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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 146-154, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matters (PMs) can lead to an acute exacerbation of allergic airway diseases, increasing the severity of symptoms and mortality. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PMs on acute exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation and seek potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Non-allergic control and ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic wide-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor 2 knockout (Tlr2-/-) mice were exposed to 100 µg of PM (diameter 5.85 µm) or saline by the oropharyngeal instillation. The responses were examined three days after exposure. In the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, Tlr2 was knocked down by small-interfering RNA or the NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 was used, and then the cells were stimulated with PMs for 12 h before comparison of the inflammatory responses. RESULTS: PM exposure led to increased inflammatory cell recruitment and airway intensity of PAS + staining in OVA-allergic WT mice, accompanied with an accumulation of inflammatory cells and elevated inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-18, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, the protein levels of TLR2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome were elevated concomitantly with the airway inflammation post-OVA/PMs challenge. Tlr2 deficiency effectively inhibited the airway inflammation, including pulmonary inflammatory cell recruitment, mucus secretion, serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and BALF inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, the P-induced NLRP3 activation in the RAW 264.7 cell line was diminished by the knockdown of Tlr2 or JSH-23 treatment in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that PMs exacerbate the allergic airway inflammation mediated by the TLR2/ NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB seems to be a possible treatment.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Alérgenos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Pulmão/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ovalbumina , Tamanho da Partícula , Células RAW 264.7 , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/genética , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética
2.
Life Sci ; 241: 117165, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838136

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous work has reported the closely correlation between inflammation and carcinogenesis, while the role of NALP3, the key component of inflammasome activation in NSCLC remains elusive. This study was to unravel the mechanism of NALP3 on modulating NSCLC cancer cell growth. METHODS: IHC and immuno-blot were performed to analyze expression of NALP3 and indicated molecules. CCK-8 and xenograft nude mice assay were used to evaluate cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Bioenergetics assay was performed to measure OXPHOS and aerobic glycolysis. siRNA and shRNA were constructed to knockdown endogenous NALP3 and DNMT1. Co-immunoprecipitation was applied to confirm the interaction between NALP3 and DMAP1. BioProfile FLEX analyzer and Lactate Reagent Kit were used to measure relative level glucose uptake and lactate production. KEY FINDINGS: We reported NALP3 were up-regulated in NSCLC tumor tissues. NALP3 depletion suppressed cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, data showed depletion of NALP3 promoted cell bioenergetics switch from aerobic glycolysis to OXPHOS. Additionally, we found NALP3 interacted with DMAP1 and alteration of NALP3 increased DNMT1 level. Subsequently, we clarified depletion of DNMT1 significantly suppressed NSCLC cell growth and orchestrated cellular metabolism which was similar to the effects of NALP3 knockdown. Finally, our data showed high NALP3 was associated with poor outcomes, and correlated with TNM stage and differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE: Current study elucidated NALP3 could promote metabolic reprogramming to regulate NSCLC cell growth and suggested that NALP3 may be considered as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Metabolismo Energético , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 44-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639409

