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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199879

RESUMO

Studies from India and several eastern African countries found that the impact of dairy animal ownership on household nutrition varied greatly, depending on the socio-geographic context. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between livestock ownership and household dietary quality in rural Kolar district, India. We collected data from a household survey in four study villages (n = all 195 households of the four villages) of Kolar district, applying a cross-sectional design. Kendall's rank correlation coefficient was employed to determine the correlation between milk consumption and other dietary variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the relationship between dairy animal ownership and household milk consumption. Households owning dairy animals more often had access to irrigation (58.3% vs. 25.2%) and were less often woman-headed (2.4% vs. 22.5%). Household milk consumption was significantly correlated with consumption of vegetable variety, egg, and meat (all p-values < 0.05). After adjusting for multiple confounders, the odds ratio of milk consumption between dairy animal-owning households as compared to other households was 2.11 (95% confidence interval 0.85, 5.45). While dairy animal ownership was found to be associated with improved dietary quality, larger households were in a better position to adopt dairy animals, which, in turn, might contribute to better household nutrition.


Assuntos
Gado , Propriedade , África , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , População Rural
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 489, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251512

RESUMO

Water, which is a basic need for humans and the natural world, is a limited resource. It is a cyclical element and not a freely traded commodity. The right to access to water is acknowledged as a basic right because of the importance of water for human life, and for this reason, water is a topic in many human rights texts. The restricted availability of this global resource, which must be sustainable to maintain life, has increased its importance for countries and made its fair and just management necessary. Putting the proper methods into practice is a lot harder than it appears, however, because theories and practices did not sit well together from different perspectives and different ones were developed worldwide. These approaches vary according to countries' access to water, amount of water usage, level of development, and economic situation. Because of these variables, a number of international studies have been carried out to eliminate the strain on water resources. The focus of these studies is on the definition of water resources and the rights and principles of usage and ownership of water. This study views water as a commercial commodity, and its subject is the pricing strategies for water and the underlying legal basis of the acknowledgement of water resources in Turkey as a public asset.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Propriedade , Turquia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the impacts of the first COVID-19 UK lockdown on dog walking and ownership. METHODS: An online survey was circulated via social media (May-June 2020). Completed responses (n = 584) were analysed using within- and between-group comparisons, and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were created. Open-ended data were coded into key themes. RESULTS: During lockdown, dogs were walked less frequently, yet for a similar duration per week and closer to home. Dogs whose owners lived alone, or whose owners or household members had heightened vulnerability to COVID-19 were walked less than before, as were high-energy dogs. A minority of owners continued dog walking despite exhibiting symptoms or needing to self-isolate, justifying lack of help, dog behavioural problems, living in less populated areas, and the importance of outdoor exercise for their mental health. Dog ownership had multiple benefits (companionship, purpose and motivation; break from bad; positive to focus on) as well as challenges (changes in dog behaviour, balancing dog needs with public health guidance, accessing pet food/supplies and services, and sharing crowded outdoor spaces with others). Most did not have an emergency care plan for their pet before the pandemic and only a handful developed one. CONCLUSIONS: Findings can be used to inform public health and dog welfare strategies for future lockdown situations or other disasters and emergencies likely to impact on daily routines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Caminhada , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cães , Humanos , Propriedade , Pandemias , Animais de Estimação , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
