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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803340

RESUMO

Introduction: Estimation of dog population is relevant in Animal Health Planning; some of the benefits include rabies control and possible elimination, estimation of quantity of dog vaccines and drugs required in the state, policy development and implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the population of dogs in Nasarawa state; a local government area (LGA) was randomly selected from each of the three senatorial districts and two wards were selected randomly from the selected LGA's. Three hundred and thirteen questionnaires were administered through face to face interview with dog owners and their dogs in view. Results: Analysis indicated 97.7% of the dogs were local breeds, 1.7% mixed and 0.3% exotic breeds. Guard dogs were 77% and 23% were used for hunting. Majority of the dogs (67.5%) were owned/stray while 32.5% were owned/confined. In Nasarawa state, 21% of the dogs were vaccinated and 79% had no vaccination history. The low vaccination rate indicates possible threat to animal and human health; hunting dogs are possible source of rabies introduction into their immediate communities from contact with wild reservoirs of the virus. Majority of dogs were between 1-5 years (73%) and more female dogs (52.5%) than males (47.5%) were reported. The dog to household ratio was 1.1:1 while the dog to human ratio is 1.1:6. Estimated number of dogs in Nasarawa state was 462,586 dogs. Conclusion: Proper sensitization of dog owners on annual antirabies vaccination against rabies in dogs and postexposure prophylaxis in humans is recommended. The local authorities should institute effective measures for the control of stray dogs to prevent the risk of dog bites and other environmental hazards posed by such dogs. The state government should enact and enforce laws on responsible dog ownership to include compulsory annual vaccination of all dogs. This exercise should be replicated in other states of the federation for a comprehensive national dog ecological data necessary for planning, policy development and implementation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária
2.
BMJ ; 367: l6491, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of car ownership for physical activity and weight in a global city. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cross sectional study. SETTING: Beijing, China, 2011-15. PARTICIPANTS: People aged 18 and older from a random sample of households who had entered a permit lottery to purchase a vehicle between January 2011 and November 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Permit allowing purchase of a vehicle within six months of permit issuance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transit use (number of subway and bus rides each week), physical activity (minutes of walking or bicycling each day), and weight, measured once in early 2016. RESULTS: Of 937 people analysed in total, 180 had won a permit to purchase a new vehicle. Winning the permit lottery resulted in the purchase of an additional vehicle 91% of the time (95% confidence interval 89% to 94%; P<0.001). About five years after winning, winners took significantly fewer weekly transit rides (-2.9 rides (-5.1 to -0.7); P=0.01) and walked and cycled significantly less (-24.2 minutes (-40.3 to -8.1); P=0.003) than those who did not win the lottery. Average weight did not change significantly between lottery winners and losers. Among those aged 50 and older, however, winners' weight had increased relative to that of losers (10.3 kg (0.5 to 20.2); P=0.04) 5.1 years after winning. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that vehicle ownership in a rapidly growing global city led to long term reductions in physical activity and increase in weight. Continuing increases in car use and ownership in developing and middle income countries could adversely affect physical health and obesity rates.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Peso Corporal , Exercício , Propriedade , Adulto , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
J Vet Med Educ ; 46(4): 438-448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756148