RESUMO

Acrolein is a neurotoxin produced through lipid peroxidation in the brain affected by ischemic stroke, which results in neuronal cell injury and inflammation. However the mechanism underlying acrolein-induced brain inflammation remains unclear. Therefore we examined how acrolein leads to astrocytic inflammation. It was found that acrolein increased the levels of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1, which led to the maturation of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). ELISA assay results, which showed that acrolein increased the secreted IL-1ß, further supported acrolein-induced astrocytic inflammation. Acrolein increased ADAM10 protein levels and the cleavage of N-cadherin. The ADAM10 inhibitor, GI 254023X blocked N-cadherin cleavage by acrolein, suggesting that ADAM10 is an upstream of N-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that acrolein activated p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65, while pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 and GI 254023X inhibited NF-κB p65 activation and NLRP3 inflammasome. This suggests that p38 MAPK mediates the activation of NF-κB p65, which is associated with NLRP3 expression. Finally, we showed that acrolein induced cell toxicity and decrease of EAAT1 expression, suggesting that acrolein may induce a loss of glutamate uptake function. In conclusion, we demonstrate that acrolein induces astrocytic inflammation through NLRP3 inflammasome, which is regulated by ADAM10 and attributed to p38 MAPK-activated NF-κB p65 activity.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Acroleína/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encefalite/induzido quimicamente , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/enzimologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Caderinas/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Encefalite/enzimologia , Encefalite/patologia , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
Gene ; 725: 144163, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that coronary artery disease is associated with excess inflammation. These studies have shown an elevation of both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in sufferers of coronary artery disease. There is increasing interest in the role played by the inflammasome Nod Like Receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in the aetiology of coronary artery disease. Increased severity of coronary artery disease correlates with higher levels of expression of NLRP3. Does NLRP3 polymorphisms play a role in the aetiology of coronary artery disease? METHOD: In a cohort of Vietnam War (n-299) veterans who have been previously exposed to trauma, NLRP3 polymorphisms were analysed for association with coronary calcium scores using analyses of variance. Independent t-test was used to analyse genotypes. In samples with a small representation of minor homozygotes, genotypes were combined and analysed using independent t-test. If any of the genotype analysis suggested the potential for a dominant or a recessive model the model was further explored. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was calculated using Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium calculator including analysis for ascertainment bias. RESULTS: The NLRP3 polymorphism, rs10159239 was significantly associated (p = 0.001) with a higher raised coronary calcium score. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs10159239 was examined by logistic regression with known risk factors for Coronary artery disease and remained significant (0.035). This is the first time rs10159239 A-allele has been associated with raised coronary calcium score. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time rs10159239 A-allele has been associated with raised coronary calcium score. Further research is needed to replicate our results in larger well-characterised cohorts.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Veteranos , Guerra do Vietnã
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(11): e201901104, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (Ml/R) injury is a leading cause of damage in cardiac tissues, with high rates of mortality and disability. Biochanin A (BCA) is a main constituent of Trifolium pratense L. This study was intended to explore the effect of BCA on Ml/R injury and explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: In vivo MI/R injury was established by transient coronary ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC) was used to measure myocardial infarct size. ELISA assay was employed to evaluate the levels of myocardial enzyme and inflammatory cytokines. Western blot assay was conducted to detect related protein levels in myocardial tissues. RESULTS: BCA significantly ameliorated myocardial infarction area, reduced the release of myocardial enzyme levels including aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). It also decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in serum of Ml/R rats. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that BCA inhibited inflammatory reaction through blocking TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first evidence demonstrating that BCA attenuated Ml/R injury through suppressing TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway-mediated anti-inflammation pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Genisteína/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Western Blotting , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Lactato Desidrogenases/sangue , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 320, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is the second-leading cause of death and the main cause of permanent adult disabilities worldwide. Qingkailing (QKL) injection, a patented Chinese medicine approved by the China Food and Drug Administration, has been widely used in clinical practice to treat cerebral ischemia in China. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated in cerebral ischemia and thus, is an effective therapeutic target. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. METHODS: We investigated the potential of QKL injection to provide neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (210-230 g) were randomly divided into three groups which consist of sham, MCAO and 3 ml/kg QKL. Rats in the QKL group received intraperitoneal injections of 3 ml/kg QKL, while rats in other groups were given saline in the same volumes. After 90 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion, neurological function, laser speckle imaging, brain infarction, brain water content and brain blood barrier permeability were examined and cell apoptosis at prefrontal cortex were evaluated 24 h after MCAO, and western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was also researched, respectively. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of QKL alleviated neurological deficiencies, cerebral infarction, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain oedema and brain cell apoptosis after MCAO induction. QKL decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. Furthermore, QKL activated phosphorylated AMPK, decreased oxidative stress and decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation. CONCLUSIONS: QKL relieved cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and suppressed the inflammatory response by inhibiting AMPK-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results suggest that QKL might have potential in treating brain inflammatory response and attenuating the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17724, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689812

