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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2511-2530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029094

RESUMO

ShuFeng JieDu capsule (SFJDC), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 infections. However, the pharmacological mechanism of SFJDC still remains vague to date. The active ingredients and their target genes of SFJDC were collected from TCMSP. COVID-19 is a type of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP). NCP-related target genes were collected from GeneCards database. The ingredients-targets network of SFJDC and PPI networks were constructed. The candidate genes were screened by Venn diagram package for enrichment analysis. The gene-pathway network was structured to obtain key target genes. In total, 124 active ingredients, 120 target genes of SFJDC and 251 NCP-related target genes were collected. The functional annotations cluster 1 of 23 candidate genes (CGs) were related to lung and Virus infection. RELA, MAPK1, MAPK14, CASP3, CASP8 and IL6 were the key target genes. The results suggested that SFJDC cloud be treated COVID-19 by multi-compounds and multi-pathways, and this study showed that the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of disease from the overall perspective.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 8/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000774, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745097

RESUMO

The Scar/WAVE complex is the principal catalyst of pseudopod and lamellipod formation. Here we show that Scar/WAVE's proline-rich domain is polyphosphorylated after the complex is activated. Blocking Scar/WAVE activation stops phosphorylation in both Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, implying that phosphorylation modulates pseudopods after they have been formed, rather than controlling whether they are initiated. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation is not promoted by chemotactic signaling but is greatly stimulated by cell:substrate adhesion and diminished when cells deadhere. Phosphorylation-deficient or phosphomimetic Scar/WAVE mutants are both normally functional and rescue the phenotype of knockout cells, demonstrating that phosphorylation is dispensable for activation and actin regulation. However, pseudopods and patches of phosphorylation-deficient Scar/WAVE last substantially longer in mutants, altering the dynamics and size of pseudopods and lamellipods and thus changing migration speed. Scar/WAVE phosphorylation does not require ERK2 in Dictyostelium or mammalian cells. However, the MAPKKK homologue SepA contributes substantially-sepA mutants have less steady-state phosphorylation, which does not increase in response to adhesion. The mutants also behave similarly to cells expressing phosphorylation-deficient Scar, with longer-lived pseudopods and patches of Scar recruitment. We conclude that pseudopod engagement with substratum is more important than extracellular signals at regulating Scar/WAVE's activity and that phosphorylation acts as a pseudopod timer by promoting Scar/WAVE turnover.


Assuntos
Dictyostelium/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 3/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiotaxia/genética , Dictyostelium/metabolismo , Dictyostelium/ultraestrutura , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 3/metabolismo , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , Células NIH 3T3 , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Ploidias , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Pseudópodes/genética , Pseudópodes/ultraestrutura , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8537, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444778

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by metastasis, drug resistance and high rates of recurrence. With a lack or targeted therapies, TNBC is challenging to treat and carries a poor prognosis. Patients with TNBC tumors expressing high levels of ERK2 have a poorer prognosis than those with low ERK2-expressing tumors. The MAPK pathway is often found to be highly activated in TNBC, however the precise functions of the ERK isoforms (ERK1 and ERK2) in cancer progression have not been well defined. We hypothesized that ERK2, but not ERK1, promotes the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype and metastasis in TNBC. Stable knockdown clones of the ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms were generated in SUM149 and BT549 TNBC cells using shRNA lentiviral vectors. ERK2 knockdown significantly inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation and mammosphere formation, indicating compromised self-renewal capacity. This effect correlated with a reduction in migration and invasion. SCID-beige mice injected via the tail vein with ERK clones were employed to determine metastatic potential. SUM149 shERK2 cells had a significantly lower lung metastatic burden than control mice or mice injected with SUM149 shERK1 cells. The Affymetrix HGU133plus2 microarray platform was employed to identify gene expression changes in ERK isoform knockdown clones. Comparison of gene expression levels between SUM149 cells with ERK2 or ERK1 knockdown revealed differential and in some cases opposite effects on mRNA expression levels. Those changes associated with ERK2 knockdown predominantly altered regulation of CSCs and metastasis. Our findings indicate that ERK2 promotes metastasis and the CSC phenotype in TNBC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Virus Res ; 283: 197961, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283129

