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1.
Life Sci ; 248: 117466, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101760

RESUMO

AIMS: Nanoparticles (NPs)-based drugs have been recently introduced to improve the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms by which a NP interacts with cellular systems still need to be delineated. Here, we utilize the autophagic potential of TiO2 NPs for improving chemotherapeutic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human AGS gastric cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth and viability were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and MTT assay, respectively. Vesicular organelles formation was evaluated by acridine orange staining of cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis were monitored by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were measured by DCHF-DA staining. Autophagy was examined by q-PCR and western blotting. Molecular docking was used for studying NP interaction with autophagic proteins. KEY FINDINGS: TiO2 NPs increase ROS production, impair lysosomal function and subsequently block autophagy flux in AGS cells. In addition, the autophagy blockade induced by non-toxic concentrations of TiO2 NPs (1 µg/ml) can promote cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of 5-FU in AGS cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the beneficial effects of TiO2 NPs in combination with chemotherapy in in vitro model of gastric cancer, which may pave the way to develop a possible solution to circumvent chemoresistance in cancer.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fluoruracila/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/química , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Titânio/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111748, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918235

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is an emerged field to develop the plant mediated metal based nanodrugs by green method. In this current study, the zinc oxide metal based nanoparticles were developed using (Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels) Peel aqueous extracts and zinc nitrate. The C.L extract zinc nanoparticleswere indicated by the sharp peak seen at 350 nm utilizing the Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The high peaks indicate the presence of phytochemicals and its functional groups in ZnONPs were studied by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) explores the pattern and structure of ZnONPs as spherical and base-centered monoclinic crystalline shapes. The C.L extract with Zn nanoparticles were spherical in nature and the size of the synthesized particles were about 28.42 nm respectively. The autophagy (Beclin-1, LC3-I, LC3-II and ATG4B) and apoptotic (Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) proteins were regulated by the treatment with ZnONPs in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The DNA loss or damage was occurred in the ZnONPs treatment and it was performed using Comet assay. The ZnONPs treatment generates the ROS in the cells and decreased its stability and viability. Addition of NAC prevents ROS in the cultured SH-SY5Y cells and prevents the cells from the apoptosis. We concluded that the ZnONPs potentially kills the neuroblastoma cells by producing the intracellular ROS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clausena/química , Clausena/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108888, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682805

RESUMO

Relapse and drug resistance is still major challenges in the treatment of leukemia. Promethazine, an antihistaminic phenothiazine derivative, has been used to prevent chemotherapy-induced emesis, although there is no report about its antitumor potential. Thus, we evaluated the promethazine cytotoxicity against several leukemia cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Promethazine exhibited potent and selective cytotoxicity against all leukemia cell types in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations. Philadelphia positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells were the most sensitive cell line. The cytotoxicity of promethazine in these cells was triggered by the activation of AMPK and inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The subsequent downstream effects were NOXA increase, MCL-1 decrease, and Beclin-1 activation, resulting in autophagy-associated apoptosis. These data highlight targeting autophagy may represent an interesting strategy in CML therapy, and also the antitumor potential of promethazine by acting in AMPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. Since this drug is currently used with relative low side effects, its repurposing may represent a new therapeutic opportunity for leukemia treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Prometazina/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1652-1666, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180579

RESUMO

Viruses can inhibit host autophagy through multiple mechanisms, and evasion of autophagy plays an important role in immune suppression and viral oncogenesis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) T-antigens are expressed and involved in the pathogenesis of a large proportion of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Yet, how MCPyV induces tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Herein, we show that MCPyV T-antigens induce miR-375, miR-30a-3p and miR-30a-5p expressions, which target multiple key genes involved in autophagy, including ATG7, SQSTM1 (p62) and BECN1. In MCC tumors, low expression of ATG7 and p62 are associated with MCPyV-positive tumors. Ectopic expression of MCPyV small T-antigen and truncated large T-antigen (LT), but not the wild-type LT, resulted in autophagy suppression, suggesting the importance of autophagy evasion in MCPyV-mediated tumorigenesis. Torin-1 treatment induced cell death, which was attenuated by autophagy inhibitor, but not pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting a potential role of autophagy in promoting cell death in MCC. Conceptually, our study shows that MCPyV oncoproteins suppress autophagy to protect cancer cells from cell death, which contribute to a better understanding of MCPyV-mediated tumorigenesis and potential MCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/biossíntese , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/biossíntese , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/genética , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/biossíntese , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/genética , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/metabolismo , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124647, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466007