RESUMO

The stress of veterinary school and the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary students have been well documented. Pet ownership is known to improve overall health and reduce stress among the public. Yet, for veterinary students, owning a pet (especially a dog) can offer both rewards and challenges. The academic schedule for veterinary students often comprises long hours that can make caring for a dog challenging. This study explores the area of veterinary students' dog care options and perspectives by examining two aspects of this issue: (a) currently available options, as reported by academic administrators, and (b) perceived need for these options, as reported by veterinary students. A survey of associate deans for academic affairs (n = 30) found that routine on-site kenneling options for student-owned dogs are available at eight (26.6%) veterinary schools. Simultaneously, results of a student survey (n = 768) revealed a great desire for on-campus services. Among students who did not have access to on-campus kenneling facilities, 71.5% (453 of 634) felt that creating these options would be important or very important. Across all students surveyed, 76% (581 of 764) felt it would be important to have on-site dog housing/care available. Students experience considerable stress over having to find accommodations or care for their dogs while engaged in academic activities. Thus, providing on-site boarding and care options for student-owned dogs can play an important role in both recruiting prospective veterinary students and enhancing the well-being of those currently in the program.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1428, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dog ownership is suggested to improve mental well-being, although empirical evidence among community dog owners is limited. This study examined changes in human mental well-being following dog acquisition, including four measures: loneliness, positive and negative affect, and psychological distress. METHODS: We conducted an eight-month controlled study involving three groups (n = 71): 17 acquired a dog within 1 month of baseline (dog acquisition); 29 delayed dog acquisition until study completion (lagged control); and 25 had no intentions of acquiring a dog (community control). All participants completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible scores 0-60), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Kessler10 at baseline, three-months and eight-months. We used repeated measures ANCOVAs to analyse data with owner age and sex included as covariates. Post-hoc tests were performed for significant effects (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was a statistically significant group by time interaction for loneliness (p = 0.03), with an estimated reduction of 8.41 units (95% CI -16.57, - 0.26) from baseline to three-months and 7.12 (95% CI -12.55, - 1.69) from baseline to eight-months in the dog acquisition group. The group by time interaction for positive affect was also significant (p = 0.03), although there was no change in the dog acquisition group. CONCLUSIONS: Companion dog acquisition may reduce loneliness among community dog owners. Our study provides useful direction for future larger trials on the effects of dog ownership on human mental well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was retrospectively registered on 5th July 2017 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12617000967381 ).


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Animais , Austrália , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1443, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria infections and other complications during pregnancy contribute to the high burden of maternal morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures are available, however little is known about the factors influencing the uptake of maternal health services and interventions by pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We analyzed data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 in three rural districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, with 3784 women who had a pregnancy outcome in the year preceding the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering to identify the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) attendance and insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use, and the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among pregnant women. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of interviewed women reported receiving at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy, while 47% reported attending four or more ANC visits. Common reasons for not attending ANC included women's lack of awareness of its importance (48%), distance to health facility (23%) and unavailability of transportation (14%). Important determinants of ANC attendance included higher education level and wealth status, woman's ability to make healthcare decisions, and pregnancy intendedness. An estimated 48% of women reported owning an ITN during their last pregnancy. Of these, 55% reported to have always slept under it during their last pregnancy. Analysis revealed that the odds of owning and using ITNs were respectively 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.63) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32-2.27) times higher among women who attended at least one ANC visit. The self-reported prevalence of malaria infection during pregnancy was low (1.4%) across the three districts. We found that young, uneducated, and unemployed women presented higher odds of malaria infection during their last pregnancy. CONCLUSION: ANC and ITN uptake during pregnancy in Jimma Zone fall below the respective targets of 95 and 90% set in the Ethiopian Health Sector Transformation Plan for 2020, suggesting that more intensive programmatic efforts still need to be directed towards improving access to these health services. Reaching ANC non-users and ITN ownership and use as part of ANC services could be emphasized to address these gaps.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 87-99, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1026107

RESUMO

Esse artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre as possibilidades de contribuição da Psicologia a ações de enfrentamento a práticas violentas, e junto às lutas transversais travadas pelos grupos com os quais trabalhamos. Para tanto, partimos do conceito de lutas transversais de Michel Foucault, entendidas como lutas antiautoritárias e democratizantes que têm por alvo os mecanismos de dominação, exploração e submissão. Entendemos que os saberes psis, ao se colocarem a serviço das lutas transversais, podem servir como ferramentas de análise e enfrentamento a estes mecanismos. Nesse sentido, trazemos duas experiências de pesquisa e extensão realizadas em territórios que se encontravam em meio a processos de remoção, um deles na Comunidade Indiana, no bairro Tijuca, no Rio de Janeiro e o outro na Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre. Tais análises assumem o caráter de denúncia das violências decorrentes de gestões estatais, dando visibilidade às formas de submissão que operam pela produção do que chamaremos de uma "subjetividade culpada" e pela inscrição das populações alvo das remoções no lugar de não cidadãos, de sujeitos de um não direito. Buscaremos, ainda, evidenciar as articulações entre essas ferramentas de produção de subjetividade e as problemáticas materiais, decorrentes das desigualdades de acesso à moradia e à cidade. Por fim, afirmamos o caráter de resistência presente na compreensão de subjetividade como processo em constante construção e nas possibilidades de produzirmos rupturas nas práticas que encerram determinados modos de habitar e viver nas cidades como mais ou menos legítimos....(AU)


