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1.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 80: 101895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Recent studies have shown that 4-20% of patients with PDAC have a germline BReast CAncer (gBRCA) genes 1 and 2 mutation (m). Because homologous recombination is impaired in patients with gBRCAm, some reports suggested that these tumors may be more sensitive to platinum compounds. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis focused on benefit of patients with gBRCAm receiving a platinum-based chemotherapy (PtCh) compared with those treated with a non-platinum-based chemotherapy (NPtCh). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched from inception to May 12, 2018: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Abstracts from conferences were also reviewed for inclusion. Cohort, case-control and randomized studies of patients with PDAC and gBRCAm were eligible for inclusion if they provided data to compare patients receiving PtCh vs NPtCh. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) in the PtCh group vs the NPtCh group in patients with clinical stage III (locally advanced) or IV (metastatic) (CS III-IV) PDAC. RESULTS: Of 112 studies identified, 6 were included (total of 108 patients); of these, 4 provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Half of the patients were males, with a mean age ranging from 58 to 63 years. The OS in the 85 patients with CS III-IV PDAC was higher in the PtCh group (23.7 vs 12.2 months; mean difference of 10.21 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.05-15.37; P < 0.001; very low quality of evidence). PtCh was associated with a lower mortality (62.3 vs 87.5%; relative risk of 0.80, 95%CI 0.66-0.97; P = 0.021; very low quality of evidence). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed the hypothesis that patients with CS III-IV gBRCAm preferably benefit from a PtCh compared with NPtCh. However the very low quality of evidence should induce to be careful about the risk of potential biases. The generated hypothesis should be prospectively investigated in homogenous clinical settings.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Humanos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(2): 115-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556562

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal among gynecologic malignancies worldwide. Unfortunately, in around 70% of cases cancer is diagnosed in late stages (III-IV) which decreases the 5-year survival rate to 25%. The standard of care in ovarian cancer is debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy regimens based on platinum salts. Since 2014 PARP inhibitors became available for OC patients with germline or/and somatic mutations in BRCA1/2, including maintenance therapy. BRCA1/2 Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian cancer samples becomes the standard of care. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of mutations in 201 unselected ovarian cancer tissues using the NGS method. In total, pathogenic mutations in both genes were detected in 24% (49/201) of the ovarian cancer cases tested. For 41 patients the results of testing of DNA isolated from blood sample revealed that 17% (35/201) mutations were germline origin, whereas 3% (6/201) mutations were somatic. In 4% (8/201) cases blood sample was inaccessible. The presence of pathogenic mutations was correlated with younger age at diagnosis and serous subtype. Close cooperation between many specialists (gynecologist, pathologist, oncologist, clinical genetics and molecular biologist) is indispensable for efficient and on-time BRCA1/2 ovarian tumor tissue testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação
4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3368-3374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432574

RESUMO

BRCA1/2 genes are the most frequently germline mutated DNA-repair genes, and the survival of BRCA1/2 carriers has been extensively explored in breast cancer. However, the prevalence of germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 DNA-repair genes and the survival of carriers are largely unknown in a large cohort of unselected breast cancer patients. Germline mutations in 16 DNA-repair genes were determined using a multigene panel in 7657 BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients who were unselected for family history of cancer or age at diagnosis. Among the 7657 BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients, 257 (3.4%) carried at least 1 pathogenic germline mutation in the 16 DNA-repair genes. The prevalence of DNA-repair gene mutations was significantly higher in familial breast cancers (5.2%, P = 0.002) and early-onset breast cancers (diagnosed at and before the age of 40) (4.5%, P = 0.003) than that of sporadic breast cancers (2.9%) (diagnosed above age of 40), respectively. The DNA-repair gene mutation carriers were significantly more likely to have a larger tumor (P = 0.04) and axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03). Moreover, DNA-repair gene mutation was an independent unfavorable factor for recurrence-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, P = 0.05) and disease-specific survival (adjusted HR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.04-2.57, P = 0.03) in this cohort. Overall, 3.4% of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients carried germline mutations in the 16 DNA-repair genes, and the DNA-repair gene mutation carriers exhibited an aggressive phenotype and had poor survival compared with noncarriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Reparo do DNA , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
5.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(9): 771-785, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449760

