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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, aug. 2020https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2020.76.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52525

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. En este estudio se identifican y describen los cambios introducidos en el entramado constitucional y legal, y la política económica y social de Cuba entre los años 2015 y 2020 que inciden en el acceso a la salud y se actualiza el mapa conceptual sobre salud pública y propiedad intelectual en Cuba (MC SPPIC). Se realizó la búsqueda de documentos, ajustada al período de tiempo analizado, en la Gaceta Oficial de la República de Cuba y los sitios en Internet de la Oficina Cubana de la Propiedad Industrial, los organismos de la Administración Central del Estado y del Grupo de las Industrias Biotecnológica y Farmacéutica BioCubaFarma. El MC SPPIC actualizado refleja los cambios en la nueva Constitución de la República de Cuba adoptada en 2019, la actualización de los Lineamientos de la Política Económica y Social para el quinquenio 2016-2021 y las leyes, decretos leyes y otras disposiciones legales relacionados con la propiedad intelectual en el período 2015-2020. La Política sobre el Sistema de Propiedad Industrial aprobada se fortaleció con legislaciones específicas para la protección de la propiedad industrial, en especial las que inciden en la protección de los resultados obtenidos por la industria biotecnológica y farmacéutica cubana. Los cambios reflejados en el MC SPPIC actualizado favorecen la interacción y la sinergia entre los diversos actores que inciden en el acceso a la salud —en su sentido más amplio— de la población cubana.


[ABSTRACT]. This study identifies and describes the changes introduced in Cuba’s constitutional and legal framework, and the country’s economic and social policy between 2015 and 2020, in terms of the effects on access to health. The conceptual map of public health and intellectual property in Cuba was also updated. A document search for the time period of the study was conducted in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba and on the webpages of the Cuban Office of Industrial Property, Cuban government agencies, and the Cuban Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries group (BioCubaFarma). The updated conceptual map reflects amendments to the new Constitution of the Republic of Cuba adopted in 2019, updated guidelines on economic and social policy for the quinquennium 2016-2021, and laws, decrees, and legal provisions adopted in the period 2015-2020 in relation to intellectual property. The approved policy on the industrial property system was strengthened with specific legislation to protect industrial property, especially for the protection of the results obtained by the Cuban biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The changes reflected in the updated conceptual map favor interactions and synergy among the various actors that affect the Cuban population’s access to health in the broadest sense.


[RESUMO]. Neste estudo, procuramos identificar e descrever as mudanças introduzidas no quadro constitucional e legal e na política econômica e social de Cuba entre 2015 e 2020 que afetam o acesso à saúde, bem como atualizar o mapa conceitual sobre saúde pública e propriedade intelectual em Cuba (MC SPPIC). Realizamos uma busca em documentos, ajustada ao período analisado, no Diário Oficial da República de Cuba e nos sites do Escritório Cubano de Propriedade Industrial, dos órgãos da Administração Central do Estado e do grupo da indústria biotecnológica e farmacêutica BioCubaFarma. O MC SPPIC atualizado reflete as mudanças na nova Constituição da República de Cuba adotada em 2019, a atualização das Diretrizes de Política Econômica e Social para o quinquênio 2016-2021 e as leis, decretos-lei e outras disposições legais relacionadas à propriedade intelectual no período 2015-2020. A Política sobre o Sistema de Propriedade Industrial, adotada previamente, foi fortalecida com legislação específica para a proteção da propriedade industrial, especialmente no que diz respeito à proteção dos resultados obtidos pela indústria biotecnológica e farmacêutica cubana. As mudanças refletidas no MC SPPIC atualizado favorecem a interação e sinergia entre os diversos atores que influenciam o acesso à saúde — em seu sentido mais amplo — por parte da população cubana.