This article aims to reflect on the possibilities of contribution of Psychology to actions to confront violent practices, and the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work. To do so, we start from the concept of transverse struggles of Michel Foucault, understood as anti-authoritarian and democratizing struggles that aim at the mechanisms of domination, exploitation and submission. We understand that psis knowledge, when placed in the service of the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work, can serve as tools of analysis and coping with these mechanisms. In this sense, in this article, we bring two research and extension experiments carried out in territories that were in the midst of removal processes, one in the Indiana Community, in the Tijuca neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, and the other in the region of Grande Cruzeiro in Porto Alegre. Such analyses assume the character of denunciation of the violence arising from state management, promoted through the removal processes of Indiana and part of the Grande Cruzeiro, giving visibility to the forms of submission that operate through the production of what we will call a "guilty subjectivity" and by the inscription of the target populations of the removals in the place of non-citizens, of subjects of a non-right, of illegitimate inhabitants of the city. We will also seek, with our analyses, to highlight the articulations between these tools of production of subjectivity and the concrete material problems arising from the inequalities of access to housing and the city. Finally, we affirm the character of resistance present in the understanding of subjectivity as a process in constant construction and in the possibilities of producing ruptures in practices that contain certain ways of living in cities as more or less legitimate....(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las posibilidades de la contribución de la Psicología para hacer frente a las prácticas violentas, y junto con las luchas transversales que libran los grupos con los que trabajamos. Con este fin, partimos del concepto de luchas transversales de Michel Foucault, entendido como luchas antiautoritarias y democratizadoras que apuntan a los mecanismos de dominación, explotación y sumisión. Entendemos que el conocimiento psis, al ponerse al servicio de las luchas transversales, puede servir como herramienta para el análisis y para hacer frente a estos mecanismos. En este sentido, traemos dos experiencias de investigación y extensión llevadas a cabo en territorios que se encontraban en medio de procesos de remoción, una en la Comunidad de Indiana, en el barrio de Tijuca, en Río de Janeiro y la otra en Grande Cruzeiro, en Porto Alegre. Dichos análisis asumen el carácter de denunciar la violencia resultante de la gestión estatal, dando visibilidad a las formas de sumisión que operan produciendo lo que llamaremos una "subjetividad culpable" y por la inscripción de las poblaciones objetivo de los retiros en el lugar de los no ciudadanos, de sujetos de un no derecho. También buscaremos resaltar las articulaciones entre estas herramientas de producción de subjetividad y los problemas materiales que surgen de las desigualdades en el acceso a la vivienda y la ciudad. Finalmente, afirmamos el carácter de resistencia presente en la comprensión de la subjetividad como un proceso en constante construcción y en las posibilidades de producir rupturas en las prácticas que incluyen ciertas formas de vivir y vivir en ciudades como más o menos legítimas....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Propriedade , Psicologia Social , Política Pública , Violência , Dominação-Subordinação , Exploração Social , Habitação , Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109621, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569021

RESUMO

The application of organic fertilizer by farmers is an important method for promoting the transition of agricultural production from increasing the yield to improving the quality and safety of agricultural products and realizing the green development of agriculture. The behavior of farmers can have a direct impact on organic fertilizer application, and the active participation of farmers can effectively reduce moral hazards and improve governance efficiency. A consensus appears to have been reached regarding the importance of land property rights stability (LPRS) for farmers' organic fertilizer application (FOFA) in China; however, few studies have focused on the conditions under which LPRS exerts an effect or the extent of the effect. Moreover, the grain-growing purpose and farm size are rarely included as driving factors underlying the impact of LPRS on FOFA; thus, biased estimations are easily formed. This study analyzed the influence mechanism of LPRS on FOFA and its dependent conditions using the 2017 China Rural Household Panel Survey from Zhejiang University and conducted an empirical analysis via a logit model. The results showed that LPRS could enable farmers to apply organic fertilizer, although the degree of its impact will vary due to differences in the grain-growing purpose and farm size. Currently, selling products is not conducive to the application of organic fertilizer and will reduce the positive impact of LPRS on the application of organic fertilizer by farmers, whereas expanding the farm size will enhance the positive impact of LPRS. The government should constantly improve the methods and channels for realizing high-quality and high-priced agricultural products and fully acknowledge the role of market demand in guiding farmers' agricultural production, which will increase their enthusiasm for organic fertilizer application. The government should also improve the contract management system for land transfer to strengthen the ability of farmers to expand their farm size to fully demonstrate the role of large-scale farmers.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , China , Fazendas , Humanos , Propriedade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514473