4.
Vet Rec ; 188(11): 436, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086314
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1046, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely used malaria prevention and control intervention in Africa. However, their effectiveness may vary depending on their local geographic coverage, ownership and use at household level. This study aimed at assessing LLINs ownership and use following mass distribution campaign in western Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2017. A total of 160 households were randomly selected from 16 villages. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on households' knowledge on malaria, LLINs ownership, utilization and their perceived benefits. Data was analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 for windows. Variables were presented as proportions and associations between variables tested using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Malaria was reported to be the most frequently occurring disease (87.5%) in the area. Children under 5 years of age were reported to be at higher risks of malaria infection (28.6%). Around 31% of the respondents reported to have at least one member of the household sick with malaria a week before the interview. Commonly cited signs and symptoms of malaria were; fever (24.1%), headache (17.7%), vomiting (14.5%) feeling cold (12.6%) and loss of appetite (10%). There were 382 reported LLINs among 753 occupants in the 160 households surveyed. The average LLIN ownership was 2.4 nets per household and 1.97 persons per LLIN. Among the surveyed households, 96.9% owned at least one LLIN and 64.1% owned at least one LLIN for every two people. Among those who owned LLINs, 98.1% reported using them the previous night. Ownership per household ranged from 0 to 6 with a mean of 2.39. More than three quarter of the nets were acquired through free mass distribution campaigns and 80% were acquired less than 6 months prior to the survey. CONCLUSION: Despite high net coverage and use, a number of households experienced malaria episodes in the study area. There is need to investigate the likelihood of outdoor malaria transmission and assess the physical integrity of the existing LLINs and their insecticidal effectiveness in protecting household members against malaria.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Lagos , Controle de Mosquitos , Propriedade
6.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 478-487, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Firearm injury prevention discussions with emergency department (ED) patients provide a unique opportunity to prevent death and injury in high-risk patient groups. Building mutual understanding of safe firearm practices between patients and providers will aid the development of effective interventions. Examining ED patient baseline characteristics, perspectives on healthcare-based safety discussions, and experience with and access to firearms, will allow practitioners to craft more effective messaging and interventions. METHODS: Using an institutional review board-approved cross-sectional survey modified from a validated national instrument, we recruited 625 patients from three large, urban, academically affiliated EDs in the South to assess patient baseline characteristics, perspectives regarding firearms and firearm safety discussions, and prior violence history, as well as firearm access and safety habits. We compared the degree to which patients were open to discussions regarding firearms across a variety of provider types and clinical scenarios between those with and without gun access. RESULTS: Of the 625 patients consented and eligible for the study, 306 had access to firearms. The patients with firearm access were predominantly male, were more likely to have military experience, live in an urban or suburban region, and have experienced prior violence when compared to those without firearm access. Patients with and without gun access view firearm safety discussions with their healthcare provider as acceptable and analogous to other behavioral health interventions (i.e., helmet/seat belt use, alcohol/cigarette use). Patients were also accepting of these firearm safety discussions in many clinical contexts and led by multiple provider types. Of the patients with gun access, storage of each type of firearm was reviewed and the primary reason for ownership was for personal protection across all firearm types. CONCLUSION: Patients in the ED indicate openness to firearm safety discussions delivered by a variety of providers and in diverse clinical scenarios. Healthcare providers engaging firearm owners in appropriate risk-benefit discussions using a trauma-informed approach is a critical next step in research and intervention.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 498-509, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125019