RESUMO

Ground water arsenic contamination is a global menace. Since arsenic may affect the immune system, leading to immunesuppression, we investigated the effects of acute arsenic exposure on the thymus and spleen using Swiss albino mice, exposed to 5 ppm, 15 ppm and 300 ppm of sodium arsenite for 7 d. Effects on cytokine balance and cell survivability were subsequently analyzed. Our data showed that arsenic treatment induced debilitating alterations in the tissue architecture of thymus and spleen. A dose-dependent decrease in the ratio of CD4+-CD8+ T-cells was observed along with a pro-inflammatory response and redox imbalance. In addition, pioneering evidences established the ability of arsenic to induce an up regulation of Hsp90, eventually resulting in stabilization of its client protein Beclin-1, an important autophagy-initiating factor. This association initiated the autophagic process, confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assay, acridine orange staining and Western blot, indicating the effort of cells trying to survive at lower doses. However, increased arsenic assault led to apoptotic cell death in the lymphoid organs, possibly by increased ROS generation. There are several instances of autophagy and apoptosis taking place either simultaneously or sequentially due to oxidative stress. Since arsenic is a potent environmental stress factor, exposure to arsenic led to a dose-dependent increase in both autophagy and apoptosis in the thymus and spleen, and cell death could therefore possibly be induced by autophagy. Therefore, exposure to arsenic leads to serious effects on the immune physiology in mice, which may further have dire consequences on the health of exposed animals.


Assuntos
Arsênico/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Relação CD4-CD8 , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sódio/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/patologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5630, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822666

RESUMO

The lysosomal calcium channel TRPML1, whose mutations cause the lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), contributes to upregulate autophagic genes by inducing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB). Here we show that TRPML1 activation also induces autophagic vesicle (AV) biogenesis through the generation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) and the recruitment of essential PI3P-binding proteins to the nascent phagophore in a TFEB-independent manner. Thus, TRPML1 activation of phagophore formation requires the calcium-dependent kinase CaMKKß and AMPK, which increase the activation of ULK1 and VPS34 autophagic protein complexes. Consistently, cells from MLIV patients show a reduced recruitment of PI3P-binding proteins to the phagophore during autophagy induction, suggesting that altered AV biogenesis is part of the pathological features of this disease. Together, we show that TRPML1 is a multistep regulator of autophagy that may be targeted for therapeutic purposes to treat LSDs and other autophagic disorders.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Classe III de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mucolipidoses/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fosfosserina/metabolismo , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/agonistas
7.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(11): 973-978, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878992

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the autophagy and the expression of CD40 and CD80 of dendritic cells (DCs) induced by hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods DCs were divided into normal group, hypoxia group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment group and hypoxia combined with LPS treatment group. Each group was treated for 24 hours, and the cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. The protein levels of autophagy microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3I (LC3I), LC3II and beclin1 were detected by Western blot analysis. The formation of autophagosomes in DCs was observed under a transmission electron microscope after LPS treatment. The expression of CD40 and CD80 on DCs was detected by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. Results Hypoxia and LPS could induce autophagy in mouse DCs and increase the expression of CD40 and CD80 on their surface. After hypoxia combined with LPS treatment, autophagy in DCs was significantly enhanced; more autophagosomes were formed; and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 were raised. Conclusion Hypoxia and LPS can induce autophagy and increase the expression of CD40 and CD80 in mouse DCs.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Animais , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Células Cultivadas , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1206: 109-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776982