RESUMO

Women's land ownership plays a noteworthy role in improving various development indicators, including her own wellbeing and children's food and nutrition security. However, the literature linking women's access to land rights to the nutritional security of children in Pakistan is limited, even though it is a country facing enormous challenges of childhood malnutrition and gender discrimination. This paper contributes to the existing literature on the benefits of empowering women by studying the association and pathways between women's land rights and child nutrition, using the 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results indicate that women's individual land ownership and women's autonomy in large-scale family purchases have a positive impact on children's food and nutrition security (FNS). The results of quantile regression (QR) show that these effects are more pronounced in cases of children with severe stunted growth. In addition, a structural equation model shows that the positive relationship between women's land ownership and child nutrition is partially mediated by women's increased decision-making power in large-scale household purchases. Our research concludes that ensuring women's land rights can improve women's autonomy, which can be an effective policy tool that not only improves women's welfare but also improves their children's nutritional security.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Propriedade , Autonomia Pessoal , Direitos da Mulher , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Características da Família , Feminino , Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Paquistão
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 334, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developed nations, pet ownership is common within families. Both physical and psychological health benefits may result from owning a pet during childhood and adolescence. However, it is difficult to determine whether these benefits are due to pet ownership directly or to factors linked to both pet ownership and health. Previous research found associations between a range of socio-demographic factors and pet ownership in seven-year-old children from a UK cohort. The current study extends this research to adolescence, considering that these factors may be important to consider in future Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) research across childhood. RESULTS: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected pet ownership data prospectively via maternal reports from gestation up to age 10 years old and via self-report retrospectively at age 18 for ages 11 (n = 3063) to 18 years old (n = 3098) on cats, dogs, rabbits, rodents, birds, fish, tortoise/turtles and horses. The dataset also contains a wide range of potential confounders, including demographic and socio-economic variables. The ownership of all pet types peaked at age 11 (80%) and then decreased during adolescence, with the exclusion of cats which remained constant (around 30%), and dogs which increased through 11-18 years (26-37%). Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 13 years, and the factors identified in these models were compared to previously published data for 7 year-olds in the same cohort. There was some consistency with predictors reported at age 7. Generally sex, birth order, maternal age, maternal education, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets were associated with pet ownership at both 7 and 13 years (the direction of association varied according to pet type). Factors that were no longer associated with adolescent pet ownership included child ethnicity, paternal education, and parental social class. CONCLUSIONS: A number of socio-demographic factors are associated with pet ownership in childhood and adolescence and they differ according to the type of pet, and age of child. These factors are potential confounders that must be considered in future HAI studies.


Assuntos
Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais de Estimação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
11.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109586, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563050

RESUMO

Evaluating the effectiveness and functional boundary of different types of industry policies and their mixes on the innovation performance of wind power enterprises (WPEs) is an important but unresolved key issue. This study, based on dual perspectives of regional innovation environment and enterprise ownership, empirically examines the impacts of different types of industry policies and their mixes on enterprise innovation. The results show that different types of policies have significantly different effects on innovation performance of WPEs; policy mixes have a significant synergy but may not be fully effective, and environmental-side policy and demand-side policy mixes still show significant inhibition. Taking into account boundary conditions, this study finds that policy mixes are implemented better in regions with weak innovation environments, especially in terms of the innovation performance of private-owned WPEs in the region. However, there is no significant impact for WPEs located in regions with strong innovation environments and state-owned enterprises in regions with weak innovation environments. This study expands an understanding of external boundaries for the effective implementation of different industry policies and their mixes, and has important implications for China in improving the applicability and matching ability of policies in the wind power industry.