RESUMO

Introduction: Molecular analyzes including molecular descriptor/phenotype interactions have led to better characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer patients, including a definition of a BRCA wild-type (BRCAwt) phenotype. Understanding how and when to use agents targeted against dependent BRCAwt pathways or other molecular events at disease progression is an important translational and therapeutic direction in ovarian cancer research. Areas covered: In this overview, we provide definitions and descriptions of a BRCAwt genotype and phenotype. We discuss novel investigational drugs that hold promise for the treatment of BRCAwt ovarian cancer, including inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, ribonucleotide reductase, DNA protein kinase-catalytic subunit, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase (ATR), CHK 1/2, cyclin kinases, glutaminase-1, WEE1 kinase, as well as tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis inhibitors. This article explores the known and the emerging areas of clinical research on patients with BRCAwt ovarian cancer. Expert opinion: Discovery of molecular changes tied to annotated disease information, along with an expanding array of pathway targets and targeted therapeutic agents, creates optimism and opportunity for women with ovarian cancer. Using precision oncology approaches, clinical researchers are, and will be, poised to select more effective treatments for ovarian cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2969, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278357

RESUMO

Analysis of mutational signatures is becoming routine in cancer genomics, with implications for pathogenesis, classification, prognosis, and even treatment decisions. However, the field lacks a consensus on analysis and result interpretation. Using whole-genome sequencing of multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia, we compare the performance of public signature analysis tools. We describe caveats and pitfalls of de novo signature extraction and fitting approaches, reporting on common inaccuracies: erroneous signature assignment, identification of localized hyper-mutational processes, overcalling of signatures. We provide reproducible solutions to solve these issues and use orthogonal approaches to validate our results. We show how a comprehensive mutational signature analysis may provide relevant biological insights, reporting evidence of c-AID activity among unmutated CLL cases or the absence of BRCA1/BRCA2-mediated homologous recombination deficiency in a MM cohort. Finally, we propose a general analysis framework to ensure production of accurate and reproducible mutational signature data.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biologia Computacional/normas , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Mutação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1075: 137-143, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196419

RESUMO

Nucleic acid probes are very useful tools in biological and medical science. However, the essential sensing mechanism of nucleic acid probes was prone to the interference of surrounding sequences. Especially when the target sequences formed secondary structures such as hairpin or quadruplex, the nucleic acid probes were hindered from hybridizing with target strands, greatly disabled the function of probes. Herein, we have established an Open strand based strategy for eliminating the influence of secondary structures on the performance of nucleic acid probes. The strategy was general toward different lengths, secondary structures and sequences of the targeting strand, and we found that the improvement was higher when the secondary structure of the targeting strand was more complicated. Experiments on synthetic single stranded DNA and real clinical genomic DNA samples were conducted for low abundance mutation detection, and the limit of detection for TERT-C228T and BRCA2 rs80359065 mutations could be 0.02% and 0.05% respectively, demonstrating the clinical practicability of our proposed strategy in low abundance mutation detection.


Assuntos
Sondas de DNA/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/análise , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Sondas de DNA/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Desoxirribonuclease IV (Fago T4-Induzido)/química , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Mutação Puntual , Telomerase/genética
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 12-20, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic mutations have been identified in approximately 10 percent of patients who present with breast cancer. Notably, failure to identify deleterious genetic mutations has particular implications for patients undergoing abdominally based breast reconstruction, as the donor site can be used only once. The authors sought to determine: (1) how many patients underwent genetic testing before unilateral abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction; (2) how often deleterious mutations were detected after abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction; and (3) the cost-effectiveness of expanding genetic testing in this patient population. METHODS: The authors retrospectively identified all patients who underwent unilateral abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2007 and 2016. Chart review was performed to collect relevant demographic and clinical data. Relevant hospital financial data were obtained. RESULTS: Of the 713 who underwent free flap breast reconstruction, 160 patients met inclusion criteria, and mean follow-up was 5.8 years. Three patients (1.9 percent of 160) underwent contralateral surgery after completing reconstruction, two of whom had BRCA2 and one with ATM mutation. One hundred eleven patients met National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for genetic testing, but of those only 55.9 percent (62 patients) were tested. Financial data revealed that testing every patient in the cohort would result in a net savings of $262,000. CONCLUSIONS: During a relatively short follow-up period, a small percentage of patients were diagnosed with pathogenic mutations and underwent contralateral mastectomy and reconstruction. However, because of the costliness of surgery and the decreased cost of genetic testing, it is cost-effective to test every patient before unilateral abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Assistência à Saúde , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Helicases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(2): 374-378, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe clinical characteristics and risk reducing strategies utilized among women with a BRCA mutation who lived to age 75 and above. METHODS: A retrospective study of women with BRCA mutations identified from 1995 to 2015 in a California health care system. From a database of 1189 women, 69 participants were identified who lived to age 75 or older. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded, as well as cancer history and risk-reducing strategies utilized. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to analyze the cohort. RESULTS: The median age of the cohort at study entry was 78 (IQR: 76-84) and the median age at time of genetic testing was 73 (IQR 68-79). Fifty (72%) women had a prior history of breast cancer and 27 (39%) had a history of ovarian cancer. Three of 19 (16%) women with no history of breast cancer elected to undergo a risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) after their positive genetic test. Among 30 women with ovaries still in place, 14 (47%) underwent a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO); six were age 70 or older at the time of surgery. Four (6%) women in the cohort developed BRCA-related cancer after testing, one developed breast cancer and three developed pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Most women with BRCA mutations surviving beyond age 75 received their genetic test result at an older age and had a history of BRCA-related cancer. Women continued surveillance and risk reducing surgeries at an older age. Pancreatic cancer was the most common new cancer diagnosed in older BRCA mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 140: 67-72, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176273