RESUMO

Beclin 1 is the first mammalian autophagy protein identified as a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that this landmark protein is essential for autophagy. By investigating the interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, key molecular mechanisms of mammalian autophagy regulation have been discovered. In this chapter, we will first review the discovery of Beclin 1 and then focus on the mechanisms of Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 regulation and their effect on autophagy regulation. Finally, we summarize the evidence related to the interaction of Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 and the involvement of these proteins in human diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Proteína Beclina-1 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
9.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(11): 799-804, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) serum on expression of myogenic differentiation antigen (Myod) and autophagy-related protein Beclin 1 in cultured muscle satellite cells of rats under starvation conditions. METHODS: The primary multifidus muscle satellite cells of one male SD rat were isolated and cultured to obtain the 3rd generation of cells. The EA serum was got from the rat received EA stimulation of bilateral "Weizhong" (BL40, 2 Hz/10 Hz, 1 mA, duration of 20 min, once daily for 7 days). The cell suspension (2×104/well) of the 3rd generation of cultured cells was transferred to each well of a 96-well plate in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Twelve duplicate wells were set up for the blank control serum (without FBS), 10% FBS, 10% EA serum, 20% EA serum and 30% EA serum groups and incubated for 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Each well was supplemented with 10 µL CCK-8 reagent to be incubated for 1 h again for observing the state of cell proliferation. After culturing the primary muscle satellite cells in serum-free medium for 12 h, the cells were randomly divided into serum-free group, 10% fetal bovine serum group and optimal concentration electroacupuncture serum group, and serum of corresponding concentration was added respectively. The expression levels of Beclin 1 and cell-proliferation-related protein Myod were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: CCK-8 assay displayed that the proliferation levels were significantly higher at 12 h and 24 h after serum intervention in the 10% FBS, 10% EA serum, 20% EA serum and 30% EA serum groups than that in the blank control serum group (P<0.01), and at 24 h in the 3 EA serum groups than in the 10% FBS group (P<0.01), but without significant difference among the three EA serum groups (P>0.05). As a result, 10% EA serum was selected as the optimal concentration for Western blot tests. No significant difference was found in the expression levels of Myod and Beclin 1 proteins among the serum-free, 10% FBS and 10% EA serum groups before intervention (P>0.05), and there was a marked up-regulation of Myod expression and an obvious down-regulation of Beclin 1 expression at 12 h in both the 10% EA serum and 10% FBS groups in comparison with their own pre-intervention (P<0.05). There were a marked up-re-gulation of Myod expression at both 12 h and 24 h and Beclin 1 expression at 24 h in both the 10% EA serum group and 10% FBS group than that in the serum-free group (P<0.05), and an obvious down-regulation of Beclin 1 expression at 12 h in both 10% FBS and 10% EA serum groups than that in the serum-free group (P<0.05, P<0.01). After 24 h's serum intervention, there was an increase of Myod expression and a reduction of Beclin 1 expression in both 10% FBS and 10% EA serum groups compared with those after the 12 h intervention (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between the 10% FBS and 10% EA serum groups in the expression levels of Myod and Beclin 1 proteins (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: EA serum can promote proliferation of cultured muscle satellite cells under starvation conditions, which is related to its functions in regulating expression of Beclin 1 and cell-proliferation-related protein Myod.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação , Proteína Beclina-1 , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Biochimie ; 167: 217-227, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654668