Assuntos
Propriedade , Vento , China , Política Ambiental , Indústrias
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563583

RESUMO

Interval treatment control programmes used widely in equine helminth control have favoured the development of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. Best practice guidelines have been designed to address resistance and include the requirement for improved pasture hygiene to break helminth transmission cycles, along with anthelmintic application informed by the results of diagnostic tests to reduce selection pressure for resistance. Using an online questionnaire, this study examined uptake of measures recommended in these guidelines by UK horse owners. The survey comprised 58 questions spanning grazing management, anthelmintic use and use of faecal egg count (FEC) testing to inform treatment decisions. Analysis was carried out using a combination of Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. In total, 705 owners responded and, following specific exclusion criteria, the responses of 652 individuals were analysed. The majority of the respondents owned <20 horses on private premises or livery yards in England. The main outputs of the survey were as follows. Overall, 60.9% of respondents used FEC tests to inform the requirement to administer anthelmintics, with macrocyclic lactones the most frequently-used anthelmintics. Of the respondents, 38% obtained advice on anthelmintic choice from their veterinarians; however, many respondents (43.8%) purchased anthelmintics via the internet. Encouragingly, 74.4% of respondents stated that they practiced good pasture hygiene by removing dung from pasture. Generally, there were differences between the responses of participants who based anthelmintic treatments on FEC testing (targeted treatments; TT) and those who practiced calendar-based anthelmintic treatments (interval treatments; IT). Briefly, the "key" findings from the Chi-square analysis included higher levels of satisfaction with the level of knowledge about equine parasites/parasitic diseases and higher levels of concern about anthelmintic resistance from TT-respondents compared to IT-participants. Confusion on the interpretation of quarantine recommendations was identified in this study group and there was poor uptake of testing for anthelmintic effectiveness. Overall, compared to previous reports, this study indicated improved engagement of UK horse owners with some helminth control practices recommended to reduce the spread of anthelmintic resistance. However, a proportion of respondents did not utilise these practices and there were still important gaps in the use of appropriate quarantine and efficacy testing. These identified gaps must be taken into consideration in knowledge dissemination activities in the future.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Propriedade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514379

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) is crucial for maintaining good health of older adults and owning a dog and walking it can enforce it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dog ownership on PA in older adults as well as its positive impact on perceived degree of health, and sleep. There were 44 participants of mean age 68 ± 5.4 years (18 males, 26 females) enrolled in this study (dog owners-DO, n = 26; non-dog owners-NDO, n = 18). Xiaomi Mi Band 2 accelerometer, International Physical Activity Questionnaire- Short form (IPAQ-Short Form) and SF-36 questionnaires were used to measure the level of PA, sleep, and subjective health. A statistically significant difference was observed in favor of dog owners in most of the monitored parameters. All accelerometer PA parameters (step count, activity time, distance, calories) showed a significant difference at a p < 0.01. Sleep parameters were significant in total sleep length (p = 0.05) and light sleep length (p < 0.05). DO reported higher total PA time (min/week), MET/min/week spent in walking, and spent calories/week (p < 0.05). In SF-36 they reported higher score (p < 0.05) in general health, physical functioning, social functioning, pain, vitality, and emotional well-being. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the DO group (p < 0.01). The results suggest that dog ownership may affect the overall PA and health of older adults.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Cães , Exercício , Animais de Estimação , Sono , Acelerometria , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
JAMA ; 322(10): 957-973, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503308