Assuntos
Propriedade Intelectual , Legislação como Assunto , Indústria Farmacêutica , Direito à Saúde , Cuba , Propriedade Intelectual , Legislação como Assunto , Indústria Farmacêutica , Direito à Saúde , Propriedade Intelectual , Legislação como Assunto , Indústria Farmacêutica , Direito à Saúde
3.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 541-544, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521971

RESUMO

With the worldwide adoption of minimally invasive surgery, innovation again becomes the theme. In the past hundred years, molecular biology technology, minimally invasive surgery technology, pharmaceutical research and therapies have been constantly innovated to promote the development of medicine. As the subject of medical innovation, the innovative idea from medical staff is also very important. For surgeons, the invention and improvement of a new operation or surgical instrument directly depends on curiosity and exploration. Whether a novel idea or technology can be transformed and used in clinical practice depends on its commercial prospects and the adjustment of macro health policies. The protection of intellectual property and appropriate distribution of interests are the key to ensure sustainable innovation. We should put scientific and technological innovation and achievement transformation in the important position of the "healthy China" strategy, take scientific and technological innovation as the basis and achievements transformation as the means, promote the development of China's health protection, implement the healthy China strategy, and make our own contribution to provide people with all-round health services.


Assuntos
Invenções , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Logro , Pesquisa Biomédica , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual
4.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 562-565, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521975

RESUMO

The combination of medicine and engineering is a new interdisciplinary subject, which is a mode of cross integration and collaborative innovation between medical science and engineering. The combination and collaborative innovation of medicine and industry means more about the improvement, innovation and R&D of medical devices. However, the combination of traditional industry with biomedical engineering, modern medical imaging technology, electronic information technology and other high-tech in medical device industry is a reflection of the manufacturing industry and high-tech level of a country. The development mode of medical industry integration and collaborative innovation in China is mainly to merge medical colleges and universities with science and engineering colleges, promote the cross of different departments, and set up biomedical engineering specialty under the support of a series of relevant national policies, relying on large-scale comprehensive hospitals and research institutes, establish numerous research centers of translational medicine, thus achieving a series of achievements. Our team has made some explorations in the practice of the combination of medicine and engineering, including the utility model patent "reusable simple anal expander" and "incision protective cover of transanal multi-channel endoscopic surgery operation platform", which have been authorized by the State Intellectual Property Office, meanwhile the ultra-fine laparoscope, intragastric gasbag and other projects have been demonstrated by relevant research and development teams and are to be transformed into production. On January 10, 2020, with the approval of Guangdong Pharmaceutical Association, the Medical Innovation and Transformation Expert Committee of Guangdong Pharmaceutical Association was established jointly with the representatives of medical colleagues, scientific research institutions and enterprises, who are interested in the combination of medical industry and collaborative innovation. This Committee provides a platform for the exchange of medical colleagues, scientific research institutions and enterprises. We realize that clinical practice is the source of the combination of medical workers and collaborative innovation, and clinicians are the driving force of the combination of medical workers and collaborative innovation. At present, the main problems faced by the development of medical industry integration in China are as follows: insufficient integration of medical industry integration disciplines in the basic research stage; less interaction of clinical application needs in the application research stage; difficult transformation of scientific research achievements; the unconnected whole chain of "production, learning, research and application". If we can increase the investment in scientific research and policy incentives, strengthen the communication and interaction with enterprises, pay more attentions to the social and economic benefits of the promotion of achievements, open the whole process of the combination of medicine and industry, and improve the evaluation mechanism of the innovation ability of such combination, combination of medicine and engineering and collaborative innovation in China will enter the golden period of rapid development.


Assuntos
Invenções , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Transferência de Tecnologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Universidades
6.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 13 p. (Nota Técnica / IPEA. Diset, 61).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1102235

RESUMO

Esta nota técnica apresenta alguns dos pontos que vêm sendo debatidos em meio à pandemia: i) as disputas e os acordos envolvendo empresas e seus direitos de propriedade industrial (DPIs), já em andamento e com potencial de aumentar ao longo do tempo; ii) as mudanças legais que já estão sendo discutidas e adotadas por alguns países para facilitar o licenciamento compulsório de patentes; e iii) os movimentos internacionais para a adoção de uma solução global.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Vacinas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Propriedade Intelectual , Tecnologia Biomédica , Pandemias
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 528-536, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394875