RESUMO

RANKL induces osteoclastogenesis via JNK1 signal that exerts an anti-apoptotic effect during osteoclastogenesis. However, the classic downstream c-Jun/AP-1 pathway is not included in anti-apoptosis of JNK1. Thus, the detail mechanism underlying JNK1-resisted apoptosis remains unknown during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. RANKL-induced autophagy results in the degradation of the osteoclastogenesis-inhibitor TRAF3, and TRAF3 is thought as a regulator of apoptosis. Given the key effect of JNK1 in mediating autophagy, our study aims to investigate the significance of TRAF3 in bridging JNK1-mediated autophagy and apoptotic resistance during osteoclastogenesis. In this study, by using Bone Marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) as osteoclast precursors (OCPs), we found that RANKL-induced TRAF3 degradation was significantly suppressed by JNK inhibitor (SP600125), which was restored by overexpression of Beclin1 (key autophagic protein). Nevertheless, TRAF3 silencing partially reversed the reduced osteoclastogenesis under SP600125 intervention. Besides, OCP apoptosis was positively regulated by TRAF3 overexpression, regardless of the application of autophagy inhibitor or SP600125. Remarkably, the enhanced apoptosis caused by the pharmacological inhibition of Beclin1 was reversed by TRAF3 silencing. Together, these results suggest that JNK1-mediated autophagy could promote RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via enhancing TRAF3 degradation. Importantly, JNK1 could prevent OCP apoptosis through autophagy-TRAF3 signaling, which provides more potential targets for clinical treatment of pathological bone loss.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113317, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610502

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hazard environmental pollutants and the most toxic one of all the aflatoxins. AFB1 can cause a serious impairment to testicular development and spermatogenesis, yet the underlying mechanisms remain inconclusive. Oxidative stress acts as a master mechanism of AFB1 toxicity, and can promote autophagy. Abnormal autophagy resulted in testicular damage and spermatogenesis disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of AFB1 on autophagy in mice testis and its potential mechanisms. In this study, male mice were intragastrically administered with 0, 0.375, 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg body weight AFB1 for 30 days. We found that AFB1 induced testicular damage, reduced serum testosterone level and impaired sperm quality accompanied with the elevation of oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis. Interestingly, we observed increasing numbers of autophagosomes in AFB1-exposed mice testis. Meanwhile, AFB1 caused testis abnormal autophagy with the characterization of increased expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, Atg5 and p62. Furthermore, AFB1 downregulated the expressions of PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR in mice testis. Taken together, our data indicated AFB1 induced testicular damage and promoted autophagy, which were associated with oxidative stress-related PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mice testis.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/embriologia , Testosterona/sangue
12.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 51(11): 1134-1141, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650158

RESUMO

The widely used inhalation anesthetic, isoflurane, potentially induces neuronal injury in clinical practice. Previous studies showed multiple forms of cell death that resulted from isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity, but the precise underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Ferroptosis has recently been identified as a non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death. Here, we found that ferroptosis inhibitors, ferrostatin-1 and deferoxamine mesylate (DFOM), showed great efficiency in maintaining cell viability in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to a high concentration of isoflurane for 24 h. We also observed that cellular chelatable iron and lipid peroxidation were increased in a concentration-dependent manner in response to isoflurane. In addition, isoflurane upregulated Beclin1 phosphorylation, followed by the formation of a Beclin1-solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) complex, which affected the activity of cystine/glutamate antipoter and further regulated ferroptotic cell death. Accordingly, Beclin1 overexpression aggravated isoflurane-induced cell damage by upregulating ferroptosis. This phenomenon was significantly attenuated by silencing of Beclin1 in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings indicate that Beclin1 may regulate ferroptosis in a manner involving inhibition of glutamate exchange activity of system xc(-), which is implicated in isoflurane-induced toxicity. In particular, when isoflurane is administrated at high concentrations and for an extended duration, ferroptosis is more likely to play a crucial role in isoflurane-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Proteína Beclina-1/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Isoflurano/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia
13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(5): 1556-1560, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E(eIF4E) on the autophagy of CD138+ plasma cells in multiple myeloma(MM). METHODS: Multiple myeloma CD138+ plasma cells were treated with eIF4E inhibitor 4EGI, the changes of autophagy-related factors LC3-II and Beclin1 were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot, the changes of cell proliferation inhibition were detected by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Quantitative fluorescence PCR showed that after treatment of myeloma cells with 4EGI, the expression levels of LC3-II and Beclin1 mRNA gradually increased with the enhancomer of 4EGI concentration and the prolongation of action time, and the differences were statistically significant (48 h: LC3-Ⅱ,r=0.942, Beclin1,r=0.952; 80 µg/ml: LC3-Ⅱ,r=0.966, Beclin1,r=0.998); Western blot showed that with the enhancement of 4EGI concentration, the expression of LC3-II and Beclin1 protein gradually increased(LC3-Ⅱ,r=0.923, Beclin1,r=0.977); CCK-8 showed that the inhibition rate of cells gradually increased (r=0.996); the apoptotic rate of 4EGI-treated groups (23.23±4.47, 7.59±1.67, 2.03±0.19) was significantly different from that of control group (0.03±0.04) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The inhibition of eIF4E can activate the autophagy of CD138+ plasma cells in multiple myeloma and induce the death of myeloma cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Mieloma Múltiplo , Proteína Beclina-1 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos , Humanos
14.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 323-327, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631597