RESUMO

Importance: For-profit (vs nonprofit) dialysis facilities have historically had lower kidney transplantation rates, but it is unknown if the pattern holds for living donor and deceased donor kidney transplantation, varies by facility ownership, or has persisted over time in a nationally representative population. Objective: To determine the association between dialysis facility ownership and placement on the deceased donor kidney transplantation waiting list, receipt of a living donor kidney transplant, or receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study that included 1 478 564 patients treated at 6511 US dialysis facilities. Adult patients with incident end-stage kidney disease from the US Renal Data System (2000-2016) were linked with facility ownership (Dialysis Facility Compare) and characteristics (Dialysis Facility Report). Exposures: The primary exposure was dialysis facility ownership, which was categorized as nonprofit small chains, nonprofit independent facilities, for-profit large chains (>1000 facilities), for-profit small chains (<1000 facilities), and for-profit independent facilities. Main Outcomes and Measures: Access to kidney transplantation was defined as time from initiation of dialysis to placement on the deceased donor kidney transplantation waiting list, receipt of a living donor kidney transplant, or receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant. Cumulative incidence differences and multivariable Cox models assessed the association between dialysis facility ownership and each outcome. Results: Among 1 478 564 patients, the median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 55-76 years), with 55.3% male, and 28.1% non-Hispanic black patients. Eighty-seven percent of patients received care at a for-profit dialysis facility. A total of 109 030 patients (7.4%) received care at 435 nonprofit small chain facilities; 78 287 (5.3%) at 324 nonprofit independent facilities; 483 988 (32.7%) at 2239 facilities of large for-profit chain 1; 482 689 (32.6%) at 2082 facilities of large for-profit chain 2; 225 890 (15.3%) at 997 for-profit small chain facilities; and 98 680 (6.7%) at 434 for-profit independent facilities. During the study period, 121 680 patients (8.2%) were placed on the deceased donor waiting list, 23 762 (1.6%) received a living donor kidney transplant, and 49 290 (3.3%) received a deceased donor kidney transplant. For-profit facilities had lower 5-year cumulative incidence differences for each outcome vs nonprofit facilities (deceased donor waiting list: -13.2% [95% CI, -13.4% to -13.0%]; receipt of a living donor kidney transplant: -2.3% [95% CI, -2.4% to -2.3%]; and receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant: -4.3% [95% CI, -4.4% to -4.2%]). Adjusted Cox analyses showed lower relative rates for each outcome among patients treated at all for-profit vs all nonprofit dialysis facilities: deceased donor waiting list (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.36]); receipt of a living donor kidney transplant (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.51 to 0.54]); and receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant (HR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.45]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among US patients with end-stage kidney disease, receiving dialysis at for-profit facilities compared with nonprofit facilities was associated with a lower likelihood of accessing kidney transplantation. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this association.


Assuntos
Instituições Privadas de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim , Propriedade , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Diálise Renal/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 56-61, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479836

RESUMO

"Can I keep my dog while receiving chemotherapy?" "Can my cat sleep on my bed while I'm on treatment?" "What precautions should I take with my pets in order to avoid infections?"" I read that my dog could give me breast cancer, is that true?" "Do you have assistance therapy dogs at your chemotherapy day unit?" These are not uncommon questions from cancer patients in oncology/haematology consultation rooms. The answers to these questions however, are widely unknown among physicians. Pet ownership is thought to provide patients with both emotional and physical health benefits. However, owning pets may also pose health risks to immunocompromised patients through zoonotic transmission of disease. Some studies have also suggested that the ownership of domestic pets may increase the risk of developing some cancers. But what is the evidence behind these claims? This paper presents the results of a literature review of a variety of scientific literature about pet ownership as a potential risk factor for suffering cancer, zoonotic diseases and the immunocompromised, and animal-assisted-therapy in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Neoplasias/psicologia , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Terapia Assistida por Animais , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Propriedade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394794