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of combined periodontal-orthodontic treatment on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in chronic periodontitis.A total of 60 patients with periodontitis who received combined periodontal-orthodontic treatment and 32 healthy individuals as normal controls were recruited in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to examine GCF levels of HMGB1 and NLRP3.The periodontal parameters and GCF levels of HMGB1 and NLRP3 in periodontitis patients were significantly higher before treatment, and observably decreased after 6 months of treatment as compared with the healthy group. However, significant positive correlations were observed between HMGB1, NLRP3, and periodontal parameters in chronic periodontitis patients.Patients with chronic periodontitis showed higher levels of HMGB1 and NLRP3 in GCF.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/genética , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ortodontia/métodos , Periodontia/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(10): 992-997, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome with inflammatory response in the acute stage and coronary artery lesion (CAL) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: A total of 42 children with KD who were hospitalized from January to October 2017 were enrolled as the KD group, among whom 9 had CAL (CAL group) and 33 had no CAL (NCAL group). Fifteen age- and gender-matched children with pneumonia and pyrexia were enrolled as the pneumonia-pyrexia group. Fifteen healthy children were enrolled as the healthy control group. Real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The Spearman rank correlation test was used to investigate the correlation of NLRP3 mRNA expression with serum levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, procalcitonin, albumin and prealbumin. RESULTS: The KD group had significantly higher mRNA expression of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 in the acute stage than the pneumonia-pyrexia and healthy control groups (P<0.05). The CAL group had significantly higher mRNA expression of NLRP3 than the NCAL group (P<0.05). NLRP3 mRNA expression was correlated with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, and prealbumin levels in children with KD in the acute stage (rs=0.449, 0.376, 0.427, and -0.416 respectively; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NLRP3 inflammasome may participate in inflammatory response in the acute stage and the development of CAL in children with KD.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta , Leucócitos Mononucleares
9.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(10): 820-828, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648465

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether microRNA(miR)-214 can improve hyperglycemia induced pyroptosis in H9c2 cells through targeting caspase-1. Methods: H9c2 cells of rats those in good growth condition were selected and incubated into the T25 culture bottle after digestion and passage. Cells were cultured in an incubator at 37 ℃ with 5%CO(2), repeat passage was made after cell density reached about 80%, The 5(th) to 8(th) generations of cells were selected for the subsequent experiments. To observe the effect of overexpression of miR-214 on pyroptosis and caspase-1 expression in H9c2 cells induced by hyperglycemia, the cells were divided into 4 groups: Control group(H9c2 cells cultured normally), Hyperglycemia group (HG group, 50 mmol/L glucose was used to intervene H9c2 cells for 24 hours), miR-214 mimics+hyperglycosis group (mimics+HG group, H9c2 cells were transfected with miR-214 mimics for 24 hours and then treated with 50 mmol/L hyperglycosis for 24 hours), miR-214 mimic-negative control+hyperglycaemic group(MNC+HG group, H9c2 cells were transfected with miR-214 mimic-negative control for 24 hours and then treated with 50 mmol/L hyperglycaemic for 24 hours). In order to further verify the anti-pyroptosis effect of miR-214 was mediated by targeted inhibition on caspase-1, cells overexpressing caspase-1 were used in the rescue experiment. The cells overexpressing caspase-1 were divided into 4 groups: Hyperglycemia group (HG group, 50 mmol/L glucose was used to intervene H9c2 cells for 24 hours), miR-214 mimics+hyperglycosis group (mimics+HG group, H9c2 cells were transfected with miR-214 mimics for 24 hours and then treated with 50 mmol/L hyperglycosis for 24 hours), miR-214 mimics+hyperglycosis+recombinant adenovirus (Ad-caspase-1-EGFP) group with caspase-1 gene and EGFP green fluorescent protein expression (mimics+HG+Ad-caspase-1-EGFP group, H9c2 cells were transfected with caspase-1-green fluorescent protein-carrying adenovirus for 48 hours, followed by transfection of miR-214 mimics for 24 hours, and then treated with 50 mmol/L hyperglycaemia for 24 hours), miR-214 mimics+HG+Ad-EGFP empty virus group (mimics+HG+Ad-EGFP group, H9c2 cells were transfected with empty adenovirus containing green fluorescent protein for 48 hours, followed by transfection with miR-214 mimics for 24 hours, and then treated with 50 mmol/L hyperglycosis for 24 hours). The mRNA expression levels of miRNA-214 and caspase-1 in cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression and localization of caspase-1 protein were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels of procaspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, NLRP3 and ACS with ß-actin as internal reference. The secretion of IL-1ß and IL-18 in cell culture medium was detected by ELISA. The correlation between miR-214 and caspase-1 was detected by double luciferase reporter gene. Results: (1) The mRNA expression levels of miR-214 and caspase-1 in each group: the mRNA expressions of miR-214 in HG group and MNC+HG group were significantly lower than that in control group(P<0.05). The mRNA expression of miR-214 in mimics+HG group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of caspase-1 in HG group and MNC+HG group were significantly higher than that in control group(P<0.05). The mRNA expression level of caspase-1 in mimics+HG group was lower than that in control group(P<0.05). (2) The expression of caspase-1 in each group: the green fluorescence intensity in the control group was weak, which was strong in the HG group and MNC+HG group. The green fluorescence expression was weaker in mimics+HG group than in HG group. (3) ASC and NLRP3 protein expression levels in each group: ASC and NLRP3 protein expression levels in HG group and MNC+HG group were higher than those in control group(P<0.05). ASC and NLRP3 protein expression levels were significantly lower in mimics+HG group than in mimics+HG group (P<0.05). (4) The secretion of IL-1ß and IL-18 in the cell culture medium of each group: the content of IL-1ß and IL-18 in the cell culture medium of HG group and MNC+HG group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). The content of IL-1ß and IL-18 in the cell culture medium of mimics+HG group was significantly lower than that of the HG group (P<0.05). (5) Correlation between miR-214 and caspase-1: miR-214 specifically binds to caspase-1 3 'UTR. Meanwhile, Western blot results showed that cleaved caspase-1 protein expression levels were significantly higher in both HG group and MNC+HG group than in control group (P<0.05). The levels of cleaved caspase-1 were significantly lower in mimics+HG group than in HG group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in procaspase-1 expression among groups (P>0.05). (6) The expression levels of procaspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, ASC and NLRP3 in each group in rescue experiment: there was no significant difference in the expression of procaspase-1 in each group (P>0.05). Cleaved caspase-1, ASC and NLRP3 protein expressions were significantly lower in mimics+HG group than in HG group (P<0.05). However, cleaved caspase-1, ASC and NLRP3 protein expressions were significantly higher in mimics+HG+ Ad-caspase-1-EGFP group than in mimics+HG group (P<0.05). (7) The expression of IL-1ß and IL-18 in rescue experiment: the secretions of IL-1ß and IL-18 in the cell culture medium of the mimics+HG group were significantly lower than that of HG group (P<0.05), which were significantly higher in mimics+HG+Ad-caspase-1-EGFP group than in mimics+HG group (P<0.05). Conclusion: miR-214 can improve the hyperglycemia induced pyroptosis in H9c2 cells by targeted inhibition of the caspase-1.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Piroptose , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Transfecção
10.
Life Sci ; 238: 116962, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628913