RESUMO

The current availability of new Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP)-inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian cancer patients independently of the presence of a BRCA pathogenic variant, together with the validation of somatic test for the analysis of BRCA1/2 genes, involves the need to optimise the guidelines for BRCA testing. The AIOM-SIGU-SIBIOC-SIAPEC-IAP Italian Scientific Societies, in this position paper, recommend the implementation of BRCA testing with 2 main objectives: the first is the identification of ovarian cancer patients with higher probability of benefit from specific anticancer treatments (test for response to therapy); the second goal, through BRCA testing in the family members of ovarian cancer patients, is the identification of carriers of pathogenic variant, who have inheredited predisposition to cancer development (test for cancer risk). These individuals with increased risk of cancer, should be encouraged to participate in dedicated high-risk surveillance clinics and specific risk-reducing measures (primary and/or secondary prevention programs).


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sociedades Médicas , Bioquímica , Feminino , Genética , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico
11.
Med Oncol ; 36(8): 70, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203460

RESUMO

Alterations in BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, and p53 genes have been identified for their association with male breast cancer in various studies. The incidence of male breast cancer in India is consistent with its global rate. The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the genetic alterations in male breast cancer patients from Malwa region of Punjab, India. Four male breast cancer patients belonging to different families were recruited from Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, India. A total of 51 genes reported with implications in the pathogenesis of breast cancer were screened using next generation sequencing. Germline variations were found in BRCA1, BRCA2, PMS2, p53, and PALB2 genes, previously reported to be associated with MBC as well as FBC. In addition to these, 13 novel missense alterations were detected in eight genes including STK11, FZR1, PALB2, BRCA2, NF2, BAP1, BARD1, and CHEK2. Impact of these missense alterations on structure and function of protein was also analyzed through molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed significant impact on the encoded protein functioning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Idoso , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(1): 138-143, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hematologic adverse effect profiles associated with frontline platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients according to BRCA 1/2 mutational status. METHODS: Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer and a known BRCA mutational status who received in frontline 6 cycles of Carboplatin (AUC 5) plus Paclitaxel 175 mg/mq were retrospectively selected from our databases. Hematologic toxicity profiles of BRCA mutated patients were compared to non-mutated patients, according to EORTC Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE_4.02). RESULTS: Totally, 176 women of whom 58 (33%) were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers - 40 BRCA1 (69%) and 18 (31%) BRCA2 mutations carriers - and 118 (67%) non-carriers were identified. A significant higher frequency of thrombocytopenia (24% vs 5%; p < 0.001), anemia (21% vs 7%; p = 0.006) and neutropenia (62% vs 27%; p ≤0.001) was observed in BRCA mutated patients, resulting in a higher percentage of granulocyte-colony stimulating growth factors injection (12% versus 1%, p < 0.001) and dose delay (19% versus 27%, p = 0.005). The multivariate analysis confirmed that granulocyte-colony stimulating growth factors injection and dose delay were statistically significantly more frequent in BRCA mutated patients (OR 2.567, 95% CI 1.136-5.798, p = 0.035; OR 3.860, 95% CI 1.098-13.570, p = 0.023). Finally, the total number of hematologic adverse events compared between the two groups of patients during the entire treatment period showed a substantial higher rate of hematologic adverse events in BRCA mutated population. CONCLUSIONS: Germline BRCA 1/2 mutations are associated with a higher hematologic toxicity in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent platinum-based chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/sangue , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(1): 144-149, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with BRCA-associated ovarian cancer who developed brain metastases (BM). METHODS: Patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer (EOC) and BM, treated at a single institution from 1/1/2008-7/1/2018, were identified from two institutional databases. Charts and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and germline BRCA mutation status. Appropriate statistics were used. RESULTS: Of 3649 patients with EOC, 91 had BM (2.5%). Germline mutation status was available for 63 (69%) cases; 21 (35%) of these harbored a BRCA1/2 mutation (15 BRCA1, 