RESUMO

Approximately 1500 people die annually due to rabies in the United Republic of Tanzania. Moshi, in the Kilimanjaro Region, reported sporadic cases of human rabies between 2017 and 2018. In response and following a One Health approach, we implemented surveillance, monitoring, as well as a mass vaccinations of domestic pets concurrently in >150 villages, achieving a 74.5% vaccination coverage (n = 29, 885 dogs and cats) by September 2018. As of April 2019, no single human or animal case has been recorded. We have observed a disparity between awareness and knowledge levels of community members on rabies epidemiology. Self-adherence to protective rabies vaccination in animals was poor due to the challenges of costs and distances to vaccination centers, among others. Incidence of dog bites was high and only a fraction (65%) of dog bite victims (humans) received post-exposure prophylaxis. A high proportion of unvaccinated dogs and cats and the relative intense interactions with wild dog species at interfaces were the risk factors for seropositivity to rabies virus infection in dogs. A percentage of the previously vaccinated dogs remained unimmunized and some unvaccinated dogs were seropositive. Evidence of community engagement and multi-coordinated implementation of One Health in Moshi serves as an example of best practice in tackling zoonotic diseases using multi-level government efforts. The district-level establishment of the One Health rapid response team (OHRRT), implementation of a carefully structured routine vaccination campaign, improved health education, and the implementation of barriers between domestic animals and wildlife at the interfaces are necessary to reduce the burden of rabies in Moshi and communities with similar profiles.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aust Vet J ; 97(11): 433-439, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of Australian pet owners' use of the internet for pet health; how trustworthy they rate various pet health information sources and the use of online information in subsequent veterinary consultations. METHOD: An anonymous questionnaire was developed, consisting of 30 questions, and distributed between March 2018 and May 2018 using convenience sampling through social media venues including Facebook and Twitter. All respondents were over the age of 18, lived in Australia and owned a pet animal. RESULTS: A total of 228 responses were received. The most common sources of pet health information were veterinarians (88.2%) and internet websites (81.1%). Most respondents reported using the internet 'many times per day' at either home or work. The majority of respondents used the internet to seek pet health information either 'not weekly but at least once a month' or 'less than once a month'. Nearly half of the respondents stated that they only 'sometimes' discuss their online findings with their veterinarian. Approximately one half of respondents agreed with the statement that online pet health information had affected their decision about whether to take their pet to the veterinarian. CONCLUSION: This study assesses how pet owners use the internet for pet health information and the role veterinarians can play in helping to facilitate these searches with tools such as information prescriptions. Further large-scale research is needed to help further understand this increasingly important aspect of pet health.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 81, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448043

RESUMO

Introduction: An estimated 125 million pregnancies around the world are at risk of malaria infection every year. Insecticide Treated Bed Nets is a form of personal protection that has reportedly been shown to reduce severe disease and mortality due to malaria in endemic regions. This study investigated ownership and utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Wa Municipality of Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was adopted to collect data among 394 pregnant women in six antenatal clinics. A two stage sampling technique was adopted and the data collection tool used was a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics involving logistic regression were performed using Stata 14. Results: More (33.3%) of the pregnant women were aged between 25-29 years with no formal education (29.9%) whiles most (69.6%) of the pregnant women were in Islam religion. About 95.9% have heard about Long Lasting Insecticide Nets and its benefits. Intuitively, ownership of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets was 82.2% with 69.3% utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets. Pregnant women aged 30-34 and 35 years and above were significant predictors, however, less likely to own Long Lasting Insecticide Nets compared to 15-19 years [AOR(95%CI)=0.29(0.10-0.87) and 0.08(0.01-0.72) respectively] whiles pregnant women aged 35 years and above were significantly less likely to utilize Long Lasting Insecticide Nets compared to 15-19 years [OR(95%CI)=0.12(0.03-0.48)]. Conclusion: The study found utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets among pregnant in the Wa Municipality low as compared to the National Malaria Control Program target in Ghana although Long Lasting Insecticide Nets ownership was high. The study recommends that Public Health Nurses and Disease Control Officers should intensify sensitization on the importance and misconception of the use of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets during outreach clinics.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Med Inform ; 129: 242-247, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Passive data refers to data generated without the active participation of the subject. This includes data from global positioning systems and accelerometers or metadata on phone call and text activity. Although the potential healthcare applications are far-reaching, passive data raises numerous ethical challenges. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify all ethical concerns, normative standpoints, and underlying arguments related to the use of passive data in healthcare. RESULTS: Among the various challenges discussed in the ethical literature, informational privacy, informed consent, and data security were the primary focus of the current debate. Other topics of discussion were the evaluation and regulation of products, equity in access, vulnerable patient groups, ownership, and secondary use. CONCLUSION: No clear ethical framework has been established that stimulates passive data-driven innovation while protecting patient integrity. The consensus in the ethical literature, as well as the parallels with similar concerns and solutions in other fields, can lay a foundation for the construction of an ethical framework. The future debate should focus on conflicts between two or more ethical, technical, or clinical values to ensure a safe and effective implementation of passive data in healthcare.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/ética , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Consenso , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Propriedade , Privacidade
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