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the effects of autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on chemosensitivity of castration-resistant prostate cancer 22RV1 cell line in vitro and in vivo, and changes in its mRNA expressions of autophagy gene Bcelin-1, autophagy specific substrate P62 gene, pro-apoptotic gene Bax. Methods: 22RV1 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into blank control (no drug), DOC, and HCQ (20 µmol/L)+DOC groups. The concentration of DOC was set at 10 -6 mol/L, 10 -7 mol/L, and 10 -8 mol/L in the tests. Cell proliferation activities were detected by CCK-8 method 72 h after drug treatments. The 22RV1 cell suspension was injected subcutaneously into nude mice to establish transplanted tumor. The successfully modeled mice were randomly divided into three groups (five each) treated by physiological saline, DOC and HCQ+DOC (injected intraperitoneally for 4 weeks), respectively. Changes in growth of the transplanted tumor were observed. The mRNA expressions of Beclin-1, P62, and Bax were detected by qPCR. The protein expressions of Beclin-1, LC3B, and Bax were detected by Western blot. Results: In vitro: compared with the blank control, the DOC and HCQ+DOC groups showed decrease proliferation of cells( P<0.05); HCQ further lowered cell proliferation in the presence of DOC ( P<0.05), resulting in reduced half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of DOC. In vivo: compared with the model mice, the DOC and HCQ+DOC groups had decreased volume of transplanted tumor. HCQ slowed the weekly growth of tumor in the presence of DOC ( P<0.05), most obvious at the 4th week. In vitro and in vivo, HCQ+DOC upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin-1, P62 and Bax ( P<0.05). Conclusion: HCQ can interfere with the autophagy of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells, inhibiting its proliferation and enhancing its sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 269, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puerarin exerts therapeutic effect on osteoporosis due to its inhibitory effect on the formation of osteoclasts. Puerarin is also widely established as an autophagy inhibitor. The study aimed to investigate the significance of autophagy in Puerarin-treated osteoclast formation. METHODS: Osteoclast precursors (OCPs) derived from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were treated with Puerarin along with RANKL or without RANKL, and then the autophagic parameters of OCPs (including autophagic proteins, LC3 transformation, autophagosome or LC3-puncta) were observed through Western Blotting, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Immunofluorescence assays. Next, after using overexpression vectors of autophagic genes (Atg7, Atg5 and BECN1) to alter autophagy activity, OCP proliferation was measured by Ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) assays and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) kit, and osteoclast differentiation was assessed by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. RESULTS: The results showed that Puerarin could directly inhibit the autophagy and proliferation of OCPs. Importantly, overexpression of autophagic genes Atg5, Atg7 and BECN1 reversed Puerarin-inhibited OCP autophagy and proliferation. What's more, RANKL could promote the autography of OCPs, which was recovered by Puerarin treatment. Interestingly, different from single-Puerarin treatment, we found that in the presence of RANKL, only BECN1 overexpression significantly reversed Puerarin-inhibited osteoclast differentiation and OCP autophagy. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Puerarin could inhibit the OCP autophagy in the presence or absence of RANKL, which blocked the OCP proliferation and osteoclast differentiation respectively. Moreover, BECN1 plays an essential role in Puerarin-inhibited osteoclastogenesis. Our study provides potential clue to further complete the intrinsic mechanism of Puerarin in treating osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Pueraria/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(5): 747-759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces podocyte injury resulting in apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. However, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in Ang II-induced podocyte injury is unknown and the role of Ang II-induced autophagy in podocyte survival or death remains unclear. We investigated the sequential relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in Ang II-induced podocytes as well as the role of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). METHODS: Mouse podocytes were incubated in media containing various concentrations of Ang II and at different incubation times. The changes of podocyte autophagy and apoptosis were observed by electron microscopy, confocal imaging, western blotting, and FACS assay according to the presence of Ang II. RESULTS: Ang II enhanced the podocyte expression of the autophagic proteins, LC3A/B-II and beclin-1, and also increased the number of autophagosomes compared with control cells at early phase of 12 hours in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was inhibited by pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a PI3-kinase class III inhibitor. Thereafter, the Ang II-induced enhancement in autophagy decreased, whereas, podocyte apoptosis appeared later at 24 hours in concentration- and time-dependent manners in FACS and TUNEL assays. 3-MA and LY294002, a pan PI3-kinase inhibitor, further increased Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis. Suppression of autophagy by Atg5 siRNA could induce podocyte apoptosis and further augment high-dose Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that Ang II promotes autophagy in podocytes before apoptosis as an early adaptive cytoprotective mechanism for podocyte survival after Ang II treatment, and the transitional imbalance between autophagy and apoptosis causes podocyte injury.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Podócitos/citologia , Podócitos/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Life Sci ; 237: 116944, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604108