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged swine coronavirus that causes acute enteritis in neonatal piglets. To date, little is known about the host factors or cellular signaling mechanisms associated with PDCoV replication. Since the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is involved in modulation of various important cellular functions, numerous DNA and RNA viruses coopt this pathway for efficient propagation. In the present study, we found that PDCoV induces the activation of ERK1/2 and its downstream substrate Elk-1 early in infection irrespective of viral biosynthesis. Chemical inhibition or knockdown of ERK1/2 significantly suppressed viral replication, whereas treatment with an ERK activator increased viral yields. Direct pharmacological inhibition of ERK activation had no effect on the viral entry process but sequentially affected the post-entry steps of the virus life cycle. In addition, pharmacological sequestration of cellular or viral cholesterol downregulated PDCoV-induced ERK signaling, highlighting the significance of the cholesterol contents in ERK activation. However, ERK inhibition had no effect on PDCoV-triggered apoptosis through activation of the cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, suggesting the irrelevance of ERK activation to the apoptosis pathway during PDCoV infection. Altogether, our findings indicate that the ERK signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in viral biosynthesis to facilitate the optimal replication of PDCoV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Proteínas Elk-1 do Domínio ets/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4680, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170186

RESUMO

Herein, we assessed the effect of Ferulic Acid (FA), a natural antioxidant with anti-cancer effect, on the human glioblastoma cells through molecular and Delayed Luminescence (DL) studies. DL, a phenomenon of ultra-week emission of optical photons, was used to monitor mitochondrial assessment. The effect of FA loaded in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) was also assessed. To validate NLCs as a drug delivery system for glioblastoma treatment, particular attention was focused on their effect. We found that free FA induced a significant decrease in c-Myc and Bcl-2 expression levels accompanied by the apoptotic pathway activation. Blank NLCs, even if they did not induce cytotoxicity and caspase-3 cleavage, decreased Bcl-2, ERK1/2, c-Myc expression levels activating PARP-1 cleavage. The changes in DL intensity and kinetics highlighted a possible effect of nanoparticle matrix on mitochondria, through the involvement of the NADH pool and ROS production that, in turn, activates ERK1/2 pathways. All the effects on protein expression levels and on the activation of apoptotic pathway appeared more evident when the cells were exposed to FA loaded in NLCs. We demonstrated that the observed effects are due to a synergic pro-apoptotic influence exerted by FA, whose bio-availability increases in the glioblastoma cells, and NLCs formulation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos , Lipídeos , Medições Luminescentes , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(5): 467-477, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077156

RESUMO

Protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 1 (PP4R1) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of centrosome maturation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and tumor necrosis factor signaling. However, the function of PP4R1 in non-small-cell lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we identify PP4R1 as an oncogene through Oncomine database mining and immunohistochemical staining, and we showed that PP4R1 is upregulated in lung cancer tissues as compared with that in normal lung tissues and correlated with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, in vitro study by wound-healing and Transwell assay showed that PP4R1 could promote migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that PP4R1 could cooperate with high mobility group AT-hook 2 and thereby promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via MAPK/extracellular receptor kinase activation. Taken together, our study provides a rich resource for understanding PP4R1 in lung cancer and indicates that PP4R1 may serve as a potential biomarker in lung cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Proteína HMGA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Hum Genet ; 139(4): 483-498, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055997