6 BRCA2). Clinical characteristics were similar between groups. BM were diagnosed at a median of 31 months (95% CI, 22.6-39.4) in BRCA-mutated (mBRCA) and 32 months (95% CI, 23.7-40.3) in wild-type BRCA (wtBRCA) (p = 0.78) patients. Brain metastases were the only evidence of disease at time of BM diagnoses in 48% (n = 10) mBRCA and 19% (n = 8) wtBRCA (p = 0.02) patients. There was no difference in treatment of BM by mutation status (p = 0.84). Survival from time of BM diagnosis was 29 months (95%CI, 15.5-42.5) in mBRCA and 9 months (95% CI, 5.5-12.5) in wtBRCA patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.53, p = 0.09; 95% CI, 0.25-1.11. HR was adjusted for presence of systemic disease at time of BM diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This is the largest study to date comparing outcomes in patients with EOC and BM by mutation status. mBRCA patients were more likely to have isolated BM, which may be a factor in their long survival. This supports the pursuit of aggressive treatment for mBRCA EOC patients with BM. Additional studies examining the correlation of BRCA mutational status with BM are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 313, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the majority of familial breast cancer (BC) families, the etiology of the disease remains unresolved. To identify missing BC heritability resulting from relatively rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤ 1%), we have performed whole exome sequencing followed by variant analysis in a virtual panel of 492 cancer-associated genes on BC patients from BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative families with elevated BC risk. METHODS: BC patients from 54 BRCA1 and BRCA2-negative families with elevated BC risk and 120 matched controls were considered for germline DNA whole exome sequencing. Rare variants identified in the exome and in a virtual panel of cancer-associated genes [492 genes associated with different types of (hereditary) cancer] were compared between BC patients and controls. Nonsense, frame-shift indels and splice-site variants (strong protein-damaging variants, called PDAVs later on) observed in BC patients within the genes of the panel, which we estimated to possess the highest probability to predispose to BC, were further validated using an alternative sequencing procedure. RESULTS: Exome- and cancer-associated gene panel-wide variant analysis show that there is no significant difference in the average number of rare variants found in BC patients compared to controls. However, the genes in the cancer-associated gene panel with nonsense variants were more than two-fold over-represented in women with BC and commonly involved in the DNA double-strand break repair process. Approximately 44% (24 of 54) of BC patients harbored 31 PDAVs, of which 11 were novel. These variants were found in genes associated with known or suspected BC predisposition (PALB2, BARD1, CHEK2, RAD51C and FANCA) or in predisposing genes linked to other cancer types but not well-studied in the context of familial BC (EXO1, RECQL4, CCNH, MUS81, TDP1, DCLRE1A, DCLRE1C, PDE11A and RINT1) and genes associated with different hereditary syndromes but not yet clearly associated with familial cancer syndromes (ABCC11, BBS10, CD96, CYP1A1, DHCR7, DNAH11, ESCO2, FLT4, HPS6, MYH8, NME8 and TTC8). Exome-wide, only a few genes appeared to be enriched for PDAVs in the familial BC patients compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a series of novel candidate BC predisposition variants/genes. These variants/genes should be further investigated in larger cohorts/case-control studies. Other studies including co-segregation analyses in affected families, locus-specific loss of heterozygosity and functional studies should shed further light on their relevance for BC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 296, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grade serous ovarian cancer is a detrimental disease. Treatment options in patients with a recurrent disease are dependent on BRCA1/2 mutation status since only patients with known BRCA mutation are eligible for treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). The aim of this study was to compare concordance of BRCA mutation analyses from cytological samples (CS) with BRCA mutation analyses from histological formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. METHODS: Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was performed in 44 women diagnosed with primary or recurrent high-grade ovarian cancer from three different samples: blood, cytological sample (ascites, pleural effusion and enlarged lymph nodes) and tumor tissue. Results from all three samples were compared. RESULTS: Among 44 patients, there were 15 germline mutations and two somatic mutations. A 100% concordance was found between cytological and histologic samples. CONCLUSION: There is a 100% concordance in BRCA mutation testing between cytological and histologic samples. BRCA mutation testing from CS could replace testing from FFPE tissue in clinical decision making in ovarian cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered at ISRCTN registry on 24/11/2015 - ISRCTN42408038 .