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rural areas have higher rates of firearm-related unintentional and suicide deaths. Having access to a firearm greatly increases suicide risk. Safe firearm storage can be a major factor in preventing these tragedies. In this study we evaluated firearm exposure and storage practices in rural adolescents' homes. METHODS: An anonymous survey was administered to a convenience sample of attendees at the 2019 Iowa FFA (formerly Future Farmers of America) Leadership Conference. We performed descriptive, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1,382 adolescents participated; 51% were males and 49% were females. Respondents were 13-18 years old, and 53% lived on a farm, 18% in the country/not on a farm, and 29% in town. Almost all (96%) self-identified as White/Caucasian. In their homes, 84% reported having rifles/shotguns, 58% reported having handguns, and 56% reported having both rifles/shotguns and handguns. Males were significantly more likely than females to report having firearms in their home (P<0.001). The likelihood of having rifles/shotguns was greater if living on a farm (odds ratio (OR) 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.99-5.88) or in the country/not a farm (OR 2.74, 95% CI, 1.78-4.24) compared to those in town. Similarly, the presence of handguns in the home was increased if living on a farm compared to in town (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.32-2.18). Rifles/shotguns and handguns were stored unlocked and/or loaded at least some of the time in 62% and 58% of homes, respectively. Those who lived on farms compared to in towns were more likely to have rifles/shotguns (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.35-2.46) and handguns (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.27) stored unlocked. For homes with unlocked rifles/shotguns, 46% stored ammunition unlocked. For homes with unlocked handguns, 38% stored ammunition unlocked. Among those aware of firearm storage in their home, 82% (802/974) reported at least one firearm stored either unlocked and/or loaded at least some of the time. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of rural adolescents we surveyed live in homes with firearms, and a large proportion of those firearms are not stored safely. Widespread efforts are needed to educate rural families about the importance of proper firearm and ammunition storage.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Segurança , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 518-524, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intentional self-harm (suicide) by firearms is a growing problem in the United States. Currently, there are no large studies that have identified risk factors for patients who die from self-inflicted gunshot wounds. Our objectives are to 1) identify risk factors for patients with the highest morbidity and mortality from self-inflicted gunshot wounds (SIGSWs) at trauma centers 2) present the outcomes of victims of SIGSW by handguns (HG) versus all other specified guns (AOG) and 3) compare the presentations and outcomes of victims with head or face (HF) injuries to other regions of the body. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from the National Trauma Database (NTDB) data between 2012 and 2013 of all SIGSW patients who presented to trauma centers. Categorical data included patient characteristics upon presentation and outcomes which were compared between patients with HG injury versus AOG injury using the Chi-Squared test, where AOG includes shotguns, hunting rifles, and military firearms. Additionally, analysis of head and face (HF) injuries versus other bodily injuries (OBI) were compared between the HG group versus AOG group using Chi-squared test. RESULTS: There were 7,828 SIGSWs, of those, 78% (6,115) were white and 84.3% (6,600) were male. There were 5,139 HG injuries, 1,130 AOG injuries, and 1,405 unidentified gun injuries. The HG group was likely to be older (>55 years old), hypotensive (systolic blood pressure < 90), have a lower Glasgow Coma Score (GCS < 9), use illegal, or use prescription drugs. In comparing HF injuries (4,799) versus other bodily injuries (OBI) (3,028), HF group was more likely to use handguns, expire in ED, require ICU, and have a higher percent of overall mortality. Of the total OBI, the thorax, upper extremities, and abdomen were the most commonly injured. CONCLUSION: In our retrospective study of SIGSWs, we were able to demonstrate that SIGSW by handguns are associated with higher rates of mortality versus all other types of firearms. SIGSWs in older white males with handguns are the most at-risk for severe complications. Future efforts should improve screening methods for handguns in suicidal patients and at developing prevention programs.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Bases de Dados Factuais , Traumatismos Faciais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Automutilação , Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e24947, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telehealth is an increasingly important component of health care delivery in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, well-documented disparities persist in the use of digital technologies. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe smartphone and internet use within a diverse sample, to assess the association of smartphone and internet use with markers of health literacy and health access, and to identify the mediating factors in these relationships. METHODS: Surveys were distributed to a targeted sample designed to oversample historically underserved communities from April 2017 to December 2017. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association of internet and smartphone use with outcomes describing health care access and markers of health literacy for the total cohort and after stratifying by personal history of cancer. Health care access was captured using multiple variables, including the ability to obtain medical care when needed. Markers of health literacy included self-reported confidence in obtaining health information. RESULTS: Of the 2149 participants, 1319 (61.38%) were women, 655 (30.48%) were non-Hispanic White, and 666 (30.99%) were non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 51 years (IQR 38-65). Most respondents reported using the internet (1921/2149, 89.39%) and owning a smartphone (1800/2149, 83.76%). Compared with the respondents with smartphone or internet access, those without smartphone or internet access were more likely to report that a doctor was their most recent source of health information (344/1800, 19.11% vs 116/349, 33.2% for smartphone and 380/1921, 19.78% vs 80/228, 35.1% for internet, respectively; both P<.001). Internet use was associated with having looked for information on health topics from any source (odds ratio [OR] 3.81, 95% CI 2.53-5.75) and confidence in obtaining health information when needed (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.00-3.34) compared with noninternet users. Smartphone owners had lower odds of being unable to obtain needed medical care (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.95) than nonsmartphone owners. Among participants with a prior history of cancer, smartphone ownership was significantly associated with higher odds of confidence in ability to obtain needed health information (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.05-30.23) and lower odds of inability to obtain needed medical care (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.47), although these associations were not significant among participants without a prior history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We describe widespread use of digital technologies in a community-based cohort, although disparities persist. In this cohort, smartphone ownership was significantly associated with ability to obtain needed medical care, suggesting that the use of smartphone technology may play a role in increasing health care access. Similarly, major illnesses such as cancer have the potential to amplify health engagement. Finally, special emphasis must be placed on reaching patient populations with limited digital access, so these patients are not further disadvantaged in the new age of telehealth.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Propriedade , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Smartphone/provisão & distribuição , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071620