RESUMO

Data-sharing helps advance scientific research and assures the benefits of research data are maximized. Previous work has highlighted ethical challenges, especially in low- and middle-income countrie (LMIC) countries. This study examined the views of researchers in a middle-income country, Thailand, regarding the most important data-sharing challenges. The target researchers worked in biomedical and related research. The survey was distributed to 38 academic and health-science institutes, 18 university hospitals, 84 nonuniversity hospitals, and 22 research institutes across Thailand; 229 researchers in clinical/basic and social/behavioral sciences, and pubxxlic health/policy participated. Thai researchers were less concerned with informed consent and the feasibility of conducting research and sharing data, focusing on the importance of safeguards when handling data, including transfer to others, and possible lack of control over subsequent data use. The respondents felt that researchers should decide what types of project data are shareable and which data are likely useful to the scientific community. They were more concerned with appropriate acknowledgment and protecting the legal rights of the primary data collectors and providers. Although they had concerns about data access conditions, they rated sharing sufficient data and metadata to reproduce the analysis of the primary outcomes as highly important. These results are important for future efforts of the LMIC countries to develop efficient data-sharing frameworks and establish institutional data access committees. They highlight the importance, for the sustainability and fairness of these efforts, to ensure that parties in LMIC countries receive appropriate credit and are involved in determining where/when/how their data may be used.


Assuntos
Atitude , Pesquisa Biomédica , Disseminação de Informação , Pesquisadores , Custos e Análise de Custo , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ética em Pesquisa , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Masculino , Política Organizacional , Saúde Pública , Ciências Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(5): 1603-1611, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034856