RESUMO

AIMS: Electroacupuncture (EAc) has a pulmonary protective effect during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but its molecular mechanisms including inflammasome activation signaling pathways remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, CPB + EAc and CPB groups. Lung injury model was developed by CPB treatment and EAc (2/100 Hz) was carried out before CPB in the CPB + EAc group. Lung tissues were collected at two time points (0.5 h; 2 h) to determine cytokines release by ELISA kits, and protein expressions by Western blot. Serum collected at two time points (0.5 h; 2 h) from CPB and CPB + EAc treated groups were used in NR8383 cells to confirm the effect of EAc. KEY FINDINGS: CPB significantly increased the inflammatory mediators, histological damage and expression of inflammasome related protein and apoptosis, when compared with control group. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-1ß in the CPB + EAc treated group was significantly decreased along with histological changes compared to CPB. Moreover, EAc inhibited the activation of Nod like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex, caspase-8 and activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (p-Nrf2). In addition, serum from the CPB + EAc group prevented CPB induced activation of inflammasome and related mediators, reducing ROS generation and apoptosis in NR8383 macrophages. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that EAc had a critical anti-apoptotic role by suppression of ROS/Nrf2/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. EAc might be a possible therapeutic treatment for CPB-induced acute lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Apoptose , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Inflamassomos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 317-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631596