RESUMO

Biallelic variants in TOR1AIP1, encoding the integral nuclear membrane protein LAP1 (lamina-associated polypeptide 1) with two functional isoforms LAP1B and LAP1C, have initially been linked to muscular dystrophies with variable cardiac and neurological impairment. Furthermore, a recurrent homozygous nonsense alteration, resulting in loss of both LAP1 isoforms, was identified in seven likely related individuals affected by multisystem anomalies with progeroid-like appearance and lethality within the 1st decade of life. Here, we have identified compound heterozygosity in TOR1AIP1 affecting both LAP1 isoforms in two unrelated individuals affected by congenital bilateral hearing loss, ventricular septal defect, bilateral cataracts, mild to moderate developmental delay, microcephaly, mandibular hypoplasia, short stature, progressive muscular atrophy, joint contractures and severe chronic heart failure, with much longer survival. Cellular characterization of primary fibroblasts of one affected individual revealed absence of both LAP1B and LAP1C, constitutively low lamin A/C levels, aberrant nuclear morphology including nuclear cytoplasmic channels, and premature senescence, comparable to findings in other progeroid forms of nuclear envelopathies. We additionally observed an abnormal activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). Ectopic expression of wild-type TOR1AIP1 mitigated these cellular phenotypes, providing further evidence for the causal role of identified genetic variants. Altogether, we thus further expand the TOR1AIP1-associated phenotype by identifying individuals with biallelic loss-of-function variants who survived beyond the 1st decade of life and reveal novel molecular consequences underlying the TOR1AIP1-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSC70/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Membrana Nuclear/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(4): 869-875, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051089

RESUMO

Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a neuroprotective factor produced in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by various stressors, but its involvement in the radioresistance of tumor cells is unknown. Here, we found that MANF is released after γ-irradiation (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of B16 melanoma cells, and its release was suppressed by 4-phenylbutyric acid, an ER stress inhibitor. MANF was not released after low-dose (1 Gy) γ-irradiation, but pretreatment of 1 Gy-irradiated cells with recombinant MANF enhanced the cellular DNA damage response and attenuated reproductive cell death. In MANF-knockdown cells, the DNA damage response and p53 activation by γ-irradiation (2 Gy) were suppressed, and reproductive cell death was increased. MANF also activated the ERK signaling pathway. Our findings raise the possibility that MANF could be a new target for overcoming radioresistance.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos da radiação , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos da radiação , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Raios gama , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/radioterapia , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Fosforilação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
10.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 466(1-2): 55-63, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052247

RESUMO

Rap2B, belonging to the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins, is upregulated and contributes to the progression of several tumors by acting as an oncogene, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism underlying the functional roles of Rap2B in HCC remains unclear. In this study, the evaluation of Rap2B expression in HCC cells and tissues was achieved by qRT-PCR and western blot assays. The effects of Rap2B on the malignant biological behaviors in HCC were explored by means of MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. Protein levels of Ki67, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cleaved caspase-3, together with the alternations of the ERK1/2 and PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways were qualified by western blot assay. Further verification of the Rap2B function on HCC tumorigenesis was attained by performing in vivo assays. We found that Rap2B levels were upregulated in HCC tissues and cells. Rap2B silencing led to a reduction of cell-proliferative and invasive abilities, and an increase of apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, xenograft tumor assay demonstrated that Rap2B silencing repressed HCC xenograft tumor growth in vivo. In addition, we found that Rap2B knockdown significantly inhibited the ERK1/2 and PTEN/PI3K/Akt cascades in HCC cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Together, Rap2B knockdown inhibited HCC-malignant progression, which was involved in inhibiting the ERK1/2 and PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways. Our findings contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanism of Rap2B in HCC progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína rab2 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Proteína rab2 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
11.
Life Sci ; 248: 117465, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe peripheral nerve injury leads to skeletal muscle atrophy and impaired limb function that is not sufficiently improved by existing treatments. Fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) is involved in tissue regeneration and is dysregulated in denervated rat muscles. However, the way that FGF6 affects skeletal muscle repair after peripheral nerve injury has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role of FGF6 in the regeneration of denervated muscles using myoblast cells and an in vivo model of peripheral nerve injury. RESULTS: FGF6 promoted the viability and migration of C2C12 and primary myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner through FGFR1-mediated upregulation of cyclin D1. Low concentrations of FGF6 promoted myoblast differentiation through FGFR4-mediated activation of ERK1/2, which upregulated expression of MyHC, MyoD, and myogenin. FGFR-1, FGFR4, MyoD, and myogenin were not upregulated when FGF6 expression was inhibited in myoblasts by shRNA-mediated knockdown. Injection of FGF6 into denervated rat muscles enhanced the MyHC-IIb muscle fiber phenotype and prevented muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that FGF6 reduces skeletal muscle atrophy by relying on the ERK1/2 mechanism and enhances the conversion of slow muscle to fast muscle fibers, thereby promoting functional recovery of regenerated skeletal muscle after innervation.