RESUMO

Intellectual property (IP) is an important consideration for entomological research and provides a means to capture value from new discoveries. Herein, we describe an analysis of more than 26 000 patent publications from 2007-2017 related to the field of entomology. These patents were divided among 8000 patent assignees; however, only 5% of the assignees had ≥10 patents. Corporations accounted for the largest share of patents (59%), with individuals (20%), academic institutions (17%) and government organizations (4%) making up the remaining segments. From 2007-2017 the number of entomological patents increased by 400%, with the largest number being from China. However, unlike patents from Europe, Japan or the US, which target a range of countries, the Chinese patents almost exclusively focus on China. Among the array of subjects covered are transgenic insects and plants, repellents, recombinant insect cells, with the highest proportion of patents focused on insecticides (39%), followed by insecticide mixtures (27%) and formulations (21%). The top 30 patent assignees included companies/institutions from China (18), Europe (3), Japan (6) and the US (3). Among the top 12 entities, IP from the US assignees was distributed across insecticides, mixtures and insecticidal traits while those from China were more focused on mixtures. However, given expanding IP numbers from China it is expected that in the future there will be a greater impact on new insecticides and related technologies. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Propriedade Intelectual , China , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Japão , Publicações
11.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 14(1): 33-40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copaiba oil-resin has been widely used and is especially found in neotropical regions, for which several pharmacological activities have been documented over the years. Prospective studies in intellectual property banks are important to increase competitiveness and thus generate new products in various research areas. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was carried out on patents of products containing copaiba oil-resin for dental use in intellectual property banks. METHODS: The research was conducted with patent searches in six intellectual property banks of the world. Relevant information about the invention in the patent document was collected, processed and described. RESULTS: The search found 9 patents using copaiba resin oil-resin in dental products. The National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI-Brazil) had the highest number of deposits (5), followed by Espacenet (2) and Free Patents (2). C. Langsdorffii was highlighted as the most widely used species in the products and deposits of vehicles in formulations (3). All the patents in the search are A61K code for medical, dental or hygienic purposes. CONCLUSION: Most of the found patents are related to the area of Microbiology, specifically with application in Cariology. Brazil is represented by the INPI and presented the highest number of patent applications when compared to other intellectual property banks.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleos Vegetais , Resinas Sintéticas , Propriedade Intelectual , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 84, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citizen science is increasingly prevalent in the biomedical sciences, including the field of human genomics. Genomic citizen science initiatives present new opportunities to engage individuals in scientific discovery, but they also are provoking new questions regarding who owns the outputs of the research, including intangible ideas and discoveries and tangible writings, tools, technologies, and products. The legal and ethical claims of participants to research outputs become stronger-and also more likely to conflict with those of institution-based researchers and other stakeholders-as participants become more involved, quantitatively and qualitatively, in the research process. It is not yet known, however, how genomic citizen science initiatives are managing the interests of their participants in accessing and controlling research outputs in practice. To help fill this gap, we conducted an in-depth review of relevant policies and practices of U.S.-based genomic citizen science initiatives. METHODS: We queried the peer-reviewed literature and grey literature to identify 22 genomic citizen science initiatives that satisfied six inclusion criteria. A data collection form was used to capture initiative features, policies, and practices relevant to participants' access to and control over research outputs. RESULTS: This analysis revealed that the genomic citizen science landscape is diverse and includes many initiatives that do not have institutional affiliations. Two trends that are in apparent tension were identified: commercialization and operationalization of a philosophy of openness. While most initiatives supported participants' access to research outputs, including datasets and published findings, none supported participants' control over results via intellectual property, licensing, or commercialization rights. However, several initiatives disclaimed their own rights to profit from outputs. CONCLUSIONS: There are opportunities for citizen science initiatives to incorporate more features that support participants' access to and control over research outputs, consistent with their specific objectives, operations, and technical capabilities.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão/ética , Pesquisa em Genética/ética , Genômica/ética , Propriedade/ética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Políticas
15.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 78, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trade and investment agreements negotiated after the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) have included increasingly elevated protection of intellectual property rights along with an expanding array of rules impacting many aspects of pharmaceutical policy. Despite the large body of literature on intellectual property and access to affordable medicines, the ways in which other provisions in trade agreements can affect pharmaceutical policy and, in turn, access to medicines have been little studied. There is a need for an analytical framework covering the full range of provisions, pathways, and potential impacts, on which to base future health and human rights impact assessment and research. A framework exploring the ways in which trade and investment agreements may affect pharmaceutical policy was developed, based on an analysis of four recently negotiated regional trade agreements. First a set of core pharmaceutical policy objectives based on international consensus was identified. A systematic comparative analysis of the publicly available legal texts of the four agreements was undertaken, and the potential impacts of the provisions in these agreements on the core pharmaceutical policy objectives were traced through an analysis of possible pathways. RESULTS: An analytical framework is presented, linking ten types of provisions in the four trade agreements to potential impacts on four core pharmaceutical policy objectives (access and affordability; safety, efficacy, and quality; rational use of medicines; and local production capacity and health security) via various pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical framework highlights provisions in trade and investment agreements that need to be examined, pathways that should be explored, and potential impacts that should be taken into consideration with respect to pharmaceutical policy. This may serve as a useful checklist or template for health and human rights impact assessments and research on the implications of trade agreements for pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Investimentos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Política Pública , Canadá , Custos e Análise de Custo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , México , Estados Unidos
16.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 171-188, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095880