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the molecular mechanism of ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) formation based on Keap1/Nfr2/ARE signaling pathway. Methods: The VILI model was established by excessive mechanical ventilation in SD rats. HE staining was used to detect the pathological changes of lung tissue in the control group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and large VT group (VT 40 mL/kg). The wet weight of lung tissue was detected in each group. Dry weight (W/D) ratio change; BCA method was used to detect the changes of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of each group; ELISA was used to detect interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and leukocyte in BALF and serum of each group. The content of 8-OHdG in the lung tissue was detected by IL-8 and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the lung tissue was detected by TBA method. The NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 proteins in macrophages were detected by Western blot. The changes of Keap1 and Nrf2 proteins in lung tissues were detected by RT-PCR. The expressions of SOD mRNA and HO-1 mRNA in lung tissues of each group were detected by RT-PCR. Results: Excessive mechanical ventilation could damage lung tissue, leading to alveolar rupture, inflammatory cell infiltration and erythrocytosis. Compared with the control group and normal VT group, the W/D value, 8-OHdG and MDA content in the large VT group, and total BALF, the contents of IL-1ß and IL-18 in protein, IL-1ß, IL-18 in serum increased significantly ( P<0.05). Compared with the control group and normal VT group, NLRP3, ASC, in macrophage of large VT group, the content of Keap1 protein in caspase-1 protein and lung tissue increased significantly ( P<0.05). The expression of Nrf2 protein, SOD mRNA and HO-1 mRNA in lung tissue decreased significantly. Conclusions: Large VT ventilation can cause acute inflammatory injury in lung tissue and lead to the occurrence of VILI. Inflammatory bodies of NLRP3 in alveolar macrophages are involved in this process, and the mechanism of NLRP3 inflammatory bodies is caused by hyperventilation in addition to mechanical injury. Decreased Keap1/Nrf2-ARE pathway inhibition and ROS clearance may also cause macrophage production of NLRP3 inflammatory bodies.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Pulmão , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 769-776, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (Meth) is one of the most important central nervous system (CNS) stimulant abuse drugs that cause long-term or permanent damage to different regions of the brain, particularly hippocampus, by neuronal apoptosis and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated Nod-like Receptor Protein 3(NLRP3) and Nod-like Receptor Protein1 (NLRP1) Inflammasome Activation in the Hippocampal Region of postmortem Meth Chronic User. METHODS: Molecular and histological analyses were conducted on the brain of 14 non-addicted and 11 Meth users separately. The expression level of NLRP1, NLRP3 was measured using western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. Histopathological assessment was performed with stereological Cell Counting of hippocampal cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H et E). Moreover, Tunel staining was carried out in order to detect any kind of DNA damage. RESULTS: Based on our findings using western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay, overexpression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 proteins in the hippocampal region of Meth addicts was observed. The stereological analysis in the hippocampus of the human brain revealed increased neurodegeneration. Furthermore, the increased rate of apoptosis and cell death were significant and confirmed by Tunel assay in the hippocampus of Meth groups. CONCLUSION: Chronic Meth abuse could result in increases of NLRP1 and NLRP3 and induction of inflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus in Meth groups (Tab. 1, Fig. 9, Ref. 40).


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Metanfetamina , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/mortalidade , Apoptose , Cadáver , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109687, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561077

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation has been shown to play a vital role in lung tumorigenesis. Recently, we have successfully developed a C57BL/6 mouse model of inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)p] and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which will contribute to better understand the association between pulmonary inflammation and cancer. In this study, we aim to explore the role of NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasome in lung tumorigenesis in the animal model that we set up previously. Levels of NLRP3, NLRP6, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-18 protein in lung tissues were detected by using immunohistochemistry. The co-localization of NLRP3 or NLRP6 with caspase-1 was examined using immunofluorescence and confocal. Western blotting was used to evaluate the levels of caspase-1 p10 and cleaved-IL-1ß protein. The expression of IL-18 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured using ELISA kit. The expression of NLRP3, NLRP6 and IL-18 protein in the lung tissues of mice exposed to B(a)p plus LPS was upregulated significantly compared with those in Vehicle control group. Immunofluorescent results indicated the co-localization of NLRP3 with caspase-1 was increased in the lung tissues of LPS-, B(a)p- or B(a)p plus LPS-exposed mice than that in Vehicle control group, but no co-localization of NLRP6 with caspase-1. Additionally, caspase-1 activation was induced, cleaved-IL-1ß in lung tissues and IL-18 protein in BALF were increased in B(a)p plus LPS-exposed mice compared with those in B(a)p group. In conclusion, our results from this study demonstrate that NLRP3 inflammasome, not NLRP6 inflammasome, activation is involved in B(a)p plus LPS-induced inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis in mice, but the mechanisms of NLRP6 participate in the development of lung cancer should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pneumonia/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pneumonia/metabolismo
14.
Elife ; 82019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532390