RESUMO

AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response. Recently, it was found that ERS induces not only apoptosis but also endoplasmic reticulophagy (ER-phagy). A previous study demonstrated that inhibition of ER-phagy alleviates cell injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in ERS-induced ER-phagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. To address this aim, cells were treated with ERS inhibitors and a Nrf2 inhibitor before establishment of thapsigargin (TG)- or tunicamycin (TM)-induced ERS models in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. MAIN METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect ER-phagy. Western blotting was employed to detect the levels of calreticulin (CRT), total and phosphorylated PERK, nuclear Nrf2, activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4), light chain 3B (LC3B)-II and Beclin 1. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess subcellular location of Nrf2. KEY FINDING: TG or TM induced H9c2 cell injury and ER-phagy and upregulated CRT expression, PERK phosphorylation, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and expression of ATF4, Beclin 1, and LC3B-II compared with control cells. Treatment with ERS inhibitors decreased TG- or TM-induced ER-phagy, downregulated CRT expression, PERK phosphorylation, Nrf2 nuclear translocation and the expression of ATF4, Beclin 1 and LC3B-II. Moreover, a Nrf2 inhibitor downregulated the expression of ATF4, Beclin 1 and LC3B-II and alleviated TG- or TM-induced ER-phagy and H9c2 cell injury. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the PERK/Nrf2 pathway mediates upregulation of ER-phagy, thereby inducing cell injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(9): 625-31, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) on motor function and expression of autophagy-related proteins microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), etc. in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats, so as to reveal its underlying mechanisms and provide a reference for clinical application. METHODS: A total of 100 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham control, model, 2 Hz-EA, 100 Hz-EA and 2 Hz/100 Hz-EA groups(n=20 in each group). EA (2 Hz, 100 Hz or 2 Hz/100 Hz, 0.4-0.5-0.6 mA increased by 0.1 mA every10 min) was applied to "HuatuoJiaji" (EX-HN1, T9 and T11) for 30 min, once a day for 7 days. The rat's hindlimb motor function was assessed by using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan(BBB) locomotor rating scale, inclined plane test and plantar imprinting test, separately. The histological changes and neuronal apoptosis of the spinal cord tissue were observed by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) and Nissl staining, respectively. The expression of LC3, Beclin 1 and cleaved Caspase-3 proteins in the spinal cord was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: After modeling, the BBB scores and the angles of inclined plane on day 1, 3 and 7 were significantly decreased (P<0.001), and the number of FJB positive cells, and the expression levels of Beclin 1 and cleaved Caspase-3 proteins were considerably increased in the model group compared with the sham control group (P<0.001, P<0.05). After EA intervention, the BBB score and the angles of inclined plate on day 3 in the 2 Hz/100 Hz-EA group (rather than in the 2 Hz- and 100 Hz-EA groups), the BBB score and the angles of inclined plate on day 7 in both 2 Hz/100 Hz and 100 Hz-EA groups(rather than in the 2 Hz-EA group), and the expression levels of Beclin 1 and LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ in both 2 Hz/100 Hz and 100 Hz-EA groups (rather than in the 2 Hz-EA group) on day 7 were obviously increased (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05), while the number of FJB-positive neurons in the 3 EA groups, and the expression of cleaved Caspase-3 protein in both 2 Hz/100 Hz and 100 Hz-EA groups and the LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ in the 2 Hz-EA group were obviously decreased relevant to the model group (P<0.001, P<0.05). The expression of Beclin 1 in the 100 Hz-EA group was obviously decreased relevant to the 2 Hz/100 Hz-EA group (P<0.05) .Nissl staining displayed appearance of cavities and fuzzy shape of Nissl bodies with light coloration in the injured spinal cord of model group, which was milder in both 2 Hz/100 Hz-EA and 100 Hz-EA groups. Plantar imprinting tests showed dragging gait prints in the model group due to disability in movement, and relatively distinct foot imprints in both 2 Hz/100 Hz and 100 Hz-EA groups. CONCLUSION: Both 100 Hz and 2 Hz/100 Hz-EA can effectively promote the recovery of hindlimb locomotor function of SCI rats, which may be related to its function in promoting autophagy of damaged nerve cells and in reducing neuronal apoptosis.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Proteína Beclina-1 , Membro Posterior , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal
19.
APMIS ; 127(12): 746-752, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520423