RESUMO

El tema del acceso a los recursos genéticos y la participación justa y equitativa en los beneficios derivados de la utilización de la diversidad biológica (APB), cuyo instrumento es el Protocolo de Nagoya en el marco de la Convenio de Naciones sobre Diversidad Biológica es un tema complejo pero de alto interés para Guatemala dada su condición de País Megadiverso. Sin embargo, no se concentra solo en este protocolo, ya que día a día hacemos uso de la diversidad biológica y en ese sentido es necesario desarrollar legislación pertinente acorde a esas necesidades, que consideren a los recursos genéticos como estratégicos, vinculado a los conocimientos tradicionales y el derecho de los pueblos indígenas y comunidades locales. Así mismo hay otros convenios y compromisos de país como los establecidos con la Organización Mundial del Comercio, relacionados principalmente con la Unión Internacional para la Protección de Variedades Mejoradas y la Organización de la Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y Agricultura, referente al Tratado Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura, que deben estar vinculados al APB. Entonces dada la complejidad del tema es necesario contar con documentos, como el que se presenta en esta revisión que procura de manera sencilla sintetizar sobre ellos, para que sirva de información para algunos y de punto de discusión para otros. No se pretende un tratado profundo del APB, ya que el espacio sería insuficiente, sino más bien mostrar su estado actual, ahora que el país tiene en suspenso el Decreto de ratificación del Protocolo de Nagoya. Pero comprendiendo que a partir de los compromisos de estado con el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica, donde se ha generado una serie de resultados que proporcionan criterios de cómo se maneja actualmente los recursos genéticos, se puede avanzar para llevar a la práctica el concepto de APB, su comprensión, significado a nivel nacional y local y la educación sobre el tema. Es importante pues dar la relevancia necesaria a los recursos genéticos en su acceso y participación justa y equitativa de los beneficios que derivan de su utilización, de tal manera de propiciar la discusión del tema y desarrollo del marco jurídico y políticas públicas necesarias.


The issue of access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits derived from the use of biological diversity (ABS), whose instrument is the Nagoya Protocol under the Convention of Nations on Biological Diversity is a complex issue but of high interest to Guatemala given its status as a Megadiverse Country. However, it does not focus only on this protocol, since we make use of biological diversity every day and in that sense it is necessary to develop relevant legislation according to those needs, which consider genetic resour¬ces as strategic, linked to traditional knowledge and the right of indigenous peoples and local communities. There are also other country agreements and commitments such as those established with the World Trade Organization, mainly related to The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture which must be linked to the ABS. Then, given the complexity of the topic, it is necessary to have documents, such as the one presented in this review that attempts to synthesize them in a simple way, so that it serves as information for some and as a point of discussion for others. A deep treaty of the ABS is not intended, since the space would be insufficient, but rather to show its current status, now that the country has suspended the Decree Law of ratification of the Nagoya Protocol. But understanding that from the state commitments to the Convention on Biological Diversity, where a series of results have been generated that provide criteria for how genetic resources are currently managed, progress can be made to implement the concept of ABS, its understanding, meaning at national and local level and education on the subject. It is therefore important to give the necessary relevance to genetic resources in their access and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits that derive from their use, in such a way as to promote the discussion of the topic and development of the necessary legal framework and public policies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Gestão dos Recursos Naturais/políticas , Biodiversidade , Propriedade Intelectual
17.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 38(4): 331-342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663872

RESUMO

Corporate espionage is a multifaceted problem causing hundreds of billions of dollars in losses to businesses each year. Health care managers have a wide variety of options available to prevent theft of their organizations' trade secrets and other proprietary information. Organizations should protect their confidential and trade secret information by taking various security measures to limit access to protected material and by using appropriate types of restrictive covenants such as nondisclosure, noncompetition, and nonsolicitation agreements. This article provides helpful guidance for managers to maximize protection against theft of proprietary information.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade Intelectual , Roubo/legislação & jurisprudência , Roubo/prevenção & controle , Humanos
18.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000463, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613875

RESUMO

The Animal Study Registry (ASR; www.animalstudyregistry.org) was launched in January 2019 for preregistration of animal studies in order to increase transparency and reproducibility of bioscience research and to promote animal welfare. The registry is free of charge and is designed for exploratory and confirmatory studies within applied science as well as basic and preclinical research. The registration form helps scientists plan their study thoroughly by asking detailed questions concerning study design, methods, and statistics. With registration, the study automatically receives a digital object identifier (DOI) that marks it as intellectual property of the researcher. To accommodate the researchers concerns about theft of ideas, users can restrict the visibility of their registered studies for up to 5 years. The full content of the study becomes publicly accessible at the end of the embargo period. Because the platform is embedded in the infrastructure of the German Federal Government, continuity and data security are provided. By registering a study in the ASR, researchers can show their commitment to transparency and data quality to reviewers and editors, to third-party donors, and to the general public.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar do Animal/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Experimentação Animal/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Segurança Computacional , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Alemanha , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual
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