RESUMO

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, resulting in defective CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport, with dysregulation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). These changes alter fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and result in an exaggerated proinflammatory response driven, in part, by infection. We tested the hypothesis that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ENaC upregulation drives exaggerated innate-immune responses in this multisystem disease. We identify an enhanced proinflammatory signature, as evidenced by increased levels of IL-18, IL-1ß, caspase-1 activity and ASC-speck release in monocytes, epithelia and serum with CF-associated mutations; these differences were reversed by pretreatment with NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and notably, inhibition of amiloride-sensitive sodium (Na+) channels. Overexpression of ß-ENaC, in the absence of CFTR dysfunction, increased NLRP3-mediated inflammation, indicating that dysregulated, ENaC-dependent signalling may drive exaggerated inflammatory responses in CF. These data support a role for sodium in modulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/patologia , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
15.
Oral Dis ; 25(8): 2030-2039, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to detect pyroptosis in macrophages stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis and elucidate the mechanism by which P. gingivalis induces pyroptosis in macrophages. METHODS: The immortalized human monocyte cell line U937 was stimulated with P. gingivalis W83. Flow cytometry was carried out to detect pyroptosis in macrophages. The expression of miR-155 was detected by real-time PCR and inhibited using RNAi. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1, cleaved GSDMD, caspase (CAS)-1, caspase-11, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were detected by Western blotting, and IL-1ß and IL-18 were detected by ELISA. RESULTS: The rate of pyroptosis in macrophages and the expression of miR-155 increased upon stimulation with P. gingivalis and pyroptosis rate decreased when miR-155 was silenced. GSDMD-NT, CAS-11, CAS-1, ASC, NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 levels increased, but SOCS1 decreased in U937 cells after stimulated with P. gingivalis. These changes were weakened in P. gingivalis-stimulated U937 macrophages transfected with lentiviruses carrying miR-155 shRNA compared to those transfected with non-targeting control sequence. However, there was no significant difference in ASC expression between P. gingivalis-stimulated shCont and shMiR-155 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes pyroptosis in macrophages during early infection. miR-155 is involved in this process through regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Macrófagos , MicroRNAs , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Piroptose/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias
16.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 11-17, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563023

RESUMO

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a prominent human and animal pathogen causing chronic inflammatory diseases. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) is involved in the response to such pathogenic infections. However, the mechanism by which IL-1ß is secreted during C. pseudotuberculosis infection remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying IL-1ß secretion by macrophages infected with C. pseudotuberculosis. Herein, we firstly revealed that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 (Casp1) play critical roles in IL-1ß secretion rather than IL-1ß precursor (pro-IL-1ß) expression in C. pseudotuberculosis-infected macrophages. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is partially involved in IL-1ß secretion, while absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is not involved in IL-1ß secretion by C. pseudotuberculosis-infected macrophages. In addition, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) inhibitors almost attenuated IL-1ß secretion, implying that NF-κB and p38MAPK pathway are involved in IL-1ß secretion in C. pseudotuberculosis-infected macrophages. Furthermore, C. pseudotuberculosis were significantly more numerous in Nlrp3-/-, Asc-/-, and Casp-1-/- macrophages than in WT macrophages at 24 h after infection (P < 0.05), indicating that NLRP3 inflammasome components limit C. pseudotuberculosis replication in macrophages. Together, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying IL-1ß secretion in C. pseudotuberculosis-infected macrophages and further the current understanding of the host pro-inflammatory immune response against this pathogen.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/patogenicidade , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Infecções por Corynebacterium/metabolismo , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4375, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558756