RESUMO

At present, climate and other environmental problems are arising because of the development of the industrial sector at a large level. The industrial sector is supposed to be a major cause of climate change problems that lead to global warming. Therefore, corporate social responsibility (CSR) with the help of corporate governance is an imperative approach to control these social problems. Consequently, in the context of the organizational and management theory, agency theory, and the stakeholder theory, this study focuses on important factors of internal corporate governance such as chief executive officer (CEO) power, the board size, independence, ownership concentration, managerial ownership, and audit quality for improving the profitability of firms. Moreover, this study considers corporate social responsibility as a controlling and moderating factor for firm performance and internal corporate governance. We employed ordinary least square (OLS) for endogeneity testing, fixed effect (FE), generalized method of moments (GMM), and feasible generalized least square (FGLS) on data of Pakistani firms for the period of 2010-2019. The results of this study demonstrate the following outcomes: firstly, all internal corporate governance factors are positively linked with firm performance; secondly, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the most valuable tool for improving profitability. Importantly, this study suggests that all internal corporate governance factors are positively linked with firm performance because of the interactive role of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This study practically contributes to the literature by suggesting the imperative role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) for internal corporate governance, which may help to reduce climate and social problems.


Assuntos
Organizações , Responsabilidade Social , Indústrias , Propriedade , Paquistão
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e046685, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess an intervention for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) improvement within surgical teams focused on addressing barriers and fostering enablers and ownership of guideline compliance. DESIGN: The Queensland Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis (QSAP) study was a multicentre, mixed methods study designed to address barriers and enablers to SAP compliance and facilitate engagement in self-directed audit/feedback and assess the efficacy of the intervention in improving compliance with SAP guidelines. The implementation was assessed using a 24-month interrupted time series design coupled with a qualitative evaluation. SETTING: The study was undertaken at three hospitals (one regional, two metropolitan) in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: SAP-prescribing decisions for 1757 patients undergoing general surgical procedures from three health services were included. Six bimonthly time points, pre-implementation and post implementation of the intervention, were measured. Qualitative interviews were performed with 29 clinical team members. SAP improvements varied across site and time periods. INTERVENTION: QSAP embedded ownership of quality improvement in SAP within surgical teams and used known social influences to address barriers to and enablers of optimal SAP prescribing. RESULTS: The site that reported senior surgeon engagement showed steady and consistent improvement in prescribing over 24 months (prestudy and poststudy). Multiple factors, including resource issues, influenced engagement and sites/time points where these were present had no improvement in guideline compliance. CONCLUSIONS: The barriers-enablers-ownership model shows promise in its ability to facilitate prescribing improvements and could be expanded into other areas of antimicrobial stewardship. Senior ownership was a predictor of success (or failure) of the intervention across sites and time periods. The key role of senior leaders in change leadership indicates the critical need to engage other specialties in the stewardship agenda. The influence of contextual factors in limiting engagement clearly identifies issues of resource distributions/inequalities within health systems as limiting antimicrobial optimisation potential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Propriedade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais , Humanos , Queensland
14.
Vet Rec ; 188(10): 374-375, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018571

RESUMO

Georgina Mills reports on new research that looks into the risk factors for euthanasing dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Eutanásia Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Cães , Humanos , Propriedade , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(6): 423, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044971
16.
Vet Rec ; 188(9): e74, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding client perspective is important for veterinary communications, particularly during problem visits. Key client experiences of caregiver burden, anticipatory grief and quality of life (QoL) have been previously examined in this context, but never simultaneously considered. METHODS: A sample of 393 owners of an elderly or seriously ill companion animal was recruited online to complete cross-sectional measures of psychosocial function, companion animal presentation and demographics. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that owner caregiver burden, anticipatory grief and QoL reflect distinct constructs. Cluster analysis showed these experiences occur in four separate owner profiles: 'distressed', 'resilient', 'non-distressed' and owners experiencing strain due to 'other influences'. These groups appear to be differentially influenced by various factors, such as the companion animal's QoL, nature of the illness and the owner's attachment. They also show distinct differences in consideration of euthanasia and emotional functioning, including experience of stress and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Constructs of caregiver burden, anticipatory grief and QoL are not interchangeable and may differentially impact owner decisions and behaviour. The veterinarian's understanding of owner profiles relevant to these issues and distinguishing underlying features may foster effective communication.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Fardo do Cuidador , Pesar , Propriedade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais de Estimação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Prev Med ; 149: 106607, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984373