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
17.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 396, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the introduction of Olaparib treatment for BRCA-deficient recurrent ovarian cancer, testing for somatic and/or germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes in tumor tissues became essential for treatment decisions. In most cases only formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, containing fragmented and chemically modified DNA of minor quality, are available. Thus, multiplex PCR-based sequencing is most commonly applied in routine molecular testing, which is predominantly focused on the identification of known hot spot mutations in oncogenes. METHODS: We compared the overall performance of an adjusted targeted capture-based enrichment protocol and a multiplex PCR-based approach for calling of pathogenic SNVs and InDels using DNA extracted from 13 FFPE tissue samples. We further applied both strategies to seven blood samples and five matched FFPE tumor tissues of patients with known germline exon-spanning deletions and gene-wide duplications in BRCA1/2 to evaluate CNV detection based solely on panel NGS data. Finally, we analyzed DNA from FFPE tissues of 11 index patients from families suspected of having hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, of whom no blood samples were available for testing, in order to identify underlying pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations. RESULTS: The multiplex PCR-based protocol produced inhomogeneous coverage among targets of each sample and between samples as well as sporadic amplicon drop out, leading to insufficiently or non-covered nucleotides, which subsequently hindered variant detection. This protocol further led to detection of PCR-artifacts that could easily have been misinterpreted as pathogenic mutations. No such limitations were observed by application of an adjusted targeted capture-based protocol, which allowed for CNV calling with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. All pathogenic CNVs were confirmed in the five matched FFPE tumor samples from patients carrying known pathogenic germline mutations and we additionally identified somatic loss of the second allele in BRCA1/2. Furthermore we detected pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants in four the eleven FFPE samples from patients of whom no blood was available for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that an adjusted targeted capture-based enrichment protocol is superior to commonly applied multiplex PCR-based protocols for reliable BRCA1/2 variant detection, including CNV-detection, using FFPE tumor samples.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Formaldeído/química , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Inclusão em Parafina , Linhagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fixação de Tecidos
18.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(6): 1471-1484, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study an association between IL-6 signaling and resistance to radiotherapy of prostate cancer (PCa) and explore the molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS: IL-6 expressing C4-2 and CWR22Rv1 (C4-2IL-6/CWRIL-6) and vector control (C4-2vec/CWRvec) cell lines were developed. Radiation-sensitivities of these cells were compared in clonogenic assay, Comet assay, and γH2AX staining. In xenograft animal studies, radiation-sensitivity of C4-2IL-6 cell-derived tumors vs. C4-2vec cell-derived tumors was investigated. To reveal IL-6 downstream molecules involved in DNA repair after radiation, qPCR and Western blot analyses as well as immunofluorescence staining were performed. Transcriptional control of IL-6 on ATM and ATR molecules was also investigated. RESULTS: We found C4-2IL-6 and CWRIL-6 cells survived better than their vector control cells after irradiation, and animal studies confirmed such in vitro results. We discovered that DNA repair-related molecules such as ATM, ATR, BRCA1, and BRCA2 were significantly upregulated in irradiated IL-6 expressing cells compared with vector control cells. We further defined that IL-6 signaling regulated cellular expressions of ATM and ATR at the transcriptional level through the activation of Stat3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 leads to PCa resistance to radiation through upregulation of DNA repair associated molecules ATM, ATR, BRCA1, and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically assess the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in women with Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) in Arab countries and to describe the variability in the BRCA gene mutations in different regions of the Arab world. METHODS: Observational studies reporting prevalence of BRCA mutations from 22 Arab countries were systematically searched in databases including PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Two reviewers independently screened the studies and extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Hoy's risk of Bias tool was used to assess the biases in individual studies. Due to substantial heterogeneity, pooled weighted estimates were calculated using Quality Effect Models (QEM) that adjust for bias, while the Random Effect Models (REM) estimates served as the sensitivity estimates. RESULTS: Fourteen studies reporting prevalence of BRCA were included. The pooled estimate of BRCA among HBOC was 20% (95% CI: 7-36%). Subgroup analysis including only those with low risk of bias provided an estimate of 11% (95% CI: 1-27%). Levant region had higher prevalence 28% (95% CI: 11-49%) compared to Arabian Gulf region and North Africa but differences are not statistically significant, when tested using Z-test for proportions. CONCLUSION: Given the pooled estimates vary widely with substantial heterogeneity, larger, well-designed studies are warranted to better understand the frequency and the impact of BRCA gene mutations among Arab women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registration number: CRD42018095905 .


Assuntos
Árabes/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Feminino , Humanos
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