RESUMO

Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) were shown to orchestrate tumour-promoting inflammation in multiple malignancies, including breast cancer. However, the molecular pathways that govern the inflammatory role of CAFs are poorly characterised. In this study we found that fibroblasts sense damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and in response activate the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, resulting in instigation of pro-inflammatory signalling and secretion of IL-1ß. This upregulation was evident in CAFs in mouse and in human breast carcinomas. Moreover, CAF-derived inflammasome signalling facilitated tumour growth and metastasis, which was attenuated when NLRP3 or IL-1ß were specifically ablated. Functionally, CAF-derived inflammasome promoted tumour progression and metastasis by modulating the tumour microenvironment towards an immune suppressive milieu and by upregulating the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Our findings elucidate a mechanism by which CAFs promote breast cancer progression and metastasis, by linking the physiological tissue damage response of fibroblasts with tumour-promoting inflammation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 induces an uncontrolled inflammatory response of several immune components, such as inflammasomes. These molecular complexes, associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) activity, induce the maturation and release of IL-1ß and IL-18 and eventually induce pyroptosis. It has been previously demonstrated that HIV induces inflammasome activation, which is significantly lower in the gastrointestinal tissue and blood from people living with HIV-1 with spontaneous control of viral replication. Therefore, immunomodulatory agents could be useful in improving HIV prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential inhibitory effect of sulfasalazine (SSZ) on inflammasomes and TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from people living with HIV and healthy donors. METHODS: PBMCs were obtained from 15 people living with HIV and 15 healthy donors. Cells were stimulated with agonists of TLRs and inflammasomes and subsequently treated with SSZ. The concentration of IL-1ß and the relative expression of NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRP1, AIM2, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18 were quantified. RESULTS: Cells treated with SSZ exhibited a decreased IL-1ß production after inflammasome and TLR stimulation, as well as regulation of inflammasome-related genes, in both people with HIV and healthy individuals. The concentration of IL-1ß was positively correlated with the CD4+ T-cell count and negatively with the viral load. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SSZ has an immunomodulatory effect on inflammasome and TLR activation that depends on the clinical HIV status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Sulfassalazina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
19.
Life Sci ; 235: 116828, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479679

RESUMO

AIMS: The renal tubule cells require a large number of mitochondria to supply ATP due to their high-energy demand during reabsorption and secretion against chemical gradients and result in mitochondria susceptible to disorder and injury during stress conditions. Injured mitochondria are eventually degraded by mitophagy, and disturbances in mitophagy are associated with the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) such as diabetic nephropathy and glomerulosclerosis. However, whether a disturbance in mitophagy has occurred and the role it plays in (SAKI) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the key features of mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI). MAIN METHODS: In this study, a murine septic AKI model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was built; mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics were measured in mice kidney in different time point. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that mitochondrial dynamics were characterized by fission/fusion aberrant, however more inclined to fission, and mitochondrial associated apoptosis was elevated over-time during SAKI. Furthermore, mitophagy was impaired in the later phase of SAKI, although elevated in early stage of SAKI. The results indicate that the underlying mechanisms of impaired mitophagy may associate with the cleavage of Parkin via caspases activated by NLRP3, at least partly. SIGNIFICANCE: It is conceivable that this selective autophagic process and quality control machinery was impaired, leading to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria, oxidative stress, and cell death. Therefore, a targeted approach, by enhancing mitophagy during SAKI, may be a promising therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
20.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 6207563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485193

RESUMO

Background: Hyperglycemia plays a vital role in diabetic nephropathy (DN); autophagy and its potential upregulator receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) are associated with ROS, which play a potential role in regulating NLRP3, and may be involved in inflammation in DN. Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms mediated by RIPK2 in autophagy and the relationship with ROS-NLRP3 of DN, by investigating the levels of RIPK2 and autophagy in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated with high glucose. Material and Methods: GMCs were divided into the following groups: normal group (NC), high glucose group (HG), and RIPK2 siRNA group. RIPK2, LC3, caspase1, and IL-1ß levels were measured by western blotting and RT-PCR. Autophagosomes were measured by GFP-RFP-LC3; ROS were detected by DCFH-DA. Results: High glucose upregulated RIPK2 and LC3 in GMCs during short periods (0-12 h) (p < 0.01), while RIPK2 and LC3 were significantly downregulated in the long term (12-72 h) (p < 0.01); these changes were positively correlated with glucose concentration (p < 0.01). In addition, levels of ROS, caspase1, and IL-1ß increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the high glucose group, even with an increased expression of LC3 (p < 0.01). However, LC3 expression decreased in the siRIPK2 group, while levels of ROS, caspase1, and IL-1ß increased (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Autophagy was activated by high glucose at short time periods but was inhibited in the long term, demonstrating a dual role for high glucose in autophagy of GMCs. RIPK2 regulates ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome signaling through autophagy and may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN.


Assuntos
Glucose/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais
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