Assuntos
Fator 6 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Fator 6 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 6 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Denervação Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Proteína MyoD/genética , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/patologia , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906378

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have reported the relationship between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and increased prevalence of asthma, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether BPA exposure and DNA methylation related to asthma in children. We collected urinary and blood samples from 228 children (Childhood Environment and Allergic Diseases Study cohort) aged 3 years. Thirty-three candidate genes potentially interacting with BPA exposure were selected from a toxicogenomics database. DNA methylation was measured in 22 blood samples with top-high and bottom-low exposures of BPA. Candidate genes with differential methylation levels were validated by qPCR and promoter associated CpG islands have been investigated. Correlations between the methylation percentage and BPA exposure and asthma were analyzed. According to our findings, MAPK1 showed differential methylation and was further investigated in 228 children. Adjusting for confounders, urinary BPA glucuronide (BPAG) level inversely correlated with MAPK1 promoter methylation (ß = -0.539, p = 0.010). For the logistic regression analysis, MAPK1 methylation status was dichotomized into higher methylated and lower methylated groups with cut off continuous variable of median of promoter methylation percentage (50%) while performing the analysis. MAPK1 methylation was lower in children with asthma than in children without asthma (mean ± SD; 69.82 ± 5.88% vs. 79.82 ± 5.56%) (p = 0.001). Mediation analysis suggested that MAPK1 methylation acts as a mediation variable between BPA exposure and asthma. The mechanism of BPA exposure on childhood asthma might, therefore, be through the alteration of MAPK1 methylation. The mechanism of BPA exposure on childhood asthma might, therefore, be through the alteration of MAPK1 methylation.


Assuntos
Asma , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Metilação de DNA , Fenóis , Asma/sangue , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/urina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Glucuronídeos/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fenóis/urina , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
13.
J Immunol ; 204(5): 1085-1090, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969387

RESUMO

Lymphotoxin ß receptor (LTßR) signaling is crucial for lymphoid tissue organogenesis and immune homeostasis. To identify novel regulatory mechanisms for signaling, we implemented a two-step screen that uses coexpression analysis of human fibroblasts undergoing LTßR stimulation and affinity-purification mass spectrometry for the LTßR signaling protein TNFR-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). We identify Ewing sarcoma (EWS) protein as a novel LTßR signaling component that associates with TRAF3 but not with TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). The EWS:TRAF3 complex forms under unligated conditions that are disrupted following activation of the LTßR. We conclude that EWS limits expression of proinflammatory molecules, GM-CSF, and ERK-2, promoting immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/imunologia , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/imunologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 98, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919427

RESUMO

The superiority of spaced over massed learning is an established fact in the formation of long-term memories (LTM). Here we addressed the cellular processes and the temporal demands of this phenomenon using a weak spatial object recognition (wSOR) training, which induces short-term memories (STM) but not LTM. We observed SOR-LTM promotion when two identical wSOR training sessions were spaced by an inter-trial interval (ITI) ranging from 15 min to 7 h, consistently with spaced training. The promoting effect was dependent on neural activity, protein synthesis and ERKs1/2 activity in the hippocampus. Based on the "behavioral tagging" hypothesis, which postulates that learning induces a neural tag that requires proteins to induce LTM formation, we propose that retraining will mainly retag the sites initially labeled by the prior training. Thus, when weak, consecutive training sessions are experienced within an appropriate spacing, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by each session would add, thereby reaching the threshold for protein synthesis required for memory consolidation. Our results suggest in addition that ERKs1/2 kinases play a dual role in SOR-LTM formation after spaced learning, both inducing protein synthesis and setting the SOR learning-tag. Overall, our findings bring new light to the mechanisms underlying the promoting effect of spaced trials on LTM formation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Psicológico , Ativação Enzimática , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Int J Oncol ; 56(1): 390-397, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814036