RESUMO

Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors, and most exhibit optimal prognosis; however, some meningiomas still recur and even develop malignant transformation in the following years, regardless of initial pathological grade. During these years, autophagy raises its significance in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression, both important for tumor development. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between two autophagy markers, LC3B and beclin 1, with clinical and pathological parameters in patients with meningiomas. A total of 77 thin-sectioned slides, retrospectively collected from meningioma patients, were analyzed and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. We found that expression of beclin 1 rather than LC3B correlated to better prognosis, lower pathological grade, and longer survival. Furthermore, intensity of beclin 1 was also found to be significantly related to the pathological grade. These findings indicated that beclin 1 as a protective factor predicts better prognosis and plays the role of tumor suppression in meningiomas.


Assuntos
Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Meníngeas/fisiopatologia , Meningioma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Meníngeas/mortalidade , Meningioma/metabolismo , Meningioma/mortalidade , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 336-345, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521781

RESUMO

Beclin-1 is an essential autophagic regulator that plays diverse roles in physiology and disease. However, reports about the function of fish Beclin-1 during pathogen infection are still very limited. In this study, a Beclin-1 homolog (EcBeclin-1) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified and its roles in viral infection were investigated. EcBeclin-1 encoded 447amino acids protein with a BH3 domain, a CCD domain and an ECD domain, which shared high identities (97%-82%) with reported Beclin-1 proteins from mammal to fish. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that EcBeclin-1 was predominantly expressed in brain and muscle of healthy grouper. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that EcBeclin-1 was co-localized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in grouper spleen cells (EAGS). After red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection in vitro, EcBeclin-1 transcript was significantly up-regulated, implying that EcBeclin-1 might be involved in viral infection. Furthermore, the in vitro studies of EcBeclin-1 overexpression promoted RGNNV induced autophagy, as well as the expression of coat protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The overexpression of EcBeclin-1 suppressed the expressions of interferon pathway-related factors, inflammatory-related factors and activities of NF-κB and ISRE. Additionally, EcBeclin-1 could interact with EcBcl-xL in vitro. These data suggest that EcBeclin-1 affect viral replication through modulating IFN and inflammatory responses, as well as virus-induced cell death, which will help us to further explore the immune response of fish during viral infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteína Beclina-1/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
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