costs, infrastructure, coordination, and medical innovation. These challenges implicate federal, state, and local agencies and actors, as well as international collaborative bodies. One constant throughout the pandemic has been the pressing need for safe and effective diagnostics, prophylactic vaccines, and drug treatments to counter the virus.1 Inarguably, significant problems with the multi-faceted system of drug and vaccine innovation and regulation manifested long before the COVID-19 pandemic.2 The pandemic, however, has laid bare the inextricable connections among federal funding, patents, product review and approval mechanisms, and the eventual medical products and resulting costs.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/economia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Órgãos Governamentais , Patentes como Assunto , Terapias em Estudo/economia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Propriedade Intelectual , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
3.
J Med Ethics ; 47(9): 595-598, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233956

RESUMO

This paper gives an ethical argument for temporarily waiving intellectual property (IP) protections for COVID-19 vaccines. It examines two proposals under discussion at the World Trade Organization (WTO): the India/South Africa proposal and the WTO Director General proposal. Section I explains the background leading up to the WTO debate. Section II rebuts ethical arguments for retaining current IP protections, which appeal to benefiting society by spurring innovation and protecting rightful ownership. It sets forth positive ethical arguments for a temporary waiver that appeal to standing in solidarity and holding companies accountable. After examining built-in exceptions to existing agreements and finding them inadequate, the paper replies to objections to a temporary waiver and concludes, in section III, that the ethical argument for temporarily waiving IP protection for COVID-19 vaccines is strong.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253631

RESUMO

The recent rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines offers hope in addressing the worst pandemic in a hundred years. However, many countries in the Global South face great difficulties in accessing vaccines, partly because of restrictive intellectual property law. These laws exacerbate both global and domestic inequalities and prevent countries from fully realising the right to health for all their people. Commodification of essential medicines, such as vaccines, pushes poorer countries into extreme debt and reproduces national inequalities that discriminate against marginalised groups. This article explains how a decolonial framing of human rights and public health could contribute to addressing this systemic injustice. We envisage a human rights and global health law framework based on solidarity and international cooperation that focuses funding on long-term goals and frees access to medicines from the restrictions of intellectual property law. This would increase domestic vaccine production, acquisition and distribution capabilities in the Global South.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(7): 499-503, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263876

RESUMO

Access to vaccines against covid-19 is a very topical issue. On the one hand, we are suffering from supply problems and inadequate availability of doses both nationally and internationally. On the other hand, public health needs do not coincide with those of the market economy: the need to vaccinate the entire world population to overcome the pandemic cannot be satisfied due to market rules and limits in production processes. The result is a radical inequality in access to vaccines. We are aware of the delicate balance between health and economy: the latter cannot ignore the former. Also for this reason, the demand for greater equity in access to vaccines is growing: the race for innovation may not be hindered by a targeted relaxation of the rules on intellectual property during a pandemic health emergency.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Propriedade Intelectual , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , Difusão de Inovações , Saúde Global , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Patentes como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Cobertura Vacinal
11.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 39-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966657

RESUMO

Enhancing research and development and ensuring equitable pricing and access to cutting-edge treatments are both vital to a biopharmaceutical innovation system that works in the public interest. However, despite delivering numerous therapeutic advances, the existing system suffers from major problems: a lack of directionality to meet key needs, inefficient collaboration, high prices that fail to reflect the public contribution, and an overly-financialized business model.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Governo , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/normas , Propriedade Intelectual , Setor Público , Pesquisa/normas , Biofarmácia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Papel (figurativo)
16.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0249989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939709

RESUMO

Intellectual capital is defined as the set of intangible assets that generate value for the company. Normally, the models that measure the intellectual capital make use of investments in intangible assets, as indicators of the generation of value by the company; or are based on a holistic measure, using another focus to validate. This research proposes a new method to measure intellectual capital, reconciling the use of financial measures for the management of intellectual capital and its antecedents in triangulated indices; it also determines relationship path coefficients, between constructs developed from a general conceptual model, based on the academic and professional literature. The proposed method combines component indicators with holistic indicators using a structural equation model, allowing differentiating the components of intellectual capital from the stock of intellectual capital. The method is applied to more than 1,600 European companies from 2004 to 2015 to assess its validity, presenting the monetary value of intellectual capital in these companies. The results allow a comparison of the situation of intellectual capital in companies in different countries and industries, opening an opportunity to disclosure intellectual capital.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Inteligência , Modelos Econômicos , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Capital Social
17.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(5): 229-231, mar.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1283794