RESUMO

8­Gingerol, which is extracted from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti­inflammatory properties. However, the antitumor effect of 8­gingerol has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of 8­gingerol against colorectal cancer (CRC). The results demonstrated that 8­gingerol significantly inhibited cell proliferation in CRC cell models. Treatment of CRC cells with 8­gingerol resulted in dose­dependent decreases in migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect of 8­gingerol on CRC cell growth was attributed to cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that 8­gingerol acted as an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. 8­Gingerol inhibited CRC cell proliferation and migration by targeting the EGFR/signal transducer and activator of transcription/extracellular signal­regulated kinase pathway, and the effects of 8­gingerol depended on the expression of EGFR. Moreover, 8­gingerol reduced the effective dosage of 5­fluorouracil and, thereby, the toxicity of drug combination therapy. These data suggest that 8­gingerol may be a promising candidate for the development of novel anticancer agents against CRC.


Assuntos
Catecóis/farmacologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
J Neurooncol ; 146(1): 9-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is expressed in ~ 60% of glioblastomas and conveys tumorigenic functions. Therefore, ALK inhibitory strategies with alectinib are conceivable for patients with glioblastoma. The aims of this preclinical study were to investigate efficacy as well as to understand and potentially overcome primary and acquired resistance mechanisms of alectinib in glioblastoma. METHODS: Efficacy of alectinib was analyzed dependent on ALK expression in different glioblastoma initiating cells and after lentiviral knockdown of ALK. Alectinib resistant cells were generated by continuous treatment with increasing alectinib doses over 3 months. M-RNA, phospho-protein and protein regulation were analyzed to decipher relevant pathways associated to treatment or resistance and specifically inhibited to evaluate rational salvage therapies. RESULTS: Alectinib reduced clonogenicity and proliferation and induced apoptosis in ALK expressing glioblastoma initiating cells, whereas cells without ALK expression or after ALK depletion via knockdown showed primary resistance against alectinib. High expression of cMyc and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway conferred resistance against alectinib in ALK expressing glioblastoma cells. Pharmacological inhibition of these pathways by cMyc inhibitor or MEK inhibitor, trametinib, overcame alectinib resistance and re-sensitized resistant cells to continued alectinib treatment. The combination of alectinib with radiotherapy demonstrated synergistic effects in inhibition of clonogenicity in non-resistant and alectinib resistant glioblastoma cells. CONCLUSION: The data offer rationales for alectinib treatment in ALK expressing glioblastoma and for the use of ALK expression status as potential biomarker for alectinib treatment. In addition, the results propose MEK inhibition or radiotherapy as reasonable salvage treatments after acquired alectinib resistance.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Virology ; 539: 121-128, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733451

RESUMO

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a neurotropic virus that causes significant disease in both humans and equines. Here we characterized the impact of VEEV on signaling pathways regulating cell death in human primary astrocytes. VEEV productively infected primary astrocytes and caused an upregulation of early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene expression at 9 and 18 h post infection. EGR1 induction was dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), but not on p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Knockdown of EGR1 significantly reduced VEEV-induced apoptosis and impacted viral replication. Knockdown of ERK1/2 or PERK significantly reduced EGR1 gene expression, dramatically reduced viral replication, and increased cell survival as well as rescued cells from VEEV-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that EGR1 activation and subsequent cell death are regulated through ERK and PERK pathways in VEEV infected primary astrocytes.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/fisiologia , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/virologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Apoptose , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/virologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/patogenicidade , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Replicação Viral , eIF-2 Quinase/genética
18.
Cancer Lett ; 469: 310-322, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705929