RESUMO

We sought to examine support for gun polices by race and ethnicity, and among gun owning subgroups. We combined two waves of the National Survey of Gun Policy (January 2017 and 2019 [N = 3804]). We used chi-square tests to assess whether support for gun policies differed by race or ethnicity overall and among subgroups of gun owners. Most U.S. adults supported 17 of 21 gun-related policies. Among gun owners, Blacks supported six policies at higher levels than whites, including minimum age requirements for gun ownership and assault weapon and ammunition-related restrictions. Hispanic gun owners supported safe storage requirements at higher levels than white gun owners. While support differed by race and ethnicity for some policies, majorities of U.S. adults supported nearly all gun policies examine regardless of race. One notable exception, carrying a concealed gun on K-12 school grounds did not reach majority support among any subgroup. While tailored messaging may be appropriate in certain circumstances, it is important to highlight the similarities in support for evidence-based gun polices across racial and ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Propriedade , Adulto , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Políticas , Opinião Pública
18.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 233-244, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795057

RESUMO

Independent urology practices are under increasing competitive pressure in a changing marketplace. By providing access to capital and business management expertise, private equity can help practices consolidate and scale to unlock new growth opportunities, navigate an increasingly complex regulatory environment, and institute best practice across a network, while retaining physician ownership and an opportunity for equity appreciation. This article examines the role of private equity in urology and the potential benefits of private equity investment. It also looks at what firms look for in investment partners, how to prepare for private equity investment, and how private equity investments are structured.


Assuntos
Prática de Grupo/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Administração da Prática Médica/economia , Urologia/economia , Financiamento de Capital , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Propriedade , Estados Unidos
19.
Environ Manage ; 67(6): 1088-1099, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818641

RESUMO

Effective invasive plant management requires collective action. However, little is known about what motivates individuals to work collectively. We conducted a mail survey of 2,600 randomly selected family forest owners in Indiana, USA to examine factors associated with community-led collective action. Specifically, we examined the role of perceived self-efficacy, perceived collective efficacy, concerns about invasive plants, and social norms associated with invasive plant management in shaping family forest owners' self-reported likelihood to work with their neighbors to remove invasive plants. We found that past experience talking to others or working with neighbors to remove invasive plants were important predictors of landowners' intention to work collectively, as were perceived self-efficacy in their own ability to manage invasive plants, perceived need for collective action, social norms, and concerns about invasive plants on neighboring or nearby properties. However, most socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education level, income) and land ownership characteristics (e.g., residence status, having a written forest management plan) were not statisically significant predictors of family forest owners' likelihood to work with their neighbors. Our findings suggest that building individual sense of competence, facilitating neighbor interactions, and strengthening shared concerns may facilitate community-led collective action to manage invasive plants.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Humanos , Indiana , Propriedade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917974

RESUMO

Efforts to address Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) in lower-and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been gaining pace in recent years. Commodities such as staple foods (e.g., cereals, roots, and tubers) and condiments (e.g., salt) have been targeted as 'vehicles' for fortification and biofortification through numerous projects and initiatives. To date, there have been mixed experiences with delivery and coverage with very little documented on the range of business models applied in different geographies, business conditions and polities and this makes classification and measurement of success and failure difficult. This research aims to address this gap in knowledge through proposing a typology that clarifies similarities (internal heterogeneity) and differences (external heterogeneity) between models and that can allow all types to be defined by the combination of attributes. Building on a comprehensive literature review; NVivo was used to code initiatives from 34 key references (955 cases in total) which have been grouped into 17 categories. Using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) we find evidence of four business model groupings that typify fortification initiatives: (1) Large-scale private, unregulated, (2) Mixed-Scale, private, unregulated (3) Large-scale, public-private, regulated; and (4) Large-scale, private, regulated. We characterise these four groups with country examples and suggest that this typology can help the discourse around viability of food fortification initiatives.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Alimentos Fortificados , Modelos Econômicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Propriedade , Controle Social Formal
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