RESUMO

El tsunami de moralidad con que los medios de comunicación masivos distraen a la Argentina y buena parte del mundo, ni siquiera coloca entre paréntesis la conducta inmoral de la Organización Mundial de Comercio (OMC), entidad que se resiste al tratamiento y aplicación del proyecto de suspensión de patentes y derechos de propiedad intelectual (DPI) presentado al organismo por la India y Sudáfrica en octubre de 2020


The tsunami of morality with which the mass media distract Argentina and much of the world, does not even put the immoral conduct of the World Trade Organization (WTO) , an entity that resists the treatment and application of the project for the suspension of patents and intellectual property rights (IPR) submitted to the organization by India and South Africa in October 2020


Assuntos
Propriedade Intelectual , Patente , COVID-19 , Meios de Comunicação de Massa
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 302, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686157

RESUMO

Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) is an intellectual property system introduced in 1961 by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) for safeguarding the investment and rewarding innovation in developing new plant varieties. Despite the rapid advancement in our understanding of crop biology over the past 60 years, the DUS system has changed little and is still largely dependent upon a set of morphological traits for testing candidate varieties. As the demand for more plant varieties increases, the barriers to registration of new varieties become more acute and thus require urgent review to the system. To highlight the challenges and remedies in the current system, we evaluated a comprehensive panel of 805 UK barley varieties that span the entire history of DUS testing. Our findings reveal the system deficiencies such as inconsistencies in DUS traits across environments, limitations in DUS trait combinatorial space, and inadequacies in currently available DUS markers. We advocate the concept of genomic DUS and provide evidence for a shift towards a robust genomics-enabled registration system for new crop varieties.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Hordeum/genética , Propriedade Intelectual , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Hordeum/classificação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/classificação
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 490, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is now 25 years since the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the same concerns raised during its negotiations such as high prices of medicines, market exclusivity and delayed market entry for generics remain relevant as highlighted recently by the Ebola and COVID-19 pandemics. The World Health Organization's (WHO) mandate to work on the interface between intellectual property, innovation and access to medicine has been continually reinforced and extended to include providing support to countries on the implementation of TRIPS flexibilities in collaboration with stakeholders. This study analyses the role of intellectual property on access to medicines in the African Region. METHODS: We analyze patent data from the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI) to provide a situational analysis of patenting activity and trends. We also review legislation to assess how TRIPS flexibilities are implemented in countries. RESULTS: Patenting was low for African countries. Only South Africa and Cameroon appeared in the list of top ten originator countries for ARIPO and OAPI respectively. Main diseases covered by African patents were HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, cancers and tumors. Majority countries have legislation allowing for compulsory licensing and parallel importation of medicines, while the least legislated flexibilities were explicit exemption of pharmaceutical products from patentable subject matter, new or second use of patented pharmaceutical products, imposition of limits to patent term extension and test data protection. Thirty-nine countries have applied TRIPS flexibilities, with the most common being compulsory licensing and least developed country transition provisions. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities exist for WHO to work with ARIPO and OAPI to support countries in reviewing their legislation to be more responsive to public health needs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade Intelectual , Patentes como Assunto , África , Comércio/história , Países em Desenvolvimento , História do Século XX , Humanos , Direito Internacional , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
J Med Life ; 14(1): 93-99, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767792

RESUMO

Intellectual property rights such as Copyright, Trademark, Patents and Trade secrets etc. help us to gain some protection against certain inventions by acknowledging the founder. In today's industry it is agreed that Intellectual Property Rights has a big role to play. This current study envisages the knowledge, attitude, practice regarding Intellectual Property Rights among dental task force attending private dental colleges.The survey was conducted among students of which were Interns, Post Graduates, faculty members and other dental surgeons attending private dental colleges in Navi Mumbai. The subjects of this study comprised of a total of 1020 students, faculty members and other dental surgeons from five different private dental institutes. The survey includes closed ended questions. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. Explaining calculations were used to summarize all the answers. A total of 889 students, faculty and other dental surgeons from private dental colleges responded. Results showed that about 83.5% believe the statement "Articles and other publications are protected by copyright." 66.6% of participants would select trademark in order to protect their clinic or organization name. About 38.7% were aware of the term Intellectual Property Rights. It also suggests that only 10.9% have attended any seminar/conference pertaining to IPR. The students and faculty members have an overall sense of eagerness to learn and gain more knowledge based on IPR. Thus conducting more workshops and seminars based on IPR should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Educação em Odontologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Propriedade Intelectual , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
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