RESUMO

Dysregulation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the concrete regulatory mechanism is lack of research. We mined gene expression profiles of 457 HCC samples from TCGA and TJMUCH cohorts and further validated in 64 FFPE HCC tissues. LncRNA H19 overexpression in situ was significantly correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients, which induced EMT, promoted stemness and accelerated invasion of HCC cells in vitro. Co-expression network analysis indicated lncRNA H19 negatively correlated with miR-193b and positively correlated with MAPK1 gene, which implicated that lncRNA H19 served as a sponge molecule to hijack miR-193b and protect MAPK1. Forced overexpression of H19 attenuated miR-193b-mediated inhibition on multiple driver oncogenes (EGFR, KRAS, PTEN and IGF1R) and MAPK1 gene, thus triggered EMT and stem cell transformation in HCC. LncRNA H19 positively correlated with CD68 + TAMs in situ. TAMs-induced lncRNA H19 promotes HCC aggressiveness via triggering and activating the miR-193b/MAPK1 axis, mediates the crosstalk between HCC and immunological microenvironment, and causes poor clinical outcomes. LncRNA H19 is a valuable predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
Am J Hematol ; 95(2): 188-197, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737919

RESUMO

Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS), or xerocytosis, is an autosomal dominant hemolytic anemia. Most patients with DHS carry mutations in the PIEZO1 gene encoding a mechanosensitive cation channel. We here demonstrate that patients with DHS have low levels of hepcidin and only a slight increase of ERFE, the erythroid negative regulator of hepcidin. We demonstrated that at the physiological level, PIEZO1 activation induced Ca2+ influx and suppression of HAMP expression in primary hepatocytes. In two hepatic cellular models expressing PIEZO1 WT and two PIEZO1 gain-of-function mutants (R2456H and R2488Q), we highlight altered expression of a few genes/proteins involved in iron metabolism. Mutant cells showed increased intracellular Ca2+ compared to WT, which was correlated to increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, inhibition of the BMP-SMADs pathway, and suppression of HAMP transcription. Moreover, the HuH7 cells, treated with PD0325901, a potent inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, reduced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 with the consequent increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8, confirming the link between the two pathways. Another "proof of concept" for the mechanism that links PIEZO1 to HAMP regulation was obtained by mimicking PIEZO1 activation by cell Ca2+ overload, by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. There was strong down-regulation of HAMP gene expression after this Ca2+ overload. Finally, the inhibition of PIEZO1 by GsMTx4 leads to phenotype rescue. This is the first demonstration of a direct link between PIEZO1 and iron metabolism, which defines the channel as a new hepatic iron metabolism regulator and as a possible therapeutic target of iron overload in DHS and other iron-loading anemias.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Congênita , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Hepcidinas/biossíntese , Hidropisia Fetal , Canais Iônicos , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/genética , Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/metabolismo , Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/patologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Difenilamina/análogos & derivados , Difenilamina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Hidropisia Fetal/metabolismo , Hidropisia Fetal/patologia , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/genética
20.
J Clin Invest ; 130(2): 686-698, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639107

RESUMO

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene, which encodes the pro-α 1 chain of collagen III. Loss of structural integrity of the extracellular matrix is believed to drive the signs and symptoms of this condition, including spontaneous arterial dissection and/or rupture, the major cause of mortality. We created 2 mouse models of vEDS that carry heterozygous mutations in Col3a1 that encode glycine substitutions analogous to those found in patients, and we showed that signaling abnormalities in the PLC/IP3/PKC/ERK pathway (phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate/protein kinase C/extracellular signal-regulated kinase) are major mediators of vascular pathology. Treatment with pharmacologic inhibitors of ERK1/2 or PKCß prevented death due to spontaneous aortic rupture. Additionally, we found that pregnancy- and puberty-associated accentuation of vascular risk, also seen in vEDS patients, was rescued by attenuation of oxytocin and androgen signaling, respectively. Taken together, our results provide evidence that targetable signaling abnormalities contribute to the pathogenesis of vEDS, highlighting unanticipated therapeutic opportunities.


Assuntos
Ruptura Aórtica , Colágeno Tipo III , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Animais , Ruptura Aórtica/tratamento farmacológico , Ruptura Aórtica/genética , Ruptura Aórtica/metabolismo , Ruptura Aórtica/patologia , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteína Quinase C beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase C beta/genética , Proteína Quinase C beta/metabolismo
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